Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,738,802 articles and books

Methodology.



The FBI collects hate crime data regarding criminal offenses that are motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, religion, sexual orientation sexual orientation
n.
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces.
, ethnicity/national origin, or disability, and committed against persons, property, or society. Because motivation is subjective, it is difficult to know with certainty whether a crime was the result of the offender's bias, which alone does not mean that a hate crime was invariably in·var·i·a·ble  
adj.
Not changing or subject to change; constant.



in·vari·a·bil
 involved. Law enforcement investigation is crucial because it must reveal sufficient evidence to lead a reasonable and prudent person to conclude that the offender's actions were motivated, in whole or in part, by his or her bias. Only then can law enforcement report an incident as a hate crime.

Data Collection

The law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).  that participate in the national hate crime program collect details about an offender's bias motivation associated with the following 11 offense types already being reported to the UCR (Under Color Removal) A method for reducing the amount of printing ink used. It substitutes black for gray color (equal amounts of cyan, magenta and yellow). Thus black ink is used instead of the three CMY inks. See GCR and dot gain.  Program: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible forc·i·ble  
adj.
1. Effected against resistance through the use of force: The police used forcible restraint in order to subdue the assailant.

2. Characterized by force; powerful.
 rape, aggravated assault A person is guilty of aggravated assault if he or she attempts to cause serious bodily injury to another or causes such injury purposely, knowingly, or recklessly under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to the value of human life; or attempts to cause or purposely or , simple assault, intimidation (crimes against persons); and robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft Motor vehicle theft or grand theft auto is a criminal act of theft generally understood to refer to the stealing of automobiles, buses, motorcycles, snowmobiles, trucks, trailers or any other motorized vehicle legally allowed on public roads and highways, including attempted , arson, and destruction/damage/vandalism (crimes against property). The law enforcement agencies that participate in the UCR Program via the NIBRS NIBRS National Incident-Based Reporting System (US DoD)  collect additional offenses for crimes against persons and crimes against property, which the UCR Program publishes in Hate Crime Statistics as "Other." These agencies also collect hate crime data for another category called crimes against society, which includes drug or narcotic narcotic, any of a number of substances that have a depressant effect on the nervous system. The chief narcotic drugs are opium, its constituents morphine and codeine, and the morphine derivative heroin.

See also drug addiction and drug abuse.
 offenses, gambling offenses, and prostitution offenses. Together, the offense classification other and the crime category crimes against society include 35 Group "A" Offenses (not listed) that are captured in the NIBRS, which also collects the previously mentioned 11 offense categories. (The Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, NIBRS edition [1992], provides an explanation of all 46 Group "A" Offenses.)

The UCR Program data collection guidelines stipulate stip·u·late 1  
v. stip·u·lat·ed, stip·u·lat·ing, stip·u·lates

v.tr.
1.
a. To lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract.

b.
 that a hate crime may involve multiple offenses, victims, and offenders within one incident; therefore, the hate crime data collection program is incident-based. In submitting data to the national UCR Program, law enforcement counts one offense for each victim of crimes against persons. When submitting crimes against property, however, law enforcement counts one offense for each distinct incident, regardless of the number of victims. Likewise, law enforcement agencies submitting data through NIBRS count one offense for each distinct incident (not victim) of crimes against society.

The national UCR Program uses the minimally accepted designations for race and ethnicity as established by the Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB), formerly the Bureau of the Budget, is an agency of the federal government that evaluates, formulates, and coordinates management procedures and program objectives within and among departments and agencies of the Executive Branch.  (OMB OMB
abbr.
Office of Management and Budget

Noun 1. OMB - the executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget
Office of Management and Budget
) and published in the Federal Register. The revised standards have five minimum categories for data on race and two categories for data on ethnicity. In complying with the published standards, the FBI uses the following racial designations in its hate crime data collection program: White, Black, American Indian American Indian
 or Native American or Amerindian or indigenous American

Any member of the various aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, with the exception of the Eskimos (Inuit) and the Aleuts.
 or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander Asian or Pacific Islander Multiculture A person with origins in any of the peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, Pacific Islands–eg China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands and Samoa , and Multiple Races, Group. The ethnic designations are Hispanic and Other Ethnicity/National Origin.

