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Microenterprise development coupled with nutrition education can help increase caregivers' incomes and household accessibility to animal source foods.


There is ample evidence that Animal Source Foods (ASF See Windows Media formats.

1. (language) ASF - Algebraic Specification Language.
2. (body) ASF - Analytical Solutions Forum.
) have a beneficial role in children's physical and cognitive development due to their high quality protein and highly bioavailable micronutrients This is a list of micronutrients.

  • Vitamin A (retinol)
  • Vitamin B complex
  • Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
  • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
 [1]. However, diets of children typically contain low levels of ASF. A participatory rapid appraisal identified low income and lack of caregivers' knowledge about the use of ASF as two key constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.

["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)].
 to the use of ASF in the diets of young children in Ghana [2]. In most households studied, women were responsible for contributing the stew ingredients that included ASF, while men provided the cereal cereal
 or grain

Any grass yielding starchy seeds suitable for food. The most commonly cultivated cereals are wheat, rice, rye, oats, barley, corn, and sorghum. As human food, cereals are usually marketed in raw grain form or as ingredients of food products.
 and tubers for the family pot. Since women primarily purchased ASF, the study concluded that interventions that increase women's income may be successful in improving children's diets.

In Ghana, women make up about 50% of the labour force and most of them are involved in microenterprises and retail trade and constitute the majority of owners in the informal economic sector [3]. This sector, which employs about 80% of the Ghanaian work force, has not been fully incorporated into the national development efforts [4]. This fact puts into perspective the inadequacies of poverty reduction programmes which have been limited in their reach as they typically have not worked through this vast sector to develop income-generating activities. The neglect of the informal sector has left microenterprises struggling to meet the many problems (such as lack of capital, poor or no records keeping) that besets the sector, limiting their growth. The challenges for poor rural women are greatest as they tend to be illiterate ILLITERATE. This term is applied to one unacquainted with letters.
     2. When an ignorant man, unable to read, signs a deed or agreement, or makes his mark instead of a signature, and he alleges, and can provide that it was falsely read to him, he is not bound by
 with little or no access to basic business development services and credit. As a result, most microenterprise owners, especially those in the rural areas, remain poor.

Microenterprise development programmes seek to improve profits by providing business development services including information support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services  for business improvement, institutional financial services The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.
 and access to other non-financial services so as to improve profits. Microenterprise development is considered by some to be a promising way to help the working poor, the unemployed, and those who receive public assistance [5, 6]. On the other hand, other researchers argue that the microenterprise strategy needs better assessment and caution about assertions of its impact [4].

After reviewing studies on capacity for small enterprise development, Quainoo [3] concluded that substantial reduction in rates of malnutrition malnutrition, insufficiency of one or more nutritional elements necessary for health and well-being. Primary malnutrition is caused by the lack of essential foodstuffs—usually vitamins, minerals, or proteins—in the diet. , especially among infants and young children, could be accomplished through interventions designed to increase women's access to resources that support both their income-earning and caregiving roles--a women's resources approach. Hence, microenterprises owned and operated by women are often the target business entities in poverty reduction and nutrition programmes in Ghana. However, economic gains may not always translate into nutrition benefits and improved child welfare.

The Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project was launched in Ghana in September 2005. The project sought to address income and knowledge barriers to improved child nutrition in Ghana. The project combined microenterprise development (such as microfinance and enterprise development training services) with nutrition education. The present study assessed the effects of caregivers' participation in the microenterprise development activities of the ENAM project on caregivers' enterprise performance and contributions to key household- and child-related expenditures and household consumption of ASF.


The primary goal of the ENAM project was to increase the amount of ASF in the diet of 2- to 5-year-olds in rural Ghana. To achieve this goal, three simultaneous services were provided to selected caregivers: (i) entrepreneurship capacity building, (ii) provision of microfinance services (microcredit microcredit, the extension to poor individuals of small loans to be used for income-generating activities that will improve the borrowers' living standards. The loans, which may be as little as $20 for very poor borrowers in some developing countries, typically are  and savings) and (iii) nutrition education. A diagrammatic representation of the project's conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project.
 is presented in Figure 1. By providing microfinance services as well as entrepreneurship capacity building, the project sought to enhance the economic performance, incomes, and profits from these microenterprises. Credit with Education programmes(Freedom from Hunger) operate with the assumption that an increase in income alone is unlikely to have a substantial impact on nutritional status nutritional status,
n the assessment of the state of nourishment of a patient or subject.
 unless key maternal and child health and nutrition behaviours are adopted. The ENAM project, modelled after the Credit with Education concept provided nutrition education specifically on the nutritional needs of 2- to 5-years-olds as well as how to incorporate ASF in children diet. This present analysis measured the effect of caregivers' income levels on the amount of ASF consumed at the household level.


