Minors and the right to consent to health care.The notion that many minors have the capacity and, indeed, the right to make important decisions about health care has been well established in federal and state policy. Many states specifically authorize minors to consent to contraceptive contraceptive /con·tra·cep·tive/ (-sep´tiv)
1. diminishing the likelihood of or preventing conception.
2. an agent that so acts. services, testing and treatment for HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. and other sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely , prenatal care prenatal care,
n the health care provided the mother and fetus before childbirth. and delivery services, treatment for alcohol and drug abuse, and outpatient outpatient /out·pa·tient/ (-pa-shent) a patient who comes to the hospital, clinic, or dispensary for diagnosis and/or treatment but does not occupy a bed.
n. mental health care. With the exception of abortion, lawmakers have generally resisted attempts to impose a parental consent or notification requirement on minors' access to reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene care and other sensitive services. Nevertheless, the movement to "restore" parental rights and to legislate To enact laws or pass resolutions by the lawmaking process, in contrast to law that is derived from principles espoused by courts in decisions. parental control over minors' reproductive health care decisions remains active.
Establishing rules for minors' consent for medical care has been one of the more difficult issues to face policymakers. On the one hand, it seems eminently em·i·nent
1. Towering or standing out above others; prominent: an eminent peak.
2. Of high rank, station, or quality; noteworthy: reasonable that parents should have the right and responsibility to make health care decisions for their minor child. On the other hand, it may be more important for a young person to have access to confidential medical services than it is to require that parents be informed of their child's condition. Minors who are sexually active, pregnant, or infected in·fect
tr.v. in·fect·ed, in·fect·ing, in·fects
1. To contaminate with a pathogenic microorganism or agent.
2. To communicate a pathogen or disease to.
3. To invade and produce infection in. with a sexually transmitted disease sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease, term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, (STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country. ) and those who abuse drugs or alcohol or suffer from emotional or psychological problems may avoid seeking care if they must involve their parents. Recognizing this reality, many states explicitly authorize minors to make decisions about their own medical care, but balancing the rights of parents and the rights of minors remains a topic of debate.
At the federal level, the focal point focal point
See focus. of debate over minors' access to confidential services has been the Title X family planning family planning
Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources. program. Since its inception in 1970, services supported by Title X have been available to anyone who needs them without regard to age. As a result, Title X--supported clinics provide contraceptive services and other reproductive health care to minors on a confidential basis, although they encourage minors to involve their parents in their decision to seek services. Over the years, the provision of confidential contraceptive services to minors has come under attack from conservatives in Congress, who have repeatedly mounted efforts to require that a parent give consent or be notified before a minor receives these services in a Title X clinic. In 1998, the House of Representatives passed a parental notification requirement, but the Senate did not, and the provision was never enacted.
Similar debates have occurred at the state level. In Texas, for example, the legislature in 1997 voted to prohibit pro·hib·it
tr.v. pro·hib·it·ed, pro·hib·it·ing, pro·hib·its
1. To forbid by authority: Smoking is prohibited in most theaters. See Synonyms at forbid.
2. the use of state family planning funds to provide prescription drugs, such as birth control pills and medication for treating STDs, to minors without parental consent. The law was allowed to go into effect in 1998, after the Texas Supreme Court concluded that striking down the provision without evidence of harm would be premature. In fact, the law does not interfere with minors' ability to obtain confidential services from Title X--supported clinics and other providers who serve minors with federal funds Federal Funds
Funds deposited to regional Federal Reserve Banks by commercial banks, including funds in excess of reserve requirements.
These non-interest bearing deposits are lent out at the Fed funds rate to other banks unable to meet overnight reserve .
In 2000, the South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures
Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15. legislature considered a bill to prohibit the use of state funds to distribute condoms and other types of contraceptives to minors younger than age 16 whose parents had registered an objection with the state health department to their children receiving such services. The measure was passed by the House of Representatives but dropped during committee consideration in the Senate. Similar measures in other states did not receive serious consideration, even at the committee level, and none were enacted.
The States and Medical Care for Minors
States have traditionally recognized the right of parents to make health care decisions on their children's behalf, on the presumption A conclusion made as to the existence or nonexistence of a fact that must be drawn from other evidence that is admitted and proven to be true. A Rule of Law.
If certain facts are established, a judge or jury must assume another fact that the law recognizes as a logical that before reaching the age of majority (18 in all but four states), young people lack the experience and judgment to make fully informed decisions. There have long been exceptions to this rule, however, such as medical emergencies when there is no time to obtain parental consent and in cases where a minor is "emancipated e·man·ci·pate
tr.v. e·man·ci·pat·ed, e·man·ci·pat·ing, e·man·ci·pates
1. To free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate.
2. " by marriage or other circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or and thus legally able to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
In addition, courts in some states have adopted the so-called mature minor rule, which allows a minor who is sufficiently intelligent and mature to understand the nature and consequences of a proposed treatment to consent to medical treatment without consulting his or her parents or obtaining their permission.
Moreover, over the last 30 years, states have passed laws explicitly authorizing minors to consent to health care related to sexual activity, substance abuse and mental health care. Although some states give doctors the option of informing parents that their minor son or daughter has received or is seeking these services, these laws leave the decision of whether to inform the parents entirely to the discretion of the physician as to the best interests of the minor.
This expansion of minors' authority over health care decisions was spurred in part by U.S. Supreme Court rulings extending the constitutional right to privacy to a minor's decision to obtain contraceptives or to terminate an unwanted pregnancy unwanted pregnancy Obstetrics A pregnancy that is not desired by one or both biologic parents. See Teen pregnancy. . It also reflects a recognition on the part of lawmakers that while parental involvement is desirable, many minors will not seek services they need if they have to tell their parents.
The Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.
He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary Institute has periodically reviewed state laws pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to minors' authority to consent to medical care and to make other important decisions without their parents' knowledge or permission. This year its review was expanded to also take into account state court decisions and attorneys general opinions that affect young people's access to confidential services (see table, page 2). The review, conducted in July July: see month. 2000, found the following:
* Twenty-five states and the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). have laws or policies that explicitly give minors the authority to consent to contraceptive services.
* Twenty-seven states and the District of Columbia have laws or policies that specifically authorize a pregnant minor to obtain prenatal care and delivery services without parental consent or notification.
* All 50 states and the District of Columbia specifically allow minors to consent to testing and treatment for STDs, including HIV. (With respect to HIV, three states limit this authorization to testing only.)
* Forty-four states and the District of Columbia have laws or policies that authorize a minor who abuses drugs or alcohol to consent to confidential counseling and medical care.
* Laws in 20 states and the District of Columbia give minors the explicit authority to consent to outpatient mental health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract .
No state explicitly requires parental consent or notification for any of these services. However, two states--Texas and Utah--prohibit the use of state funds to provide contraceptive services to minors without parental consent. And one state--Iowa--requires that parents be notified if their child receives a positive HIV test HIV test Various tests have been used to detect HIV and production of antibodies thereto; some HTs shown below are no longer actively used, but are listed for completeness and context. See HIV, Immunoblot. .
In addition to laws and policies that permit minors to consent to specific services, 22 states have statutes that authorize minors to consent to general medical and surgical care, at least under some circumstances, such as having a child, being pregnant or having reached a certain age. In Alabama, for example, minors aged 14 and older may consent to general medical care; in South Carolina, they may do so at 16.
The States and Abortion
The one notable exception to the expansion of minors' decision-making authority on health care matters is abortion. Only two states--Connecticut and Maine--and the District of Columbia have laws that affirm a minor's ability to obtain an abortion on her own. By contrast, 31 states have laws in effect that require the involvement of at least one parent in their daughter's abortion decision: In 16 of these states, a minor must have the consent of one or both parents; in the other 15 states, one or both parents must be notified prior to the abortion.
All but one of these statutes provide a confidential alternative to parental involvement, in the form of either a judicial bypass judicial bypass Forensic medicine A form of surrogacy in which a guardian's authority is circumvented and decision-making autonomy passed to the person for whom the guardian had been appointed or designated. See Christian Science, Emancipated minor. , in which a minor may obtain authorization for an abortion from a judge without informing her parents, or, in the case of Maryland Maryland (mâr`ələnd), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bounded by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean (E), the District of Columbia (S), Virginia and West Virginia (S, W), and Pennsylvania (N). , a "physician bypass" that permits a doctor to waive To intentionally or voluntarily relinquish a known right or engage in conduct warranting an inference that a right has been surrendered.
For example, an individual is said to waive the right to bring a tort action when he or she renounces the remedy provided by law for such parental notice if the minor is capable of giving informed consent or if notice would lead to abuse of the minor. The Supreme Court has said that a confidential alternative is required to protect a minor's constitutional right to privacy. Utah is the only state whose statute does not meet this requirement.
Efforts to enact new parental involvement laws in the context of abortion have slowed in recent years. Between 1991 and 1997, the number of states with laws in effect mandating parental consent or notification rose from 18 to 30, but between 1997 and 2000, that number increased by only one. In large part, this drop-off reflects the fact that 10 other states have enacted laws that are currently blocked by courts from going into effect, leaving only seven states that have no parental involvement requirement on the books.
Some proponents of mandatory parental involvement justify the differential treatment of abortion and other reproductive health services on the ground that the decision to terminate a pregnancy is less a medical choice than a major life decision. Because terminating an unplanned pregnancy can have a significant long-term impact on a woman's psychological and emotional well-being, they say, parental guidance is especially important. However, states allow minors to make other decisions that can have a lasting effect on their lives. Most states, for example, permit teenagers to drop out of high school without their parents' approval, despite the documented adverse effects associated with the lack of a diploma. Although all states require young people to stay in school at least to age 16 or 17, except in very limited circumstances, once that age threshold has been reached, the states generally impose no barriers to minors' deciding to leave. A few states permit a minor to marry without parental consent under certain circumstances, usually pregnancy.
Notably, more than half of the states that require parental involvement for abortion permit a pregnant minor to make the decision to continue her pregnancy and to consent to prenatal care and delivery without consulting a parent. In addition, states appear to consider a minor who is a parent to be fully competent to make major decisions affecting the health and future of his or her child, even though many of these same states require a minor to involve her parents if she decides to terminate her pregnancy.
* Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia currently have laws that authorize a minor parent to consent to medical care for his or her child.
* Most striking, 34 states and the District of Columbia explicitly permit a minor mother to place her child for adoption without her own parents' permission or knowledge. In addition, 11 states make no distinction between minor and adult parents; in these states, it appears, the decision to relinquish her child for adoption rests with the young mother.
In practice, it is likely that some adoption agencies and judges (all adoptions, regardless of the mother's age, have to be approved by a court) require that a young woman's parents be involved in the adoption decision. In principle, however, virtually all states consider a minor mother capable of making an independent decision about whether or not to place her child for adoption (although a few states require that the minor have a court-appointed guardian).
Ensuring Minors' Access to Health Care
Most youth-serving agencies and medical professionals believe that access to confidential services is essential, because many sexually active adolescents will not seek care if they have to inform a parent or have their parent's consent. "Minors' consent laws are extremely important," argues Abigail English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is , director of the Center for Adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. Health and the Law. "They encourage young people to seek the health care services they need and enable them to talk candidly can·did
1. Free from prejudice; impartial.
2. Characterized by openness and sincerity of expression; unreservedly straightforward: In private, I gave them my candid opinion. with their providers."
