Meeting report: national workshops for the communication of air pollution and health information: summary of four workshops in different regions of Europe.AIRNET AIRNET Air Network
AIRNET Airport Network Simulation Model was a thematic the·mat·ic
1. Of, relating to, or being a theme: a scene of thematic importance.
2. network project (2002-2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between researchers in air pollution and health in Europe. As part of AIRNET's communication strategy, a standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. workshop model was developed to organize national meetings on air pollution and health (AIRNET network days). Emphasis was given to tailor the national workshop information and related activities to the specific needs of a wider range of stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. (e.g., policy makers, nongovernmental organizations Transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. Nongovernmental organizations may be professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in , industry representatives). In this report we present an overview of the results of four workshops held in western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe Europe is often divided into regions due to geographical, cultural or historical criteria. Some common divisions are as follows. Directional divisions
Groupings by compass directions are the hardest to define in Europe, since (among other issues) the pure geographical criteria in 2004. Overall, workshop experiences indicated that by actively involving participants in the planning of each meeting, AIRNET helped create an event that addressed participants' needs and interests. A wide range of communication formats used to discuss air pollution and health also helped stimulate active interaction among participants. Overall, the national workshops held by AIRNET offered a way to improve communication among the different stakeholders. Because a broad stakeholder stakeholder n. a person having in his/her possession (holding) money or property in which he/she has no interest, right or title, awaiting the outcome of a dispute between two or more claimants to the money or property. involvement in decision making can positively affect the development of widely supported policies, such meetings should be continued for Europe and elsewhere. Key words: air pollution and health, communication, stakeholders, thematic network. Environ en·vi·ron
tr.v. en·vi·roned, en·vi·ron·ing, en·vi·rons
To encircle; surround. See Synonyms at surround.
[Middle English envirounen, from Old French environner Health Perspect 114:1108-1112 (2006). doi:10.1289/ehp.8524 available via http://dx.doi.org/ [Online 15 March 2006]
A well-established body of evidence now shows that increasing levels of air pollution are linked with more illness, higher use of health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract , and earlier death among the exposed population groups (Brunekreef and Holgate 2002). Recently, five disciplinary reports by AIRNET (Thematic Network on Air Pollution and Health) have addressed the evidence in the European Union European Union (EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the
European Community (EU) from a variety of scientific perspectives, including epidemiology epidemiology, field of medicine concerned with the study of epidemics, outbreaks of disease that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiologists, using sophisticated statistical analyses, field investigations, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause , toxicology toxicology, study of poisons, or toxins, from the standpoint of detection, isolation, identification, and determination of their effects on the human body. Toxicology may be considered the branch of pharmacology devoted to the study of the poisonous effects of drugs. , exposure assessment, health impact assessment, and the science-policy interface (AIRNET 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e). Overall, these reports indicate that European research has significantly contributed to the better understanding of air pollution health effects.
AIRNET was a thematic network project (2002-2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between air pollution and health researchers in Europe (AIRNET 2002). AIRNET collected, interpreted, and disseminated disseminated /dis·sem·i·nat·ed/ (-sem´i-nat?ed) scattered; distributed over a considerable area.
Spread over a large area of a body, a tissue, or an organ. information from individual (EU-funded) projects to strengthen the science-policy interface and to draw policy-relevant recommendations. The objective of this stakeholder network was to create a widely supported basis for public health policy related to improving air quality in Europe--for instance, the communication of scientific findings for policy use and the identification of important gaps in the research. Overall, 23 project partners were initially brought into AIRNET, representing the scientific community and a variety of other stakeholders with an interest in air pollution and health.
Several reports stress the importance of stakeholder involvement in understanding the science at all stages of the decision-making process (Beierle 2002; Maynard et al. 2003; Tamburlini and Ebi 2002). Realizing the need for more stakeholder input, AIRNET strived to increase the number and diversity of participating stakeholders with varied interests deriving from a local, national, or regional perspective. To make the wealth of gathered and interpreted information available to a broader spectrum of stakeholders, two things were considered paramount: first, a fine-tuning of the information required to meet the needs of different stakeholders; and second, a well-focused effort undertaken to actively involve more stakeholders, including those who previously might not have had any contact with AIRNET.
Therefore, a major goal of the activities of AIRNET in its final year was to help bridge the gap between scientists, policy makers, and other relevant stakeholders. To this end, the communication strategy focused on the concept of national workshops (AIRNET network days). The workshop model gave the participants an opportunity to influence the planning of the meeting in line with their interests and needs. Ideally, such an approach should produce an atmosphere where stakeholders can comfortably create, broaden, and intensify in·ten·si·fy
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies
1. To make intense or more intense: their own personal network and can share their knowledge and questions. In this report we present the findings from four workshops organized to communicate and discuss air pollution and health issues specific to western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe.
Four countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Hungary, and Spain) representing different European regions (western, northern, central/eastern and southern) were selected to address region-specific air pollution and health issues in a standardized workshop format developed by AIRNET's communication firm (Korbee & Hovelynck BV). Although the underlying approach used to organize the national workshops is a traditional management strategy, it is a little-used strategy in many scientific areas, especially for air pollution and health.