Study areas and participants

The ENAM project selected three ecological ecological

emanating from or pertaining to ecology.

ecological biome
see biome.

ecological climax
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each
 zones as study sites to represent the variety in availability of ASF in Ghana: Coastal Savannah in the south, Forest-Transitional in the middle belt, and Guinea Savannah in the north. Within each selected zone, two communities were selected for the intervention and two communities of similar size and income generating activities were selected as control communities for the purpose of evaluating the impact of the intervention. Study intervention participants were caregivers of 2- to 5-year-olds who self-selected to take part in the education and microcredit activities. Households with 2- to 5-year-old children in the control communities were categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 by their community-based wealth rank and then from each rank, caregivers were randomly selected to make up the non-participant group. The selection resulted in a similar wealth rank distribution in the non-participant households as seen in the participant households. Control communities received none of the intervention activities.

The present cross-sectional study collected unique socioeconomic information from ENAM households between December 2007 and January 2008. Data collection was carried out in only the Forest Transitional and Coastal Savannah zones by two data collectors supervised su·per·vise  
tr.v. su·per·vised, su·per·vis·ing, su·per·vis·es
To have the charge and direction of; superintend.

[Middle English *supervisen, from Medieval Latin
 by the first author; the Guinea Savannah was not included because of time and resource constraints. These additional data were collected from 80 caregivers who fully participated in the ENAM project (participated in microcredit and micro-savings services, microenterprise services as well as nutrition education) and were available at the time of the field work. Eighty non-participant caregivers who were residents of the control communities in the two zones were also interviewed.

Measurement of variables

A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to interview participant and non-participant caregivers about their microenterprise profits, enterprise changes in the past two years (2005-2007), financial contributions to household expenditures, and savings. To obtain information on microenterprise profits, the concept of microenterprise profits (defined as total revenue plus the value of enterprise products consumed in the household minus total costs [7]) was explained to the caregivers after which, they were asked to estimate their weekly profit earnings for each of their enterprises. Indicators of enterprise changes assessed were; enterprise expansion (an increase in the volume of goods handled per week), diversification Diversification

A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It is designed to minimize the impact of any one security on overall portfolio performance.

Diversification is possibly the greatest way to reduce the risk.
 (that is, if the caregiver care·giv·er
1. An individual, such as a physician, nurse, or social worker, who assists in the identification, prevention, or treatment of an illness or disability.

 dealt in a new product), improvement in quality of product (improved packaging, taste in cooked food, or freshness of supply), and sales in new additional market places (markets which were equally accessible to both participant and control groups). Financial contributions to household expenditures was ascertained as·cer·tain  
tr.v. as·cer·tained, as·cer·tain·ing, as·cer·tains
1. To discover with certainty, as through examination or experimentation. See Synonyms at discover.

 by asking caregivers about their monetary contributions to food consumed by the household in the past week, as well as contributions to children's medicine, healthcare, school expenses, clothing, and footwear in the past four months. Savings was measured as the amount of cash that a caregiver was able to set aside for the future whether kept in a safe place at home or with a financial institution at the time of data collection.

Most components of the intervention package were targeted at improving profit. However, the nutrition education emphasized the importance and use of ASF and was directed at changing attitudes about ASF consumption by 2- to 5-year-old children. Data were collected on the amount of ASF the household consumed and the amount (in Ghanaian cedis, GHS GHS Globally Harmonized System (of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals)
GHS Greenwich High School (Connecticut)
GHS Green Hills Software, Inc.
) that the household had spent on ASF in the previous week. Acquisition information was collected for 11 different categories of ASF: livestock meat, organ meat, bush meat, whole fish, powdered fish, shellfish shellfish, popular name for certain edible mollusks (see Mollusca), e.g., oysters, clams, and scallops, and for certain edible crustaceans, e.g., crabs, lobsters, and shrimps. All are aquatic invertebrates with shells; they are not fish. , snail snail, name commonly used for a gastropod mollusk with a shell. Included in the thousands of species are terrestrial, freshwater, and marine forms. Some eat both plant and animal matter; others eat only one type of food. , poultry poultry, domesticated fowl kept primarily for meat and eggs; including birds of the order Galliformes, e.g., the chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, pheasant, quail, and peacock; and natatorial (swimming) birds, e.g., the duck and goose. , egg, milk and 'others' (such as, 'wele', salted fish). For each of these ASF categories, the caregiver was asked to indicate whether the household consumed it in the previous week, the amount of money spent on it by the household ('amount purchased') as well as the market value of non-purchased but consumed ASF ('non-purchased amount' including gifts, home-bred livestock, payment in-kind for household labour). The amount of each category of ASF consumed in a given household was calculated as the sum of the 'purchased amount' and 'non-purchased amount'. The total amount of ASF consumed in a household was the sum of all 'purchased ASF' plus all 'non-purchased ASF'. Per capita [Latin, By the heads or polls.] A term used in the Descent and Distribution of the estate of one who dies without a will. It means to share and share alike according to the number of individuals.  ASF was the amount of ASF (in monetary value) a household member consumed per week and it was computed as the ratio of the total amount of ASF consumed in the household to the household size.