Advocates of parental involvement laws, which include organizations such as Focus on the Family and the Family Research Council, maintain that minors' consent laws reflect "an increasing nonchalance about the sanctity of the family unit on the part of the government." Government policies, they contend, undermine parental authority and family autonomy. Conservative activists also argue that granting minors access to confidential services is tantamount tan·ta·mount
Equivalent in effect or value: a request tantamount to a demand.
[From obsolete tantamount, an equivalent, from Anglo-Norman to condoning sexual activity. Despite access to contraceptives, they say, pregnancy rates among teens remain high. "The current prescription for preventing pregnancy and STDs among adolescents has failed miserably mis·er·a·ble
1. Very uncomfortable or unhappy; wretched.
2. Causing or accompanied by great discomfort or distress: a miserable climate.
3. in solving the problem," according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Focus on the Family. "Parental involvement and the transmitting transmitting,
v to send and receive information, signals, and so on; allows a therapist to perceive a client's physical, emotional, and spiritual states. of the parent's values are the most effective deterrent de·ter·rent
Tending to deter: deterrent weapons.
1. Something that deters: a deterrent to theft.
2. in preventing early sexual activity."
Providers who serve young people agree that parental involvement is desirable but point out that in some instances, it is not to a minor's benefit. "In the best of all worlds, teens and parents would work in partnership on decisions that could have a lifelong impact," says Leslie Leslie (Gaelic, derived from a surname meaning 'garden of hollies,'grey fortress, or'garden by the pool') can refer to any of the following: Places
long in love with Jo March, he begs her to marry him and is rejected. [Am. Lit.: Louisa May Alcott Little Women]
See : Love, Spurned , president and chief executive officer of Tapestry tapestry, hand-woven fabric of plain weave made without shuttle or drawboy, the design of weft threads being threaded into the warp with fingers or a bobbin. Health Systems, a health services provider in western Massachusetts. "But we see teens all the time whose parents are not their best advocates. In our state, where the greatest growth in HIV cases is among adolescents, access to reproductive health care is a matter of life and death
"Matter of Life and Death" was the second episode of the first series of . . Confidentiality is the cornerstone cornerstone
Ceremonial building block, dated or otherwise inscribed, usually placed in an outer wall of a building to commemorate its dedication. Often the stone is hollowed out to contain newspapers, photographs, or other documents reflecting current customs, with a view to of our services," Laurie reports. "We help teenagers avoid not only the costly and often tragic consequences of unintended pregnancy and childbearing, but also an early death from AIDS. The bottom line is, if we don't assure access to confidential health care, teenagers simply will stop seeking the care they desire and need."