Data Reporting

Law enforcement agencies may capture hate crime data in one of three ways: via NIBRS submissions, in an electronic hate crime record layout The format of a data record, which includes the name, type and size of each field in the record. , or on the Hate Crime Incident Report and the Quarterly Hate Crime Report forms. The media on which the state UCR Programs may forward hate crime data to the national Program include magnetic cartridges, disks, or electronic record layouts sent via E-mail; and traditional paper forms. Most agencies reporting data electronically to the national UCR Program via the NIBRS use a data element within their reporting software The following is a list of notable reporting software. Commercial software
  • 90 Degree Software
  • Actuate
  • Cognos BI
  • Combit List and Label
  • Crystal Reports
  • DBxtra - Reporting Software
  • i-net Crystal-Clear
  • InetSoft Style Report
 that indicates the incident involved a bias motivation. Because the data element applies to all 46 of the Group "A" Offenses, it enables agencies to indicate whether any of the 35 additional offenses were bias motivated. Furthermore, these agencies can report considerably more information about the hate crime incident since the NIBRS is an incident-based, comprehensive data collection system. Though the additional data are not maintained in the hate crime database, they are available in the NIBRS master files.

Law enforcement agencies that prefer electronic submissions but do not report via NIBRS may use the hate crime record layout specified in the publication Hate Crime Magnetic Media Specifications for Tapes & Diskettes (January 1997). As long as they have the national Program's approval, agencies may use any of the previously mentioned electronic media to submit the data.

Agencies that choose the Hate Crime Incident Report and the Quarterly Hate Crime Report forms supply the national UCR Program with information about each hate crime incident including the offense type and its respective bias motivation, the number and type of victims, the location of the incident, the number of known offenders, and the known offender's race. During a calendar quarter, law enforcement agencies submit a Hate Crime Incident Report for each bias-motivated incident. At the end of each calendar quarter, reporting agencies submit a Quarterly Hate Crime Report, on which agencies include the total number of incidents reported for the quarter and delete any previously reported incidents that were through subsequent investigation determined not to be bias-motivated. If no hate crime incidents occurred in their jurisdiction that quarter, the agency must still submit the Quarterly Hate Crime Report to report zero hate crime incidents.

Notes

When examining the data contained in this report, data users should be aware that the first line following each table number presents in boldface type that table's unit of count, i.e., incident, offense, victim, or known offender.

To be included in this publication, law enforcement agencies must have submitted hate crime data for at least 1 month of the calendar year. The published data, therefore, do not necessarily represent reports from each participating agency for 12 months or 4 quarters. Section II of this publication furnishes individual state and agency information, including the number of quarters for which the agency reported data to the national Program.

Based on the revised standards from the Office of Management and Budget for defining Metropolitan Statistical Areas, the UCR Program now refers to suburban counties as metropolitan counties and rural counties as nonmetropolitan counties. (Section I, Summary of the UCR Program, of Crime in the United States Crime in the United States is characterized by relatively high levels of gun violence and homicide, compared to other developed countries although this is explained by the fact that criminals in America are more likely to use firearms. , 2003, provides more information about the creation of new statistical compilation areas in the Recent Developments section.)

Valid assessments about crime, including hate crime, are possible only with careful study and analysis of the various unique conditions affecting each local law enforcement jurisdiction. (The article "Crime Factors" in the beginning of each edition of Crime in the United States [accessible at the FBI's Internet site at www.fbi.gov] presents a comprehensive discussion of the many factors that affect crime in a jurisdiction.) Therefore the reader is cautioned against simplistic sim·plism  
n.
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.



[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple
 comparisons of the statistical data of this program with that of others with differing methodologies or even comparing individual reporting units solely on

the basis of their agency type.
COPYRIGHT 2003 Federal Bureau of Investigation
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:FBI's Uniform Crime Reports
Publication:Uniform Crime Reports: Hate Crime Statistics
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:1126
Previous Article:Introduction.
Next Article:Section I--Hate Crime Statistics, 2003.
Topics:



Related Articles
Foreword.
Foreword.
Methodology.
Section II--jurisdictional hate crime statistics, 2004.
Foreword.
Introduction.
Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.
Foreword.
Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.
Appendix IV--the nation's two crime measures.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters