Middle English e-raising: a prelude to the Great Vowel Shift.ABSTRACT
The paper discusses the early i-/y-spellings which may indicate the narrowing of the long mid close vowel (Pron.) a vowel which is pronounced with a diminished aperture of the lips, or with contraction of the cavity of the mouth.
See under Close,
See also: Close Vowel [e: > i:] even before the 15th century, a date generally considered the initial stage of the Great Vowel Shift Great Vowel Shift
A series of phonetic changes occurring in Early Modern English in which the Middle English low and mid long vowels were raised, (ä) and ( . The change, especially round before [r], with only a few examples in other contexts, shows a pattern typical of lexical diffusion In historical linguistics, lexical diffusion is both a phenomenon and a theory. The phenomenon is that by which a phoneme is modified in a subset of the lexicon, and spreads gradually to other lexical items. . As regards regional distribution, the early raising was in all probability initiated in the non-Western areas of England, most of the relevant evidence coming from Eastern and Northern dialects.
1. Early e-raisings in English
It is common knowledge that the raising of the long mid-front vowel vowel
Speech sound in which air from the lungs passes through the mouth with minimal obstruction and without audible friction, like the i in fit. The word also refers to a letter representing such a sound (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y). [e:] to [i:], as in green, meet, tree, etc., is part of a sequence of changes known as the Great Vowel Shift. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Jordan's (1925 ) and Luick's (1940) classic studies of English phonology English phonology is the study of the phonology (i.e. the sound system) of the English language. Like all languages, spoken English has wide variation in its pronunciation both diachronically and synchronically from dialect to dialect. , e- and o-raising as well as the remaining three changes (a-raising, i-/u-diphthongisation) took place in the 15th century. However, from the very beginning such dating has been contested by historical linguists A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. Ambiguously, the word is sometimes also used to refer to a polyglot (one who knows more than 2 languages), or a grammarian, but these two uses of the word are distinct. who adduced instances of spellings indicating a raised pronunciation pronunciation: see phonetics; phonology.
Pronunciation - In this dictionary slashes (/../) bracket phonetic pronunciations of words not found in a standard English dictionary. of the vowel. Especially frequent proved to bu i-spellings for the earlier e-spellings reflecting long close [e:]. For example, in Layamon's Brut Brut, Brute (both: brt), or Brutus (br (c. 1200; MS Cott. Calig. A ix) one tan find forms like spiche (OE sp(r)eche 'speech') or sichinde (present participle pres·ent participle
A participle expressing present action, in English formed by the infinitive plus -ing and used to express present action in relation to the time indicated by the finite verb in its clause, to form progressive tenses with of OE secan 'seek'). It is even more surprising that the spelling -hydan for -hedan 'heed' occurs as early as Old English Old English: see type; English language; Anglo-Saxon literature.
Language spoken and written in England before AD 1100. It belongs to the Anglo-Frisian group of Germanic languages. (a metrical met·ri·cal
1. Of, relating to, or composed in poetic meter: metrical verse; five metrical units in a line.
2. Of or relating to measurement. paraphrase par·a·phrase
1. A restatement of a text or passage in another form or other words, often to clarify meaning.
2. The restatement of texts in other words as a studying or teaching device.
v. of Psalm LV (LVI), v. 6 (7); cf. Malone 1930).
Quite numerous are forms with the early narrowing in Sir Ferumbras, a metrical romance representing the Southwestern dialect dialect, variety of a language used by a group of speakers within a particular speech community. Every individual speaks a variety of his language, termed an idiolect. of Devonshire (1380; MS Ashmole 33, Bodleian Library Bodleian Library (bŏd`lēən, bŏdlē`ən), at Oxford Univ. The original library, destroyed in the reign of Edward VI, was replaced in 1602, chiefly through the efforts of Sir Thomas Bodley, who gave it valuable collections of ). Among others, the text contains rhymes like me : companee, with a reverse spelling which may testify to the raising of the long close vowel le:]. On the other hand, the early rhymes adduced in Prins's (1942a, 1942b) two well-known articles cannot be treated as the evidence of early narrowing because of the writer's improper interpretation of the spelling evidence (cf. Ikegami 1997).