Limitation of study

Due to lack of enterprise records among respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  of the study, the concept of the profit was explained respondents and they were guided to estimate their own profit. Also, caregivers were guided to state and give the market value of ASF consumed by her household including gifts. All these involve the risk of mis-estimating as they rely on memory.

Data analysis

Data were analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

 using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago ( that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance.  version 12. Data were presented as mean [+ or -] standard deviation, standard error mean, or n (%) and significance was considered P < 0.05 unless otherwise stated. The independent sample Student's t-test or Mann Whitney test for non-normally distributed variables was used to test for differences in participant and non-participant caregivers' mean enterprise profits, savings, and contributions to household-and child-related expenses as well as ASF purchases. Differences in categorical That which is unqualified or unconditional.

A categorical imperative is a rule, command, or moral obligation that is absolutely and universally binding.

Categorical is also used to describe programs limited to or designed for certain classes of people.
 variables such as indicators of enterprise performance and uses of enterprise profits were assessed using the Chi-Square statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.


a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them.
. Double log regression was used to determine the effects of caregivers' enterprise profit and participation in the ENAM project on household's ASF consumption.

Ethics approval

Ethical approval for the ENAM project was obtained from the Institutional Review Boards of Iowa State University Academics
ISU is best known for its degree programs in science, engineering, and agriculture. ISU is also home of the world's first electronic digital computing device, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.
, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research at the University of Ghana The University of Ghana is the oldest and largest of the five Ghanaian public universities. It was founded in 1948[1] as the University College of the Gold Coast, and was originally an affiliate college of the University of London[2] , and McGill University McGill University, at Montreal, Que., Canada; coeducational; chartered 1821, opened 1829. It was named for James McGill, who left a bequest to establish it. Its real development dates from 1855 when John W. Dawson became principal. . Written informed consent was obtained from each caregiver prior to data collection.


The mean number of household members engaged in income generation activities was higher for households of participant caregivers than non-participant caregiver households (Table 1). Dependency ratio Dependency Ratio

A measure showing the number of dependents (aged 0-14 and over the age of 65) to the total population (aged 15-64). Also referred to as the "total dependency ratio".

Calculated by:
 tended to be higher for non-participant caregiver households. About 30% and 49% of participant and non-participant caregivers respectively, lived in nuclear family arrangements. The prevalence of female-headed households was similar for the two groups of caregivers. There were no significant differences between participant and non participant caregivers with respect to marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state.
 and level of education completed. The most common occupation among the participant caregivers was trading whereas the majority of non-participant caregivers were crop farmers.

Enterprise performance

Participants of the ENAM project performed better in their enterprises than non-participants based on their weekly enterprise profits (Table 2). Compared to non-participants, a significantly higher proportion of participants reported to have increased their average weekly enterprise profit and this profit tended to be greater than that of non-participants (P < 0.10). Savings were higher among participants (P < 0.05) compared to non-participants over a four-month period.

As a reflection of their improved entrepreneurial knowledge and skills, participants were significantly more likely than non-participants to consider their future financial security when making decisions about which income-generating activity to undertaken (37.5% vs. 3.8%; P < 0.01).Significantly more participants than non-participants used the major part of their enterprise profits for paying their children's school expenses (P < 0.01) as well as making savings deposits Savings deposits

Accounts that pay interest, typically at below-market interest rates, that do not have a specific maturity, and that usually can be withdrawn upon demand.
 (P < 0.01). On the other hand, non-participants were significantly more likely than participants to report spending most of their enterprise profits on buying clothing (P < 0.05) and items for the house (P < 0.05) (Table 3).

Caregivers' monetary contributions

Participant caregivers made greater monetary contributions towards household food expenses (P < 0.05) and children's school expenses (P < 0.01) than non-participant caregivers (Table 4). Their percentage contributions were significantly greater than that of non-participant caregivers in medicine and healthcare of children (P < 0.05), school expenses (P < 0.01) and children's clothing and footwear (P < 0.01).