Minors' Right to Consent to Health Care and to Make Other Important State Contra- Prenatal ceptive care services Alabama NL MC Alaska MC MC Arizona MC NL Arkansas MC MC (10,11) California MC MC (10) Colorado MC (7,18) NL Connecticut NL NL Delaware MC (2,4) MC (2,4,10,11) Dist. of Columbia MC MC Florida MC (7,18) MC (11) Georgia MC MC (10) Hawaii MC (4,24,25) MC (4,10,24,25) Idaho MC NL Illinois MC (7,18) MC (11,18) Indiana NL NL Iowa NL NL Kansas NL (12) MC (11,33) Kentucky MC (4) MC (4,10) Louisiana NL NL Maine MC (7,18) NL Maryland MC (4) MC (4) Massachusetts NL (36) MC (10) Michigan NL MC (4) Minnesota MC (4) MC (4) Mississippi MC (7,18) MC (11) Missouri NL MC (4,10,11) Montana MC (4) MC (4,11) Nebraska NL NL Nevada NL NL New Hampshire NL NL New Jersey NL MC (4,11) New Mexico MC NL (42) New York NL (36) MC North Carolina MC MC (10) North Dakota NL NL Ohio NL NL Oklahoma MC (4,45) MC (4,10) Oregon MC (4) NL Pennsylvania NL MC Rhode Island NL NL South Carolina MC (47) NL (47) South Dakota NL NL Tennessee MC MC Texas NL (50) MC (4,10,11) Utah NL (50) MC Vermont NL NL Virginia MC MC Washington NL (54) NL (54) West Virginia NL NL Wisconsin NL NL Wyoming MC NL Total MC/MD 26 28 Total PC/PN 0 0 Total NL/NA 25 23 State STD/HIV Treatmenl for services alcohol and/or drug abuse Alabama MC (2,3,4) MC Alaska MC NL Arizona MC MC (2) Arkansas MC (4,11) NL California MC (2,16,17) MC (2,4) Colorado MC (16) MC Connecticut MC (16) MC Delaware MC (2,4,11,16) MC (2) Dist. of Columbia MC MC Florida MC (3) MC Georgia MC (3,4,11) MC (4) Hawaii MC (4,24,25) MC (4) Idaho MC (3,24) MC Illinois MC (2,3,4) MC (2,4) Indiana MC MC Iowa MC (16,31) MC Kansas MC (4) MC Kentucky MC (3,4) MC (4) Louisiana MC (4) MC (4) Maine MC (4) MC (4) Maryland MC (4) MC (4) Massachusetts MC MC (2,37) Michigan MC (4,16) MC (4) Minnesota MC (4) MC (4) Mississippi MC (3) MC (4,19) Missouri MC (4,11) MC (4,11) Montana MC (4,11,16) MC (4,11) Nebraska MC MC Nevada MC (3) MC New Hampshire MC (24) MC (2) New Jersey MC (4,11) MC (4) New Mexico MC (16,17) NL New York MC (16) MC (4) North Carolina MC (3) MC North Dakota MC (24,44) MC (24) Ohio MC (16,17) MC Oklahoma MC (3,4) MC (4) Oregon MC (3,11) MC (4,24) Pennsylvania MC (3) MC (4) Rhode Island MC (16) MC South Carolina MC (47) NL (47) South Dakota MC MC Tennessee MC (3) MC (4) Texas MC (3,4,11) MC (4) Utah MC NL Vermont MC (2,3) MC (2) Virginia MC (3) MC Washington MC (3,11,24) MC (23) West Virginia MC MC Wisconsin MC MC (2) Wyoming MC (3) NL Total MC/MD 51 45 Total PC/PN 0 0 Total NL/NA 0 6 State Outpatient General mental health medical services health services Alabama MC MC (5) Alaska NL MC (7) Arizona NL NL Arkansas NL MC (12) California MC (2,4) NL Colorado MC (4,19) NL Connecticut MC NL Delaware NL MC (7) Dist. of Columbia MC NL Florida MC (23) NL Georgia NL NL Hawaii NL NL Idaho NL MC (28) Illinois MC (2,4) MC (7,11) Indiana NL NL Iowa NL NL Kansas NL MC (11,33) Kentucky MC (4,6) MC (4,7) Louisiana NL MC (4,11) Maine NL NL Maryland MC (4,6) MC (4,7) Massachusetts MC (6) MC (7) Michigan MC (24) NL Minnesota NL MC (4,7) Mississippi NL PC Missouri NL MC (7,11) Montana MC (6) MC (4,7,11) Nebraska NL NL Nevada NL MC (7,12,18) New Hampshire NL MC (12) New Jersey NL MC (7) New Mexico MC NL New York MC (4) MC (7) North Carolina MC NL (43) North Dakota NL NL Ohio MC (24) NL Oklahoma NL MC (4,7) Oregon MC (4,24) MC (4,11,19) Pennsylvania NL MC (5) Rhode Island NL NL South Carolina NL (47) MC (6,47) South Dakota NL NL (33) Tennessee MC (6) NL Texas MC NL Utah NL PC Vermont NL NL Virginia MC NL (33) Washington MC (23) NL West Virginia NL NL Wisconsin NL NL Wyoming NL NL Total MC/MD 21 22 