However, other Old English forms reflecting e-raising are quite numerous. It is sufficient to quote fyt (OE fet; Cart. Sax (Simple API for XML) A programming interface (API) for accessing the contents of an XML document. SAX does not provide a random access lookup to the document's contents. It scans the document sequentially and presents each item to the application only one time. . II 134, 27), hir (OE her; Lindisfarne Gosp., Mark), slypton (preterite pret·er·it or pret·er·ite
Of, relating to, or being the verb tense that describes a past action or state.
1. The verb form expressing or describing a past action or condition.
2. plural PLURAL. A term used in grammar, which signifies more than one.
2. Sometimes, however, it may be so expressed that it means only one, as, if a man were to devise to another all he was worth, if he, the testator, died without children, and he died leaving one of slepan 'sleep'; Psalm LXXV, 6) or scip (OE scep 'sheep'; Lindisfarne Gosp., Matth. 12, 12). All these instances testify to an Old English and Early Middle English Middle English
Vernacular spoken and written in England c. 1100–1500, the descendant of Old English and the ancestor of Modern English. It can be divided into three periods: Early, Central, and Late. tendency to raise long close [e:]. But Malone (1930) rejects a hypothesis of the early occurrence of the Great Vowel Shift, stating that occasional early i-forms should be explained not "as anticipations of the vowel-shift of the fifteenth century, but as survivals of a pronunciation which was more or less current in OE."
Another type of e-raising tan be identified in Southeastern England, i.e. in Kent, where forms like bye[thorn thorn, in botany
thorn, sharp-pointed projection on some plants, usually protective in function. Botanically, thorns are distinguished as modified stems (as in the honey locust and hawthorn) from spines, which are modified leaves (as in the barberry), and ] (3sg present of OE beo[thorn] 'be'), dyevel (OE deofol 'devil') were standard spellings. However, such spellings seem to have represented long close [e:] rather than long [i:], if not diphthongs, and their interpretation remains an open issue.
The author of the present study does not consider the above examples as illustrations of the initial stage of the Great Vowel Shift simply because the effects of these changes were short-lived. None of the words with spellings modified to <i/y> managed to survive into Late Middle English, and none of them participated in the 15th century diphthongization diph·thong·ize
tr. & intr.v. diph·thong·ized, diph·thong·iz·ing, diph·thong·iz·es
To pronounce as or become a diphthong.
diph [i:] > [ii], a part of the Great Vowel Shift.
2. The study
The corpus of the present study only includes instances of long close [e:] in words where the vowel was raised to [i:] early enough to take part in the diphthongisation to [ii]. The data which come from the OED OED
Oxford English Dictionary
Noun 1. OED - an unabridged dictionary constructed on historical principles
O.E.D., Oxford English Dictionary and the MED include the following items:
1) (a) acquire (OF acquerre), choir/quire (OF quer), entire (AN enter), friar friar [Lat. frater=brother], member of certain Roman Catholic religious orders, notably, the Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians. Although a general form of address in the New Testament, since the 13th cent. (OF frere), inquire/enquire 'inquiry' (OF enquerre), quire quire 1
1. Abbr. qr. or q. A set of 24 or sometimes 25 sheets of paper of the same size and stock; one twentieth of a ream.
2. (OF quaer), require (OF requer-), squire (OF esquier), (n)umpire A person chosen to decide a question in a controversy that has been submitted to Arbitration but has not been resolved because the arbitrators cannot reach agreement, or one who has been chosen to be a permanent arbitrator for the duration of a collective bargaining agreement. (OF noumper), brier/briar (OE A brer); (b) aisle (OF ele), contrive con·trive
v. con·trived, con·triv·ing, con·trives
1. To plan with cleverness or ingenuity; devise: contrive ways to amuse the children.
2. (OF contreuve), die (Pl. dice) (OF de, Pl. des);
Because the verb tire (OE teorian) had an Old English variant with long [i:] we cannot be sure whether Middle English i-forms of the verb reflect that variant with e-raising or whether they are continuations of the original [i:]. Consequently, the verb is not included in the statistics.
The available literature devotes some, although limited, space to the description of the change. For instance, Wright and Wright (1924: 80) believe that the early e-raising in two English words (briar briar: see brier. , tire) and in the loanwords friar, quire, umpire (ME noumpere) occurred "in the early part of the fifteenth century", while acquire, inquire, require are said to have obtained long [i:] due to the influence of the corresponding Latin source words with long [i:] in the root. In one word (ME contrive) long [i:] developed in the context of the preceding liquid [r]. But although the raising is most frequent before [r], one must agree with Dobson dob·son
[Probably from the name Dobson.]