Animal Source Foods consumed (in monetary units)

Over the previous week, participant households spent more on ASF than non-participants households (P < 0.01), including a greater amount on livestock meat, shellfish, snail, milk and 'other' ASF (such as ' we/e' and salted fish) (P < 0.05; Table 5). On average, households of participant caregivers spent GHS4.59 [GH[cents]1 = US$ 0.92] more on purchased ASF than non-participant households in the past week (P = 0.067). There was no significant difference in the amounts (in monetary value) of non-purchased ASF between groups. On the whole, the total amount of ASF consumed (purchased plus non-purchased ASF) by households of participant caregivers was greater (GHS 5.61) than the amount consumed by households of non-participants in the past week (P < 0.01). The difference in the amount of per capita ASF consumed per week did not reach significance.

Project participation, caregiver enterprise profit and household ASF consumption

Generally, the total amount of ASF consumed (in GHS) per week by households was about GHS12 for a household whose caregiver had 'low' profit and about GHS16 for households of caregivers who had 'high' profits (profit level was not a significant predictor; Table 6). However, the total mean amount (in GHS) of ASF consumed per week by a household of participant caregiver was almost GHS6 higher than that for household of non-participant caregivers (P=0.045). Participation in ENAM did not modulate To insert a data signal into a carrier wave or direct current. See modulation.  the effect of enterprise profit on ASF consumption (interaction term: P = 0.492).

A double log multiple regression model was run to account for other potential determinants of ASF consumption. Only caregivers' ENAM participation predicted household consumption (in GHS) of ASF; enterprise profits approached significance.

All other factors including ecological zone, and household (dependency ratio and sex of household head) and caregiver (educational level and marital status) characteristics did not predict household ASF consumption (in GHS) (Table 7).


This study revealed the importance of integrated programs that promote income generating activities and increase enterprise and nutrition knowledge. Those women who participated in the microenterprise development program of the ENAM project had higher weekly enterprise profits through enterprise expansion, diversification, amongst other changes. Credit received by caregivers effectively improved profits as it expanded enterprises and allowed participant caregivers to take advantage of other economic opportunities which their counterparts in control communities could not take access. Ellis and Mdoe [7] previously found that the poorest farmers were most reliant on agriculture and the reliance on agriculture decreased with increased diversification into non-farm income-generating activities.

Higher incomes resulting from credit have been associated with increased capacity utilization Capacity Utilization measures the rate at which a firm makes use of their capital productive capacities, such as factories and machinery. Capacity Utilization generally rises when the economy is healthy and falls when demand softens. , diversification of goods or services sold, or lower cost supplies and raw materials [8]. With respect to lowering costs, a study done in Egypt [9], found a credit programme to reduce reliance on supplier credit Supplier credit

Self-financing of a supplier's operations. Also the agreement of a supplier of goods or services to deferred repayment terms.
, resulting in lower cost of inputs, more choice and greater quality of inputs, and less dependence on supplier controlled marketing channels. Similarly, in Honduras [10] availability of credit prevented some borrowers from having to sell their produce below market rates to landowners and merchants to obtain an advance in the lean season, thus increasing their incomes. Enterprise expansion in this study was mainly an increase in the volume of goods the entrepreneur handled at a time and, in so doing, the unit cost of production and handling charges were reduced and profits were increased. With the increased access to loan, participants were less likely to depend on inputs bought on credit basis (which usually comes at a higher cost), participants were able to produce at reduced cost, and thus improve profits. Other reasons for the improved profit and savings included the fact that more participants experienced enterprise diversification and sales in new market places. Enterprise diversification also improved profit and reduced risk. These changes created by credit gave participants a competitive advantage and could explain their higher profits. In an impact assessment of the Credit with Education programme in Ghana, researchers found out that enterprise expansion and diversification were the main changes in participants' enterprises that led to an increase in their profits [11]. This present study supports these findings.

However, the study noted some disparities in profits earned by caregivers. In an impact study of Credit with Education programme in Lower Pra rural bank in Ghana, similar disparities in enterprise performance were noted and attributed it to differences in individual entrepreneurial abilities [11]. Schreiner and Woller [4] asserted that disparities could be a result of differences in individual traits and the fact that entrepreneurship is difficult to teach. In this study, disparities might also be explained by limited training (at the time data collection, only 39% of participants had received entrepreneurial development training), engagement in a secondary IGA IgA
immunoglobulin A

n the abbreviation for immunoglobulin A.


immunoglobulin A. See immunoglobulin.
, and the type and size of IGA which determined the size of loan given.

Participant caregivers made significantly greater monetary contribution towards household food and also households of participant caregivers purchased and consumed a greater amount of ASF (in monetary units) than households of non-participants. There is evidence from several other studies that microenterprise development programs improve household food security [12]. Tarasuk [13] found out that household food insecurity Insecurity
Inseparability (See FRIENDSHIP.)

Insolence (See ARROGANCE.)


introspective, vacillating Prince of Denmark. [Br. Lit.: Hamlet]


cartoon character who is lost without his security blanket.
 appeared inextricably in·ex·tri·ca·ble  
a. So intricate or entangled as to make escape impossible: an inextricable maze; an inextricable web of deceit.

 linked to financial insecurity. Some of the circumstances that women identified as precipitating acute food shortages in their households included chronically inadequate incomes, the need to meet additional, unusual expenditures, and the need to pay for other services or accumulated debts. A study conducted by Hashemi and Morshed [14] on clients of the Grameen Bank showed that access to credit not only reduced poverty and improved the welfare of participating households, but also increased the energy intakes of household members. In a related study, Bornstein [15] found that the average daily expenditure on food was 21% higher for client households than for non-client households. These reports suggest that when people receive additional income (especially the poor) they tend to improve their diets.

Participant caregivers made significantly greater monetary contribution towards child-related expenses than non-participants. This evidence generally agrees with a previous research by Handa [16], which has shown that higher incomes for women enable them to make greater contributions towards household budget allocated to food and children's goods. In Guatemala, Engle [8] found that for mothers, the percentage of the total family income they earned was most highly associated with children's nutritional status, suggesting that income controlled by mothers may have nutritional benefits for children. This is likely, as it has been shown in this study that participant caregivers who had higher incomes made greater contributions to household food purchases. Also, in a review of studies and experiences in countries where 'Save the Children' microfinance projects operated, it was concluded that microfinance clearly contributed to improvements in children's welfare through increased incomes and thus improved nutrition, housing, health and school attendance, and reduced harmful child labour[10]. Todd's [17] case studies provide interesting insights into how her "women at the centre" managed their diversified diversified (di·verˑ·s  sources of income to maximise first food, material and then social security for their families and themselves. The additional income earned by mothers can lead both to empowerment em·pow·er  
tr.v. em·pow·ered, em·pow·er·ing, em·pow·ers
1. To invest with power, especially legal power or official authority. See Synonyms at authorize.

 and improvements in family welfare as women are more likely to invest additional income in children and the family [18]. This study supports the notion that when women's' incomes improve, they are more likely to contribute to the welfare of the children in their care..

The higher purchase and consumption of ASF (in monetary units) in households was noted among participant caregivers. Steinfeld et al.'s [19] study pointed out that in order to increase the amount of ASF in people's diet, higher incomes are needed. Bennet's Law also states that households switch from less to more expensive energy consumption, such as from coarse grains to meats and fresh fruits and vegetables, as incomes rise [19]. Also in a study by Tarasuk [13], women in households characterized char·ac·ter·ize  
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.

 by food insecurity with severe or moderate hunger over the past 30 days reported lower intakes of vegetables, fruits and meat and alternatives than those in households where hunger was not evident. In Lesotho, nutrition education for mothers could contribute to improving children's growth, but only in households that had access to a minimum level of resources [20]. For poorer households, nutrition education alone would not be sufficient. In this study, the higher purchase of ASF was partly as a result of the greater caregiver's income among participants which could be due to microfinance and enterprise development programme.

Freedom from Hunger's Credit with Education strategy assumes that income increases alone are unlikely to have substantial impact on food security and malnutrition unless key health and nutrition behaviours are adopted [11]. This is consistent with the present study results that showed no overall association between profit and ASF consumption. An increased income starts to show its potential detrimental det·ri·men·tal  
Causing damage or harm; injurious.

 effects on the health of a large population in most developing countries and people in low-income groups are more vulnerable to these effects [21]. This is because extra income may be spent on foods that are not nutritionally beneficial. This study lends support to other findings from South India South India is a commonly used term that is used in India to refer to the South-of-India or Southern India. The Southern part of the Indian peninsula is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the  [22], which showed that the combination of empowerment with knowledge and resources can further reduce malnutrition significantly, more than either of these two inputs alone. Thus improvement in caregivers' income is effective in improving her household's consumption of ASF when the caregiver has received nutrition education. This study has found that households of participant caregivers purchased and consumed more ASF because the greater income was combined with education on the importance and use of ASF for children.


