Military education and training.
The United States Department of Defense and its armed services annually conduct education and training programs for the international military community, as well as for civilian officials within foreign governments and non-governmental organizations. The benefits reach well beyond the sharing of skills and knowledge; they provide future foreign leaders with a glimpse of United States (U.S.) culture and values, and U.S. military personnel with appreciation and understanding for the cultures, military environments, and values of other nations. As the U.S. continues to join forces with other nations in the fight against terrorism, the respect and understanding that U.S. personnel and their counterparts develop for each other in these settings can enhance future joint cooperation, planning, and missions.
Several years ago, an international student at the U.S. Air Force Squadron Officer School Squadron Office School (SOS), is the U. S. Air Force leadership school for company grade officers (CGOs). The school is based at Maxwell AFB in Alabama, and is part of Air University. External links
* There is the benefit of comradeship that American and international students develop setting the foundation for future contacts once students assume positions of power and influence within their respective militaries and government agencies.
* U.S. personnel and their international counterparts also gain valuable knowledge about and exposure to each other's cultures and military environments as a result of their shared educational experiences. Such knowledge is key to building the cooperation needed to prosecute the Global War on Terrorism Terrorist acts and the threat of Terrorism have occupied the various law enforcement agencies in the U.S. government for many years. The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, as amended by the usa patriot act .
* Training is often connected to the procurement and maintenance of future weapons systems. Here the concept of interoperability is critical, as allies must increasingly work with the same or very similar, compatible equipment. Training replicates the same requirements that will be used later in the field.
The U.S. military services offer a variety of technical training and professional military education programs as well as graduate studies and specialized education and training programs. Many of these programs are open to the international military community as well as civilian leadership within foreign governments and non-governmental organizations. In fiscal year 2003, according to the annual Foreign Military Training Joint Report to Congress:</p> <pre> About 69,500 individuals from 158 countries participated in 18,487 different events worth a total value of approximately $491 million. </pre> <p>These figures cover resident and non-resident programs within the Department of Defense's service schools, including those at such regional centers as the George C. Marshall Center in Garmisch, Germany.
Many of these courses invite foreign participants to join their U.S. counterparts; others are designed specifically for international officials. All course offerings stem from several basic principles. A great deal of training is offered in connection with the sale of U.S. equipment. For instance, training for pilots, jet engine mechanics, and logistical and other support personnel often accompanies the sale of aircraft to another country. The Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard all allocate and monitor the training of international students within their areas of operation. Professional Military Education (PME) is conducted primarily through resident courses. This involves officer programs at each of the service war and staff colleges as well as noncommissioned officer (NCO) courses at training institutions for NCOs.
Non-resident courses are offered to fulfill country-specific education and training requirements. Schools send Mobile Education Teams (METs) or Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) to provide large-scale training. Sending a small number of U.S. instructors to a country costs less than bringing a large number of international students to the United States. The Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM DISAM Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management
DISAM Direct Indexed Sequential Access Method ) provides instruction abroad in the mechanisms and use of international military training (IMT IMT,
n.pr See inspiratory muscle training. ) , foreign military sales That portion of United States security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended. This assistance differs from the Military Assistance Program and the International Military Education and Training Program (FMS FMS - Flexible Manufacturing System (factory automation). ), and other security assistance programs that benefit a country. The Defense Institute for Medical Operations in San Antonio, Texas “San Antonio” redirects here. For other uses, see San Antonio (disambiguation).
San Antonio is the second most populous city in Texas, the third most populous metropolitan area in Texas, and is the seventh most populous city in the United States. As of the 2006 U.S. , conducts courses dealing with disaster response, medical first responders, and healthcare resource management. Specialized areas of graduate studies and continuing education offered by the Air Force Institute of Technology The Naval Postgraduate School serves a similar purpose for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps. The U.S. Army does not have a comparable school; Army officers study at the Naval Postgraduate School or AFIT. and the Naval Postgraduate School The Naval Postgraduate School is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy. Located in Monterey, California, it grants primarily master's degrees plus some doctoral degrees to its students, who are mostly active duty officers from U.S. and foreign military services. in Monterey, California. Other specialized technical training may even be contracted out to private companies, especially when it deals with equipment the United States no longer is using. Looking to the future, computer-based training (CBT) and advanced distributed learning (ADL) are expected to be integrated into international training and education programs, posing additional policy, technology, and language challenges.