Noun 1. dobson - large brown aquatic larva of the dobsonfly; used as fishing bait
hellgrammiate (1968: 655) who rejects the hypothesis of that change being combinative. The narrowed vowel may have originated in dialects where ME [[epsilon]:] "tended to be raised to e, and would then be due to an unconscious attempt to preserve the distinction" between ME [[epsilon]:] and ME [i:] even at the cost of losing the distinction between ME [e:] and ME [i:]. Finally, Luick's (1940: 557-559) dating the change in the plural dice a century earlier than the change in the remaining items is not supported by any convincing data.
The treatment of e-raising as originating in the Southeast (Flasdieck 1924) is hot fully compatible with Dobson's hypothesis of the process being an East and Northern development; cf. the poems King Alisaunder (Essex, 14c), Gamelyn (East Midland Noun 1. East Midland - the dialect of Middle English that replaced West Saxon as the literary language and which developed into Modern English
Middle English - English from about 1100 to 1450 , 14c) and Paston Letters Paston Letters, collection of personal and business correspondence, mostly among members of the Paston family of Norfolk, England. The letters cover the years from 1422 to 1529, together with deeds and other documents. (East Midland, 15c), as well as York Plays York Plays: see miracle play.
Cycle of 48 plays performed in the Middle Ages by craft guilds in York, Eng. The York cycle, which dates from the 14th century, is of unknown authorship; it covers the story of the Fall of Man and his (North, 15c). Curiously, Flasdieck (1924) claires that such raising was confined con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. to parts of the Southeast ("in Teilen des sudostlichen England"), i.e. Kent. However, there is only scant evidence of such a process in Kent, a dialect whose impact on the remaining regional variants was negligible.
Dobson's (1968: 656) explanation of the narrowing of long close [e:] is determined sociolinguistically Adv. 1. sociolinguistically - with respect to sociolinguistics; "sociolinguistically fascinating" as he maintained that the new raised pronunciation reflected a conscious effort of the educated speakers of English to render French very tense long close [e:], the result being an i-like vowel in that set of words. Ingenious as it is, this explanation does hot make it clear why other words with French [e:] failed to become raised to approximate long [i:]. Luick's examples include rather late forms, such as contrive (York Plays) and fryers 'friars' (Paston Letters), both from the late 14th or the 15th century.
To move beyond Middle Engish, the raised vowel in the items in (1) is reflected in Shakespeare's rhymes like live : contrive (Julius Caesar Julius Caesar: see Caesar, Julius. 2.3.15-16), survive : contrive (The Rape of Lucrece 204-206), dice : nice (Love's Labour's Lost 5.2.232-233, 325-326). However, the failure of narrowing is still reflected in Shakespeare's spellings like umper (Henry the Sixth, 1, 4.1.51) and umpeere (Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet
star-crossed lovers die as teenagers. [Br. Lit.: Romeo and Juliet]
See : Death, Premature
Romeo and Juliet
archetypal star-crossed lovers. [Br. Lit. 4.1.63), where the spelling <e(e)> must have corresponded to long close [e:] (cf. Cercignani 1981: 256-257).
3. Early e-raising: The time dimension
The earliest evidence of e-raising is an isolated form of the verb tire round in the Corpus Glossary (8th century; c725); cf.:
2) c725 Corpus Gloss. (O.E.T.) 668 Desisse, tiorade [c1200 Trin. Coll. Hom. 29 Vnwreste pu best zef pu wreche ne secst.. zief mihte pe ne atiere[eth].]
For reasons presented above, the Old Mercian form of the verb tire, with <io> in the Corpus Glossary (amended c1050 to teorode in Wr.-Wulcker 385/9), and a Middle English form atiered in the Trinity College Trinity College, Ireland: see Dublin, Univ. of.
Private liberal arts college in Hartford, Conn., founded in 1823. It is historically affiliated with the Episcopal church, though its curriculum is nonsectarian. Homilies do not seem to be reliable as they may have represented a variant with [i:]. The list in (3) below contains instances of the earliest forms with e-raising, followed by the date, source, Middle English forms of the word, the county and dialect:
3) [tire c725/ Corpus Glossary tiorade Mercia] c1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 29 atiered Huntington (cEM) squire c1290 Beket 2427 (S. Eng. squiers Gloucestershire Leg. 176) (wSW) dice cl300 King Alisaunder 3297 dys Shropshire (wWM) require cl340 Gaw. & Gr. Knt. require Lancashire 1056 (nWM) friar cl370 Wyclif Agst. Begg. friars Oxfordshire Friers (1608) 30 (nSW) inquire cl380 Wyclif Wks. enquyred Oxfordshire (1880) 278 (nSW) contrive 1393 Gower Conf, III. 90 contrive London (sEM) umpire 1424 Paston Lett. I. 14 nounpier Norfolk (eEM) aisle 1428 R. Test. Eb. II. 665 yle Yorkshire (N) brier c1430 Lydgate Min. Poems bryer London (sEM) (Percy Soc.) 114 choir/ 1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. quyre London (sEM) quire ccli. 322 Catholicon Angl entire 1483 Caxton Cato I j entyrly acquire 1483 Naval Acc. Hen. acquyre London (sEM) VII 128, j quire 1497 reame & vij quires
The above listing may help reveal several interesting facts. First of all it can be shown that e-raising evidently took place in the 14th century at the latest because roughly one half of the above words exhibit the close vowel [i:] before the year 1400. Second, the distribution of spellings in time offers a characteristic pattern of lexical diffusion where words affected earlier become the input to the Great Vowel Shift more readily than others. The chronology chronology,
n the arrangement of events in a time sequence, usually from the beginning to the end of an event. of the change affecting particular items presented in the comprehensive statistical list (4) is split into segments corresponding to the four crucial centuries (12th-15th centuries). Words from the OED are arranged chronologically according to the date of the first occurrence of a form exhibiting raising. The first number refers to forms with raising, the second, to forms without raising (the forms of tire are disregarded):
4) 1101-1200 1201-1300 1301-1400 1401-1500 squire 7 : 0 11 : 1 9 : 1 dice 7 : 5 20 : 2 require 4 : 5 17 : 8 friar 0 : 4 6 : 7 4 : 7 inquire 0 : 4 0 : 4 5 : 7 contrive 3 : 14 2 : 7 umpire 0 : 2 1 : 9 aisle 0 : 2 5 : 4 brier 0 : 2 0 : 9 1 : 3 choir/quire 0 : 3 0 : 8 2 : 2 entire 0 : 1 0 : 1 0 : 1 1 : 19 acquire 4 : 2 quire 0 : 2 0 : 2 1 : 6
The above table offers satisfactory evidence concerning the emergence of forms of words with spellings indicating e-raising. It is evident from the adduced data that the process in question must have affected first of all the noun noun [Lat.,=name], in English, part of speech of vast semantic range. It can be used to name a person, place, thing, idea, or time. It generally functions as subject, object, or indirect object of the verb in the sentence, and may be distinguished by a number of squire whose forms with non-raised le:] are practically missing, the total ratio for the whole period under investigation being 27 : 2. Also spectacular is an abrupt emergence of the numerous forms of the noun die/dice with the total ratio 27 : 7 in the period of two hundred years (1300-1500). Less rapid was the raising in the verb require, which exhibits the proportion 21 : 13. Other words, except acquire (with late raising; ratio 4 : 2), failed to produce more variants with raising than without raising, especially resistant to the change being the adjective adjective, English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. entire with the ratio 1 : 21, which makes one wonder how the vowel in that word managed to be captured by the Great Vowel Shift diphthongization rule. It seems that such specific distribution of the change involving affected and unaffected words is yet another proof in support of the validity of the theory of lexical diffusion.
4. Early e-raising: The space dimension
The distribution of forms with e-raising in dialects offers few surprises, but some findings may be considered interesting. Apart from Kentish, which is not discussed here for the scarcity Scarcity
The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently. of relevant data, the change seems to have left its imprint on all other dialects. The review begins with the presentation of forms from the North. The table contains the data reflecting the presence and absence of a raised vowel in particular words; cf.:
5) squire 4 : 0 dice 4 : 0 require 3 : 4 friar 0 : 3 inquire 1 : 3 contrive 2 : 3 aisle 3 : 0 brier 0 : 3 choir/quire 0 : 1 entire 0 : 1 acquire 0 : 1 quire 0 : 1 Total 17 : 20
Considering the proportion 17 : 20 it can be stated that Northern forms with and without e-raising show a similar distribution. If the forms of tire are included (5 : 1) the balance would have been almost perfect. Curiously, all instances of squire are round in the Cursor Mundi Cursor Mundi (kûr`sôr mŭn`dī), a long religious epic in Middle English relating the history of the world as recorded in the Old and New Testaments. This anonymous poem (written c. (14c), which also contains single occurrences of enquere and brere with [e:] retained, while the forms with [i:] of aisle chiefly belong to a set of documents from Yorkshire (vie, ile, ylle in Reg. Test. Ebor of late 14th-early 16th century). The Poems of a Scottish writer Dunbar's (late 15th-early 16th century) chiefly show raised forms (5 : 1). In sure, the Northern dialect can be said to have exhibited a moderate tendency towards adopting e-raising.
The East Midland dialect shows the following distribution of forms with and without e-raising:
(6) squire 9 : 0 dice 13 : 4 require 10 : 7 friar 3 : 5 inquire 2 : 1 contrive 1 : 4 aisle 1 : 0 brier 1 : 4 choir/quire 1 : 1 entire 0 : 10 acquire 4 : 2 quire 0 : 4 Total 48 : 51
Like in the North, the total figures relevant to the raised and the non-raised forms are roughly the same. But one cannot fail to observe a characteristic pattern of the change distribution in particular words. Thus, while nine forms of squire with raising are not matched by forms without raising, the opposite tan be said about entire, whose 10 non-raised forms have no raised correspondences. Also peculiar is the distribution of e-raising in the otherwise similarly sounded verbs require, inquire and acquire, of which the first and the last exhibit slightly more numerous forms with raising than without it (10 : 7 and 4 : 2 respectively). In the noun die/dice the process of raising seems to be nearing completion.
Chaucer's forms represent both types since different manuscripts of his works show variation of raised and non-raised forms. Thus, enquyrid is matched by four spellings with <e> (requered), and so is enquyrid, matched by enquire en·quire
Variant of inquire.
[-quiring, -quired] same as inquire
Verb 1. , but squire is consistently spelt spelt
Subspecies (Triticum aestivum spelta) of wheat that has lax spikes and spikelets containing two light-red kernels. Triticum dicoccon was cultivated by the ancient Babylonians and the ancient Swiss lake dwellers; it is now grown for livestock forage and used in baked with <i/y>. The high frequency noun die/dice is spelt either <dys, dyse, dise>, with raising, or <dees, deis>, without raising.
Another eminent writer from London, Lydgate (early 15th century), seemed to have preferred forms without raising, such as owmperis, requere (3), entiere (4), quayre, the only instances with raising being single occurrences of require and bryer, while the Paston Letters reveal both spelling types. Caxton's forms need a special comment since the London writer shows a marked preference for [i:] in require (5), acquire (4; plus one form without raising), but for [e:] in inquire (2),friar (2) and entire (2). In total, his 13 forms with raising are matched by 8 forms without raising. Like Caxton's, the dialect of East Midland also shows a moderate tendency to accept raised forms.
The dialect of West Midland Noun 1. West Midland - a dialect of Middle English
Middle English - English from about 1100 to 1450 has the following distribution of forms:
7) squire 2 : 1 dice 2 : 1 friar 0 : 1 inquire 1 : 2 contrive 1 : 11 umpire 0 : 2 brier 0 : 4 entire 0 : 3 quire 0 : 3 Total 6 : 28
West Midland can be definitely eliminated as a potential focal area of the change. The total low number of occurrences of i/y-spellings is a clear indication of the failure of e-raising in Western England. A striking feature of the list under (7) is the high number of forms with non-raised long close [e:] in the verb contrive (controve, contreve, etc.). The two writers who developed fondness for that verb, Robert of Brunne Robert of Brunne: see Mannyng, Robert. (5) and William Langland William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. The attribution of Piers to Langland rests principally on the evidence of a manuscript held at Trinity College, Dublin (MS 212). (4), preferred to employ forms with the non-raised vowel.
The last region to be described is the Southwest, which has the following distribution of forms with and without raising:
8) squire 6 : 1 dice 0 : 1 require 3 : 0 friar 2 : 4 inquire 1 : 7 umpire 0 : 4 aisle 0 : 1 brier 0 : 3 choir/quire 0 : 7 entire 0 : 1 Total 12 : 29
If we consider the total figures related to forms with raised and non-raised [e:], Southwestern emerges as a region slow in introducing the new raised value of the vowel in the set of words under discussion. Like in other dialects, only squire and perhaps require, accepted e-raising, while the verb inquire failed to adopt e-raising. Characteristically, only four of the above ten words demonstrate forms with the spelling <i/y>.
As regards particular authors and texts, Robert of Gloucester Robert of Gloucester (glŏs`tər), fl. 1260–1300, English chronicler. Possibly a monk of Gloucester, he is known only from the vernacular metrical chronicle of English history that bears his name. definitely prefers the non-raised forms (1 : 5), including squire, which is elsewhere spelt with <i/y>. Although the non-raised forms prevail in Wyclif (7 : 11), the number of spellings with <i/y> is relatively high in his texts, although the verb inquire, showing early rising elsewhere, exhibits a 1 : 3 ratio. It is worth noting that the raised vowel in require is recorded twice in Trevisa.
Summing up, as regards e-raising the Southwest comes close to West Midland, which allows us to state that the change originated in the non-Western areas of England.
The evidence from the OED permits to formulate the following conclusions:
1) The raising of long close [e:] in words like squire, require, dite, etc discussed above began earlier than is suggested in the standard historical grammars. There is ample evidence of the process being initiated at the end of the 13th century and gathering speed in the century to follow.
2) The change shows a pattern typical of lexical diffusion. While many words show modified spellings with <i/y> very early, many words with e-raising in the standard language exhibit non-raised values as late as the 16th century.
3) The change took place and spread first of all in the non-Western areas of England. Texts from that region show roughly the same proportion of raised and non-raised forms. Spellings from West Midland and the Southwest reflecting e-raising are strikingly less numerous than those from the East and the North.
4) As regards major writers of the epoch, the most extensive evidence of e-raising tan be round in Caxton (15th century, London).
Earliest spellings with a narrow vowel (to c. 1400)
c725 Desisse, tiorade [c1050 in Wr.-Wulcker 385/9 teorode]. Corpus Gloss. (O.E.T.) 668. [c1200 Vnwreste [thorn]u best zef bu wreche ne secst. zief mihte [thorn]e ne atiered.] Trin. Coll. Hom. 29. c1290 For-to honouri [thorn]is holi man [thorn]er cam folk i-novz;..Of Eorles and of barones and manie kniztes heom to; Of seriaunz and of squiers. Beket 2427 in S. Eng. Leg. 176. 1297 R. Glouc. (Rolls) 7801 He let gadery is kniztes & is squiers al so. a1300 Do we wel and make a toure Wit suire [v. rr. squire, squyre] and scantilon sa euen, [thorn]at may reche heghur ban heuen. Cursor M. 2231; King ne knight, suier ne suain, O [thorn]am tome neuer a fote again. 6279; be squier hight abysai, [thorn]at to [thorn]e tent com wit daui. 7717 Son [thorn]e tre was heun dun, And squir on- laid and scantliun, [thorn]e tre was als mete and quem, Als animan [thorn]ar-to cuth deme. 8809. a1300 Ber wip [thorn]e squire and schauntillun, Also bu were a gud Mascun. Floris & Bl. (Cambr. MS.) 326. 13.. Knyztez & swyerez comen doun [thorn]enne. Gaw. & Gr. Knt. 824 For-[thorn]y, sir, pis enquest I require yow here, [thorn]at se me telle with trawpe [etc.]. 1056. 13.. [THORN]e rybaude pleie[thorn] at be dys [ed. Weber, deys] Swipe selde [thorn]e fole is wys.K. Alis. (MS. Laud Misc. 622) 3297; Theo kyngis ost..amounted fyve hundrod thousand Knyghtis.., withowte pages and skuyeris. 6022 c1370 Capped Friars, that beene called Maisters of Divinitie. Wyclif Agst. Begg. Friers (1608) 30; Fryars suffren mightie men, fro yeare to yeare, live in avowtrie. 31. 