Results of this study reinforce previous evidence that microenterprise development programmes provided to caregivers significantly improve their enterprise performance, which results in higher enterprise profits and savings. Also evidence from this study has confirmed that when caregivers' incomes increase, they are more likely to increase their contributions towards the welfare of their children and other expenditure items that are beneficial to their households. This has a great policy implication in developing countries where poor women are usually engaged in microenterprises. For instance in Ghana where the majority of rural women are illiterate, strengthening existing women enterprises and developing new enterprises for women would effectively increase incomes and reduce poverty.

As shown in this study, developing women's microenterprise does not only improve incomes of participants but also has the potential of improving household's consumption of ASF and children's welfare.

Although this study did not examine changes in caregivers' knowledge, it is possible that the nutrition education received by participants impacted their knowledge, attitudes and practices relative to ASF. This may have accounted for the higher levels of ASF consumption in households that participated in the ENAM project activities. Thus efforts to improve household nutrition level should combine income improvement programs with nutrition education.


This publication was made possible through partial support provided to the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program by the Office of Agriculture, Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade, United States Agency for International Development The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. An independent federal agency, it receives overall foreign policy guidance from the U.S.  under terms of Grant No. PCE-G-00-98-00036-00. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID USAID United States Agency for International Development
USAID Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (Spanish) 


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A substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism.
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AFDC n abbr
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Legal documents certifying the right to employment of a minor or alien.

Noun 1. working papers
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, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
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[22.] Sethuraman K, Lansdown R and K Sullivan Women's empowerment and domestic violence: The role of sociocultural determinants in maternal and child undernutrition Undernutrition
A type of malnutrition caused by inadequate food intake or the body's inability to make use of needed nutrients.

Mentioned in: Appetite-Enhancing Drugs


see malnutrition, starvation.
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Homiah PA (1), Sakyi-Dawson O * (2), Bonsu AM (1) and GS Marquis (3,4)

* Corresponding author email:

(1) Department of Agricultural Economics Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock - a discipline known as agronomics. Agronomics was a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage.  and Agribusiness agribusiness

Agriculture operated by business; specifically, that part of a modern national economy devoted to the production, processing, and distribution of food and fibre products and byproducts.
, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

(2) Department of Agricultural Extension Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of extension now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organised for rural people by , College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

(3) School of Dietetics dietetics /di·e·tet·ics/ (-iks) the science of diet and nutrition.

The branch of therapeutics concerned with the practical application of diet in relation to health and disease.
 and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

(4) Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, USA.
Table 1: Household and caregivers' characteristics of participants and
non-participants of the ENAM intervention in rural Ghana (1)

                                Participant        Non-participant
                                 (N = 80)              (N = 80)
Size (#)                     7.18 [+ or -] 3.39   6.43 [+ or -] 2.43
Members engaged in IGA(#)    3.05 [+ or -] 2.71   2.24 [+ or -] 1.00
Dependency ratio (3)         1.72 [+ or -] 1.06   2.15 [+ or -] 1.14
Nuclear family                    24 (30%)             39 (49%)
Female-headed                     21 (26%)             20 (25%)

Unmarried                         20 (25%)             17 (21%)
None                              29 (36%)             37 (46%)
  Primary school completed        16 (20%)             15 (19%)
  Middle school completed         34 (43%)             27 (34%)
  Senior school completed           --                   --
  Crop farming                     4 (5%)              44 (55%)
  Fish monger                      5 (6%)               5 (6%)
  Prepared food seller            23 (29%)              6 (8%)
  Trader                          47 (59%)             23 (29)
  Other                            1 (1%)               2 (3%)

Size (#)                      .065
Members engaged in IGA(#)     .019
Dependency ratio (3)          .052
Nuclear family                .059
Female-headed                 .856

Unmarried                     .622
Education                     .410
  Primary school completed
  Middle school completed
  Senior school completed
Occupation                  < .001
  Crop farming
  Fish monger
  Prepared food seller

(1) Data are shown as mean [+ or -] SD or n (%)

(2) Significance associated with Pearson Chi-square test for
categorical variables, non-parametric chi square test of categorical
variables, and Student's t-test for continuous variables

(3) Dependency ratio = number engaged in IGA/household size.