The combatant commands are responsible for U.S. military operations and interests in a particular region of the world and hold an annual Training Program Management Review in the spring to consider the training requirements for each country within its respective area of responsibility for the upcoming U.S. fiscal year (which begins October 1). Each military service is represented at the review, as are the the Department of State, DSCA DSCA Defense Security Cooperation Agency
DSCA Defense Support of Civil Authorities
DSCA Differential Strain Curve Analysis
DSCA Deep Sound Channel Axis
DSCA Debt Service Coverage Account
DSCA Document Signer Certification Authority , and agencies with training oversight from the combatant commands.
Since most instruction is conducted in English, an English Comprehension Level (ECL) test score may be required of a student. The individual school establishes the required ECL score, and the test is composed and maintained by the Defense Language Institute The Defense Language Institute (DLI) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) educational and research institution, which provides linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous and varied other customers. English Language Center (DLIELC DLIELC Defense Language Institute, English Language Center ) at Lackland Air Force Base Lackland Air Force Base (lăk`lənd), U.S. military installation, c.6,835 acres (2,766 hectares), S Tex., W of San Antonio; est. 1941. It is a major air force training center. in San Antonio, Texas. It is administered by DLIELC to their resident students bound for further training in the U.S. as well as by Security Assistance Officers (SAOs) in host countries to their prospective students. In-country administration determines the requirement for a student to attend a DLI resident English course. Many students do not attend resident language training at DLIELC.
Some courses are conducted in Spanish at the following schools:
* Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHISC or WHINSEC), formerly the School of the Americas (SOA; Spanish: Escuela de las Américas), is a United States Army facility at Fort Benning in Columbus, Georgia. at Fort Benning Georgia;
* The Inter-American Air Forces Academy at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas; and
* The Navy Small Craft Instruction and Technical Training School at the Stennis Space Center, Gulfport, Mississippi.
The Defense Language Institute provides materials for the American Language Course that may be purchased and used in-country for personnel preparing to attend schools in the United States. As mentioned earlier, the school also has a resident course designed to bring students to the appropriate level needed to take subsequent courses. In addition, the Defense Language Institute has a course designed to teach international personnel how to teach English. Included are courses to enhance specialized knowledge of terminology pertaining to aviation, or to prepare students to pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL TOEFL
A trademark for a standardized examination for proficiency in English as a foreign language. ), a requirement for graduate studies programs.
Any country, unless otherwise prohibited from involvement in U.S. programs, can use its own defense budget funds to pay for education or training. FMS, under the provisions of the Arms Export Control Act The Arms Export Control Act requires governments that receive weapons from the United States to use them for legitimate self-defense. It also places certain restrictions on American arms traders and manufacturers, prohibiting them from the sale of certain sensitive technologies to , covers the sale of defense articles, services, and training to eligible foreign governments and international organizations.
For developing nations, grant funds allocated by the U.S. government provide additional education opportunities. There are two primary grant programs that can be used for education and training. One is International Military Education and Training Formal or informal instruction provided to foreign military students, units, and forces on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis by offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors. (IMET), created in 1976. IMET funding has grown in recent years, almost doubling from approximately fifty million dollars in the late 1990s to more than ninety million dollars in fiscal year 2004, and spread among approximately 130 countries.
Expanded International Military Education and Training (E-IMET E-IMET Expanded International Military Education and Training ) is a subcategory within IMET focuses funding on training programs for military and civilian personnel to promote responsible defense resource management, foster respect and understanding for civilian control of the military The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. , and improve military justice systems and procedures in accordance with internationally recognized standards for human rights. A key ingredient of Expanded IMET is its inclusion of non-ministry of defense officials as well as representatives of non-government organizations from other countries. Previously, there was no authorization for these two categories of personnel to attend U.S. courses sponsored by the Department of Defense.
An additional major program is FMF FMF 1. Familial Mediterranean fever 2. Fetal movement felt 3. Forced mid-expratory flow 4. Free molecular flow , whose dollars are allocated to fewer countries, and in more varying amounts, than those of IMET. Additionally, programs such as the International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Program, the Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program, the Aviation Leadership Program, and various agreements in effect with the U.S. Coast Guard provide training funds. The Department of Defense and Department of State have made long-term commitments to these military education and training programs, and are dedicated to their success.
Dr. Ronald H. Reynolds is Commandant of the U.S. Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, U.S. military installation, 8,023 acres (3,247 hectares), W Ohio, NE of Dayton; est. 1917. One of the largest airport installations in the world, it is the air force's main research and development base, and the headquarters of the , Ohio.
Charles E. Collins Charles Edwin Collins was an independent candidate for President of the United States in the 1996 presidential election and sought unsuccessfully to run again in 2000. Jr., is associate professor in the Directorate of International Studies at the Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.