1377 Iakke [thorn]e iogeloure..And danyel [thorn]e dys-playere. Langl. P. Pl. B. vi. 73. c1380 [THORN]e blood of just Abel shal be requyrid of Cayn. Wyclif Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 336; Wks [thorn]ei passen grete men in here gaye pellure..& tatrid squeyeres & o[thorn]ere meyne. (1880) 148. 1382 And Saul seyde to his squyer, Drawze out thi swerd. 1382 in Riley Mem. Lond. (1868) 456 Walter Begood, Squyer. c1386 Whan that the cas required it, The commune profit koude she redresse. Chaucer Clerk's T. 374 Thou shalt me fynde as Iust as is a squyre. Chaucer Sompn. T. 382 Now stood the lordes squier at the bord, That carf his mete. Sompn. T. 535; Next the forseide cercle of the A. b. e., vnder the eros-lyne, is Marked the skale, in Maner of 2 Squyres or elles in Manere of laddres, c1391 Astrol. i. [section] 121388 Les..jeues appellez coytes dyces, gettre de pere. Act 12 Rich. II, e. 6 [section] 1. ?c1390 Take Funges [mushrooms], and pare hem clene, and dyce hem Forme of Cury in Warner' s Culin. Antiq.5; Take the noumbles of a calf, swyne, or of shepe, parboile hem, and skerne [? kerue] hem to dyce. 6. 1390 Al that I may enquire and seche Of such deceipte, I telle it al. Gower Conf I. 176 These olde philosophres wise Of all this worldes erthe rounde, How large, how thicke was the grounde Contrived in thexperience. 1393 Conf. III. 90. a1400 A tretowre xal countyrfe his deth to fortyfye. Cov. Myst. (1841) 241 a1400 50 All [thorn]e zeris of oure zouthe es zare syne passid And we for-traualid & terid [Dubl. MS. for-tyred]. Alexander 1009; Enquire me nozt [thorn]at question, for I queth [thorn]e it neuer 1110. e1400 No cause can I kyndely contryue bat why he schulde lose [thorn]us his liffe York Myst. xxx. 434. e1400 Though it were of no vounde stone Wrought with squyre and scantilone. Rom. Rose 7064. c1400 [They] were gouernet by a gome,.. A fyne squier & a fuerse, --Eufemius he hight. Destr. Troy 6221.
1981 Shakespeare's works William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) was an English poet and playwright. He wrote approximately[I|] 38 plays and 154 sonnets, as well as a variety of other poems. and Elizabethan pronunciation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Dobson, Eric J.
1968 English pronunciation 1500-1700. (2nd edition). Vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Flasdieck, Hermann M.
1924 "Ein sudost-mittelenglischer Lautwandel", Englische Studien 58: 1-23.
1997 "Rhyme rhyme or rime, the most prominent of the literary artifices used in versification. Although it was used in ancient East Asian poetry, rhyme was practically unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans. evidence of the Great Vowel Shift" in The Ashmole Sir Ferumbras (c. 1380)", North- West Germanic Language Noun 1. West Germanic language - a branch of the Germanic languages
Germanic, Germanic language - a branch of the Indo-European family of languages; members that are spoken currently fall into two major groups: Scandinavian and West Germanic Evolution 30: 3-19.
1925/1974 Handbook of Middle English grammar: Phonology phonology, study of the sound systems of languages. It is distinguished from phonetics, which is the study of the production, perception, and physical properties of speech sounds; phonology attempts to account for how they are combined, organized, and convey meaning . [Translated and revised by Eugene J. Crook]. The Hague: Mouton mouton
lamb pelt made to resemble seal or beaver. ,
1940 Historische Grammatik der englischer Sprache. Vol. 1-2. Leipzig: Tauchnitz. Malone, Kemp
1930 "Old Engish (ge)hydan "heed'", in: Einar Munskgaard (cd.), 4:5-54.
Munskgaard, Einar (ed.)
1930 A grammatical miscellany offered to Otto Jespersen Noun 1. Otto Jespersen - Danish linguist (1860-1943)
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen, Jespersen on his 70th birthday. Copenhagen: Allen & Unwin.
Prins, A. A.
1942a "A few early examples of the Great Vowel Shift", Neophilologus 27: 134-137.
1942b "The Great Vowel Shift reconsidered", English Studies English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other 24: 161-168.
Wright, J.--E. M. Wright
1924 An elementary historical New English New English
See Modern English. grammar. London: Oxford University Press.
University of Warsaw History
The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential Polish academic center, in Kraków.