IGA: Income Generating Activity

Table 2: Enterprise performance of participating and non-
participating ENAM project caregivers in rural Ghana (1)

Characteristics                  Participant         Non-participant
                                  (N = 80)               (N = 80)
Changes in enterprise
Expanded enterprise               66 (82.5)             37 (46.3)
Enterprise diversified            19 (23.8)              5 (6.3)
Other positive changes
experienced (3)                   43 (53.8)              9 (11.3)
Profit (4)
  Reported change
    Increased                     65 (81.2)             25 (31.3)
    Decreased/stayed same         15 (18.8)             55 (68.7)
  Amount of profit (GH0)     19.30 [+ or -] 2.21   12.21 [+ or -] 1.86
Savings (4)
  Reported change
    Increased                     56 (70.0)             10 (12.5)
    Decreased/stayed same         22 (27.5)             30 (37.5)
    No savings                     2 (2.5)              40 (50.0)
  Amount saved (GH0)         62.88 [+ or -] 1.68   26.25 [+ or -] 3.63

Characteristics              P-value (2)

Changes in enterprise
Expanded enterprise            .004
Enterprise diversified         .004
Other positive changes
experienced (3)               <.001
Profit (4)
  Reported change             <.001
    Decreased/stayed same
  Amount of profit (GH0)       .080
Savings (4)
  Reported change             <.001
    Decreased/stayed same
    No savings
  Amount saved (GH0)           .036

(1) Data shown as N (%) or mean [+ or -] SEM for amount saved and
weekly profit of IGA

(2) Pearson's Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student's
t-test for continuous variable

(3) Other changes included location of new market and an improvement
in the product

(4) Caregivers' weekly profit and savings from their IGA: US$ 1 =
Ghana Cedi [cents] 0.92; 77 (96.3%) participants and 35 (43.8%)
non-participants disclosed their savings.

Table 3: Major uses of enterprise profits by participating and non-
participating Ghanaian caregivers in the ENAM project

Uses of enterprise profits        Total          Participant
                                (N = 160)         (N = 80)

Buy food                       102 (63.8%)       54 (67.5%)
Buy clothing                   81 (50.6%)        34 (42.5%)
Pay school expenses            97 (60.6%)        57 (71.3%)
Pay health related costs       28 (17.5%)        14 (17.5%)
Buy items for the house        36 (22.5%)        11 (13.8%)
Reinvests in enterprise        37 (23.1%)        15 (18.8%)
Save                           66 (41.3%)        46 (57.5%)
Other                          20 (12.5%)         9 (11.3%)
Unknown                         2 (1.3%)          0 (0%)

Uses of enterprise profits   Non-participant   P-value
                               (N = 80)          (2)

Buy food                       48 (60.0%)       .324
Buy clothing                   47 (58.8%)       .040
Pay school expenses            40 (50.0%)       .006
Pay health related costs       14 (17.5%)       1.00
Buy items for the house        25 (31.3%)       .008
Reinvests in enterprise        22 (27.5%)       .189
Save                           20 (25.0%)       .000
Other                          11 (13.8%)       .633
Unknown                         2 (2.5%)        .155

(1) Data shown as N (%)

(2) Pearson's Chi-square test for categorical variables

Table 4: Contributions to household and child-related expenses of
participating and non-participating caregivers in the ENAM project
in rural Ghana (1)

Characteristics                     Participant
                                     (N = 80)
Mean amount contributed
by caregivers (GH[cents]) (3)

Household food                    6.0 [+ or -] 8.3
Healthcare of children            2.1 [+ or -] 4.8
School expenses                  20.9 [+ or -] 4.2
Child clothing and footwear      13.3 [+ or -] 3.2

% contribution from caregivers
Household food                   50.8 [+ or -] 3.5
Healthcare of children           40.0 [+ or -] 5.0
School expenses                  62.6 [+ or -] 4.2
Child clothing and footwear      19.0 [+ or -] 4.4

Characteristics                   Non-participant     P-value
                                     (N = 80)           (2)
Mean amount contributed
by caregivers (GH[cents]) (3)

Household food                    4.0 [+ or -] 5.3      .043
Healthcare of children            1.7 [+ or -] 3.8      .809
School expenses                  12.5 [+ or -] 1.4    < .001
Child clothing and footwear      12.4 [+ or -] 4.8      .482

% contribution from caregivers
Household food                   41.8 [+ or -] 4.1      .061
Healthcare of children            7.2 [+ or -] 4.7      .041
School expenses                  31.6 [+ or -] 4.4    < .001
Child clothing and footwear      36.7 [+ or -] 4.6    < .000

(1) Data shown as mean [+ or -] SD for mean amount contributed by
caregivers and mean [+ or -] SEM for % contribution from caregivers

(2) Significance associated with Student's t-test (Mean amount
contributed) and Mann Whitney Test for non-normally distributed
variables (% contribution from caregivers)

(3) US$1 = GHS[cents]0.92

Table 5: Amount of money (Ghana cedis) spent within the past week on
Animal Source Foods (ASF) consumed by households of caregivers
participating and not participating in the ENAM project in rural Ghana