Total PC/PN 0 2 Total NL/NA 30 27 State Abortion Drop out services of school (1) Alabama PC MD (6) Alaska NL8 MD (6) Arizona NL8 MD (6) Arkansas PN13 NA (14) California NL (8) NA (14) Colorado NL (8) MD (6) Connecticut MC PC Delaware PN (20,21) MD (6) Dist. of Columbia MC NA (14) Florida NL (8) PC Georgia PN MD (6) Hawaii NL MD (26) Idaho PN (13,29) MD (6) Illinois NL (8) MD (30) Indiana PC PC Iowa PN (21) MD (32) Kansas PN MD (32) Kentucky PC PN (6) Louisiana PC MD (34) Maine MC MD (34) Maryland PN (21) MD (6) Massachusetts PC MD (26) Michigan PC MD Minnesota PN (13) PC Mississippi PC (13) MD (34) Missouri PC PN (26) Montana NL (8) MD (39) Nebraska PN MD (26) Nevada NL (8) MD (40) New Hampshire NL PC New Jersey NL (8) MD (6) New Mexico NL (8) PC New York NL MD (6) North Carolina PC (21) MD (6) North Dakota PC (13) MD (6,26) Ohio PN (21,29) NA (14) Oklahoma NL PC Oregon NL MD (46) Pennsylvania PC MD (34) Rhode Island PC MD (6) South Carolina PC (21,48) MD (49) South Dakota PN MD (6) Tennessee PC MD (34) Texas PN NA (14) Utah PN (52) NA (14) Vermont NL MD (53) Virginia PN (21) NA (14) Washington NL MD (6) West Virginia PN (21) MD (30) Wisconsin PC (21) NA (14) Wyoming PC MD (55) Total MC/MD 3 34 Total PC/PN 31 9 Total NL/NA 17 8 State Marriage Medical care for child Alabama PC MC Alaska PC MC Arizona PC NL Arkansas PC MC (11) California PC NL Colorado MD (6) MC (11) Connecticut PC MC Delaware MD (22) MC (11) Dist. of Columbia PC MC Florida MD (22) MC (11) Georgia MD (22) MC (11) Hawaii MD (19,27) NL Idaho PC MC (11) Illinois PC MC (11) Indiana MD (22) NL Iowa PC NL Kansas PC MC (11) Kentucky MD (22) MC (11) Louisiana PC MC (11) Maine PC NL Maryland MD (22) MC Massachusetts PC MC Michigan PC MC Minnesota PC MC Mississippi PN (38) MC (11) Missouri PC MC (11) Montana PC MC (11) Nebraska MD (34) NL Nevada PC MC New Hampshire PC NL New Jersey PC MC (11) New Mexico PC NL New York PC MC North Carolina PC NL North Dakota PC NL Ohio PC NL Oklahoma MD (22) MC Oregon PC NL Pennsylvania PC MC Rhode Island PC MC South Carolina PC MC South Dakota PC NL Tennessee PC NL Texas MD (51) NL Utah PC MC Vermont PC NL Virginia PC MC (11) Washington PC NL West Virginia PC NL Wisconsin PC NL Wyoming PC NL Total MC/MD 11 30 Total PC/PN 40 0 Total NL/NA 0 21 State Placing child for adoption Alabama MC Alaska NL (9) Arizona MC Arkansas MC (15) California MC Colorado MC Connecticut MC (15) Delaware MC Dist. of Columbia MC Florida NL (9) Georgia MC Hawaii MC Idaho MC Illinois MC Indiana MC Iowa NL (9) Kansas MC Kentucky MC (15) Louisiana PC (35) Maine NL (9) Maryland MC (15) Massachusetts NL (9) Michigan PC Minnesota PC Mississippi MC Missouri MC Montana MC (15) Nebraska NL (9) Nevada MC New Hampshire MC (41) New Jersey MC New Mexico MC New York MC North Carolina NL (9) North Dakota MC Ohio MC Oklahoma MC (6) Oregon NL (9) Pennsylvania PN Rhode Island PC South Carolina MC South Dakota NL (9) Tennessee MC Texas NL (9) Utah MC Vermont MC Virginia MC Washington MC (15) West Virginia MC Wisconsin NL (9) Wyoming MC Total MC/MD 35 Total PC/PN 5 Total NL/NA 11 MC = Minor explicitly authorized to consent. MD = Minor allowed to decide. PC = Parental consent explicitly required. PN = Parental notice explicitly required. NL = No law or policy found. Notes: In all but four states, the age of majority is 18. In AL and NE, it is 19, and in PA and MS, it is 21; however, in MS 18 is the age of consent for health care.
