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Minors' access to STI services.

BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, states have expanded minors' authority to consent to health care, including care related to sexual activity. All 50 states and the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States).  allow most minors to consent to testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and many explicitly include testing and treatment of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. . Many states, however, allow physicians to inform parents that the minor is seeking or receiving STI STI systolic time intervals.  services when they deem it in the best interests of the minor.


* All 50 states and the District of Columbia explicitly allow minors to consent to STI services, although 11 states require that a minor be of a certain age (generally 12 or 14) before being allowed to consent.

* 31 states explicitly include HIV testing and treatment in the package of STI services to which minors may consent.

* 18 states allow physicians to inform a minor's parents that he or she is seeking or receiving STI services; however, with the exception of 1 state that requires parental notification in the case of a positive HIV test HIV test Various tests have been used to detect HIV and production of antibodies thereto; some HTs shown below are no longer actively used, but are listed for completeness and context. See HIV, Immunoblot. , no state requires that physicians notify parents.


For information on state legislative and policy activity click on Guttmacher's Monthly State Update and for state level information and data on reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene  issues, click on Guttmacher's State Center.

Chesson HW et al., The estimated direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases

Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely
 among American youth, 2000, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2004, 36(1):11-19.

Weinstock H, Berman S and Cates, Jr. W, Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2004, 36(1):6-10.

Boonstra H and Nash E, Minors and the right to consent to health care, The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 2000, 3(4):4-8.

The Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.

He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary
 Institute (AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, ), Sex and America's Teenagers, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: AGI, 1994.

Donovan P, Our Daughters' Decisions: The Conflict in State Law on Abortion and Other Issues, New York: AGI, 1992.

                                     CONSENT TO     PHYSICIAN MAY
                      MINORS MAY     HIV TESTING      BUT IS NOT
                      CONSENT TO    AND TREATMENT    REQUIRED TO

Alabama                12 years           X               X
Alaska                    X
Arizona                   X
Arkansas                  X                               X
California             12 years           X
Colorado                  X               X *
Connecticut               X               X
Delaware               12 years           X               X
Dist. of Columbia         X
Florida                   X               X
Georgia                   X                               X
Hawaii                 14 years                           X
Idaho                  14 years           X
Illinois               12 years           X               X
Indiana                   X
Iowa                      X         X ([dagger])
Kansas                    X                               X
Kentucky                  X               X               X
Louisiana                 X                               X
Maine                     X                               X
Maryland                  X                               X
Massachusetts        X ([double
Michigan                  X               X               X
Minnesota                 X                               X
Mississippi               X          X ([OMEGA])
Missouri                  X                               X
Montana                   X               X               X
Nebraska                  X
Nevada                    X               X
New Hampshire          14 years
New Jersey                X           13 years            X
New Mexico                X          X ([OMEGA])
New York                  X          X ([OMEGA])
North Carolina            X               X
North Dakota           14 years           X
Ohio                      X          X ([OMEGA])
Oklahoma                  X               X               X
Oregon                    X               X
Pennsylvania              X               X
Rhode Island              X               X
South Carolina       16 years or          X
                     mature minor
South Dakota              X
Tennessee                 X               X
Texas                     X               X               X
Utah                      X
Vermont                12 years      X ([OMEGA])
Virginia                  X               X
Washington             14 years           X
West Virginia             X
Wisconsin                 X
Wyoming                   X               X
TOTAL                  50 + DC           31               18

* Physician may inform parents of minor's decision to consent to
HIV/AIDS services if the minor is younger than 16.

([dagger]) A parent must be notified of a positive HIV test result.

([double dagger]) The state funds a statewide program that gives
minors access to STI services.

([OMEGA]) Does not include right to consent to HIV/AIDS treatment.
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Title Annotation:sexually-transmitted infections
Publication:State Policies in Brief (Series)
Article Type:Statistical table
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2009
Previous Article:Minors' access to prenatal care.
Next Article:Minors' rights as parents.

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