ASF category                  Participant         Non-participant

  Livestock meat           2.88 [+ or -] 0.62    1.68 [+ or -] 2.86
  Organ meat               0.72 [+ or -] 1.98    0.47 [+ or -] 1.25
  Bush meat                1.10 [+ or -] 1.99    0.47 [+ or -] 1.99
  Whole fish               3.71 [+ or -] 0.07    3.35 [+ or -] 0.40
  Powdered fish            0.98 [+ or -] 0.65    0.44 [+ or -] 0.08
  Shellfish                0.38 [+ or -] 0.05    1.60 [+ or -] 0.09
  Snails                   0.25 [+ or -] 1.14    0.10 [+ or -] 0.03
  Poultry                  3.02 [+ or -] 0.51    2.15 [+ or -] 0.26
  Egg                      0.79 [+ or -] 0.24    0.40 [+ or -] 0.07
  Milk                     0.66 [+ or -] 0.24    0.40 [+ or -] 0.07
  Other ASF                0.15 [+ or -] 0.07    0.03 [+ or -] 0.01
Total ASF
  Purchased               11.03 [+ or -] 3.50    6.44 [+ or -] 0.78
  Non-purchased (4)        5.87 [+ or -] 0.73    4.90 [+ or -] 0.66
  Total ASF consumed in
  household/week (5)      16.09 [+ or -] 1.59   10.49 [+ or -] 0.72
  Per capita ASF
  consumption (6)          2.75 [+ or -] 0.33    2.08 [+ or -] 0.27

ASF category              P-value (3)

  Livestock meat             .015
  Organ meat                 .389
  Bush meat                  .179
  Whole fish                 .235
  Powdered fish              .229
  Shellfish                  .004
  Snails                     .008
  Poultry                    .153
  Egg                        .186
  Milk                       .008
  Other ASF                  .001
Total ASF
  Purchased                  .067
  Non-purchased (4)          .648
  Total ASF consumed in
  household/week (5)         .001
  Per capita ASF
  consumption (6)            .162

(1) Data are presented as mean [+ or -] SEM

(2) US$1 = GHS 0.92

(3) Significance associated with Mann-Whitney test for non-normally
distributed variables

(4) Amount of non-purchased ASF was given the current market value of

(5) Household ASF consumption = total purchased + non-purchased ASF

(6) Per capita ASF consumption = household consumption/# household

Table 6: Total amount (Ghana cedis) of ASF consumed by household, by
caregiver's participation in ENAM project and enterprise profit (1,2)

Respondent         Rank of profit   No.

                         Low        28    14.57 [+ or -]      9.85 (4)
                      Medium        28    15.45 [+ or -]     12.60
                        High        24    18.63 [+ or -]     19.59
                       Total        80    16.10 [+ or -]     14.21
                         Low        43    10.22 [+ or -]      6.74
                      Medium        28    11.45 [+ or -]      6.78
                        High         9    8.75 [+ or -]       3.60
                       Total        80    10.49 [+ or -]      6.47
Total                    Low        71    11.94 [+ or -]      8.32
                      Medium        56    13.45 [+ or -]     10.23
                        High        33    15.94 [+ or -]     17.29
                       Total       160    13.29 [+ or -]     11.36

(1) Data are presented as mean  [+ or -] SD

(2) US$1 = GHS 0.92

(3) Rank of enterprise profit: Low: < GSH10; Medium: GHS 10-20;
High: > 20

(4) Significance tested with ANOVA:

Source                                Mean Sq      F      P-value

Intercept                            220.801    650.766   .000
Participation in ENAM                 11.725     12.840   .045
Enterprise profits                      .243       .277   .783
Participation * Enterprise profit       .879       .713   .492

Table 7: Double log multiple regression model of factors associated
with ASF purchased for household consumption in household per week (in
Ghana cedis)

Variable                            Coefficient   t-Statistic   P-value

Constant                               13.08195      5.680588     0.000
Caregiver's enterprise profit         -0.361258     -1.873415     0.063
Ecological zone (Forest                0.490066      1.157978     0.249
  Transitional zone)
Dependency ratio                      -0.277251     -0.733746     0.464
Household head (female)                0.052808      0.114622     0.909
JSS/middle school completed            0.082579      0.147356     0.883
No formal education                    0.145047      0.260748     0.795
Married                               -0.010100     -0.021001     0.983
Household size (#)                     0.380262      0.760114     0.448
Participant in ENAM nutrition          0.921021      2.235581     0.027

R-squared: 0.064477

F-statistic: 1.133358
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Author:Homiah, Philip A.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Bonsu, A.M.; Marquis, G.S.
Publication:African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6GHAN
Date:Feb 1, 2012
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