(1.) All states require minors to attend school until a certain age, beyond which the young person or, in a few states, the parents may decide whether the minor will stay in school
(2.) Minor must be at least 12.
(3.) State officially classifies HIV/AIDS as an STD or infectious disease Infectious disease
A pathological condition spread among biological species. Infectious diseases, although varied in their effects, are always associated with viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites and aberrant proteins known as prions. , for which minors may consent to testing and treatment.
(4.) Doctor may notify parents.
(5.) Minor must be a high school graduate, married, pregnant or a parent, or, in AL, at least 14.
(6.) Minor must be at least 16.
(7.) Minor may consent if a parent; also if married in DE, KY, ME, MD, MN, MS, MO and NV; also if married or pregnant in CO, FL, IL, MA, MT, NJ, NY and OK.
(8.) Law has been blocked by court action.
(9.) Law does not distinguish between minor and adult parents.
(10.) Excludes abortion.
(11.) Includes surgery.
(12.) Any minor who is mature enough to understand the nature and consequences of the proposed medical or surgical treatment may consent.
(13.) Involvement of both parents is required.
(14.) Minor may not drop out.
(15.) Minor parent must have a court-appointed guardian.
(16.) Law explicitly authorizes minor to consent to HIV testing and/or treatment.
(17.) Law does not apply to HIV treatment.
(18.) Minor may consent if has a child or doctor believes minor would suffer "probable" health hazard health hazard Occupational safety Any agent or activity posing a potential hazard to health. Cf Physical hazard. if services not provided; in IL also if minor is referred by doctor, clergyman or Planned Parenthood Planned Parenthood
A service mark used for an organization that provides family planning services. clinic; in CO and MS also if minor is referred by a doctor, clergyman, family planning clinic family planning clinic n → clínica de planificación familiar
family planning clinic n → centre m de planning familial
, school of higher education or state agency.
(19.) Minor must be at least 15.
(20.) Applies to minors younger than age 16.
(21.) Includes an alternative to parental involvement or judicial bypass. In MD the law provides for a physician bypass but does not have a judicial bypass.
(22.) A minor who is pregnant or, in DE, FL, GA, IN, MD and OK, has a child may marry without parental consent; in FL, KY and OK, the marriage must be authorized by a court; in IN and MD a minor must be at least 15.
(23.) Minor must be at least 13.
(24.) Minor must be at least 14.
(25.) Excludes surgery.
(26.) Minor may drop out if employed and in MA, MO and NE is 14, in HI is 15, in MA also if has completed the sixth grade; in NE also if has completed the eighth grade. Otherwise a minor may drop out at 16 in these states.
(27.) Minors need judicial authorization.
(28.) The state's medical consent statutes allow "any person of ordinary intelligence and awareness" to consent to hospital, medical, surgical or dental care. Although a later section authorizes parents to consent for a minor child, the attorney general's office "frequently" interprets the law as authorizing minors to consent. (R. Hardin Hardin is a surname, and may refer to
American army officer and public official who founded and directed (1942-1945) the Office of Strategic Services, an intelligence-gathering agency that was a forerunner of the CIA. , AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, , Oct. 22, 1990, reconfirmed to E. Nash, AGI, by R. Hardin, July 19, 2000.)
(29.) A revised law that requires parental consent is currently not in effect; meanwhile, the parental notification requirements remain in effect.
(30.) Minor may drop out of school before reaching age 16 if employed.
(31.) Parent must be notified if HIV test is positive.
(32.) A court may allow a minor to drop out.
(33.) Minor may consent if parent is not "available" or in the case of general medical care "not immediately available."
(34.) Minor must be at least 17.
(35.) Court may waive parental consent if the minor is "sufficiently mature and well informed" or the adoption is in the child's best interest.
(36.) The state funds a statewide program that gives minors access to confidential contraceptive care.
(37.) Minor may consent if found drug-dependent by two doctors; bars consent to methadone maintenance Methadone maintenance is a way of stabilizing someone who is addicted to heroin or has severe pain problems that are resistant to other drugs.
Methadone Maintenance Treatment therapy.
(38.) Parents must be notified if either party is younger than age 21; however, female minors at least 15 and male minors at least 17 may marry without parental consent.
(39.) Minor must be at least 16 or have completed eighth grade, whichever occurs later.
(40.) After eighth grade, court determines whether the minor or the parents can make the decision.
(41.) Court may require the consent of a minor parent's parent.
(42.) Minor may consent to pregnancy testing and diagnosis.
(43.) Law allows minors to consent when parent or guardian is not "immediately available."
(44.) Parent must be shown the informed consent form for an HIV test before the minor signs it.
(45.) Minor may consent if she has ever been pregnant.
(46.) Minor must prove to the school board that the minor has acquired "equivalent knowledge" of the high school courses, or consent may be granted by the state school board for minors 16 and 17 who are employed.
(47.) Any minor 16 or older may consent to any health service other than operations. Health services may be rendered to minors of any age without parental consent when the provider believes the services are necessary.
(48.) Applies to minors younger than age 17.
(49.) Minor who has completed eigth grade may seek court authorization to drop out to work.
(50.) State funds may not be used to provide minors with confidential contraceptive services.
(51.) Minors 14-18 may petition court for permission to marry.
(52.) Law does not include a judicial bypass.
(53.) Minor must be at least 16, have completed 10th grade or be excused by the superintendent.
(54.) Providers rely on State v. Koome, which held that minors have the same constitutional rights as adults, to provide confidential contraceptive services and prenatal care to minors.
(55.) Minor must be at least 16 and have completed 10th grade.
Reprinted from an article by Heather Boonstra and Elizabeth Elizabeth, sister of King Louis XVI of France
Elizabeth, 1764–94, sister of King Louis XVI of France, known as Madame Elizabeth. Deeply loyal to her brother, she remained in France during the French Revolution, suffered imprisonment, and was Nash in the August 2000 issue of The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. Research for the article was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Department of Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Health and Human Services, HHS under grant FPR FPR Ford Performance Racing
FPR Front Patriotique Rwandais (Rwanda Patriotic Front)
FPR Floating-Point Register (CPU architecture)
FPR Fuel Pressure Regulator (automotive) 000072-01. The conclusions and opinions expressed in this article, however, are those of the authors and The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
Health Care Attorney (Member): Health Care Attorney 12/1/2011 4:18 PM
Lesie Tarr Laurie's emphasis on the risk of HIV puts the lie to her primary support of confidentiality. Since the one contraceptive service that arguably reduces the risk of HIV infection (condoms) does not require a medical provider to obtain, and the other contraceptive services such as hormonal contraceptives reduce the likelihood that condoms or abstinence will be used by reducing the risk of pregnancy, confidentiality in the free distribution of hormonal contraceptives and abortion logically increases the risk of HIV infection, a risk which she rightly describes as a matter of life and death.