As illustrated in Figure 1, the first step was for a national AIRNET coordinator (i.e., a scientist or a representative from a government agency) to select a local communication agency that could perform a stakeholder analysis The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page. to identify relevant target groups according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. their interests in air pollution and health. The communication agency chosen was either a commercial public relations public relations, activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most firm or a professional conference management firm with suitable experience in the field of public relations. Once the stakeholder list was compiled and preliminary invitations to the workshop were sent out, focus group discussions or interviews were held with representative stakeholders. The local communication agency organized these sessions and aimed to have stakeholder input from each stakeholder group identified in the stakeholder analysis.
The goal of the focus group discussions and interviews before the workshop was to understand what the stakeholders needed, how they could contribute to the meeting, and what the preferred means were for communicating and exchanging knowledge and opinions. There was also an opportunity to widen wid·en
tr. & intr.v. wid·ened, wid·en·ing, wid·ens
To make or become wide or wider.
widen·er n. participation by asking stakeholders for the names of other interested parties who may have been missed in the initial stakeholder analysis. As the national workshops were held at different times throughout the year, we were able to build on the experiences and results of previous workshops to help develop subsequent events.
All the authors have been involved in the planning and participation of one or more of the workshops. For the overall descriptions, discussion, and evaluation of the workshops, the authors draw on their experiences and observations as well as any informal discussion with the participants.
Results and Discussion
Stakeholder participation. Participants at the workshops were classified into several stakeholder categories (Table 1): scientists (i.e., air quality, health) who perform research, policy makers (local, regional, national), industry representatives (i.e., automobile, oil, and gas), and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) (e.g., patient rights, public health, and the environment). Additional stakeholders included participants who represented public transportation operators and clean fuel companies, and NGOs that advocated for public transport and cycling. Except at the Netherlands workshop, researchers were represented in the highest percentage. In general, policy makers were second, followed by NGOs and industry representatives--all of whom use research findings. Overall, AIRNET appears to have achieved a wide range of stakeholder participation at the national workshops between producers and users of research.
In general, the policy makers who attended the workshops represented national ministries dealing with the environment, meteorology meteorology, branch of science that deals with the atmosphere of a planet, particularly that of the earth, the most important application of which is the analysis and prediction of weather. and climatology climatology
Branch of atmospheric science concerned with describing climate and analyzing the causes and practical consequences of climatic differences and changes. Climatology treats the same atmospheric processes as meteorology, but it also seeks to identify slower-acting , health care, and traffic. Other than those from a few of the municipalities where the meetings took place, few regional or municipal policy makers were present at the workshops. On the whole, the NGOs participating in the workshops represented a wide range of stakeholders, from consumer groups, environmental protection and management and environmental law, to environmental health advocacy The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. for susceptible individuals In epidemiology a susceptible individual (sometimes known simply as a susceptible) is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease, if he or she is exposed to the infectious agent. (i.e., asthmatics and children). These NGO NGO
Noun 1. NGO - an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
nongovernmental organization groups were typically functioning at the national interest level, sometimes under the umbrella of an international or pan-European parent organization.
Some stakeholder groups mentioned that international conferences (objectives, themes, content) are often biased toward researchers, making it less attractive for nonscientists to participate. Furthermore, some stakeholders groups (e.g., NGOs and local policy makers) find it difficult to attend international conferences because of budgetary and time constraints In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. . This was demonstrated in the yearly AIRNET conferences, which were attended predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. by scientists (Table 1). However, by offering local events where the attendee at·tend·ee
One who is present at or attends a function. See Usage Note at -ee1.
a person who is present at a specified event
Noun 1. is involved in the design and setup See BIOS setup and install program. , AIRNET has shown a way to increase the diversity of participation (see also Huntington et al. 2002). We are confident that workshops tailored to the participants' interests increased the level of participation from all stakeholders, thereby demonstrating their potential usefulness as a medium through which to help develop consensus on research or policy.
Workshop communication formats. The available work formats varied little from country to country, despite the fact that stakeholders were encouraged to indicate their preferred methods of communication. As indicated by the preworkshop focus group discussions and stakeholder interviews, the use of conventional presentation formats (seminar presentations, poster presentations) and roundtable discussions were favored. At three of the workshops, nonconventional activities (silent wall discussions, speaker's corner, literature table, events calendar, contact board) were also used to stimulate stakeholder participation. Overall, every effort was made to ensure that the messages were relevant and easily understood to help stimulate stakeholder dialogue.
By using the proper meeting format, sharing knowledge can become more effective, widespread, and fine-tuned to meet different stakeholder needs (Huntington et al. 2002). However, the importance of selecting the most appropriate communication or work format for the intended audience is often overlooked by meeting organizers. In some instances, the use of conventional formats may be too passive to promote discussion. However, combined with more interactive methods, conventional formats can provide the information needed to fuel conversation. For example, silent wall discussions (reacting in writing to a statement on a blank poster) or a speaker's corner presentation (analogous analogous /anal·o·gous/ (ah-nal´ah-gus) resembling or similar in some respects, as in function or appearance, but not in origin or development.
adj. to a soapbox speech in London's Hyde Park Hyde Park, park, London, England
Hyde Park, 615 acres (249 hectares) in Westminster borough, London, England. Once the manor of Hyde, a part of the old Westminster Abbey property, it became a deer park under Henry VIII. ) can encourage people to become more active and allow alternative ways to participate.
Because of potential differences in air pollution and health issues and the communication styles among European regions, emphasis was given to tailoring information and work formats to the needs of the target groups. The workshops were also held in the national language, effectively removing potential barriers to communication caused by language. AIRNET's experiences at each national workshop suggested that the selected work formats, room setups, chosen moderator moderator - A person, or small group of people, who manages a moderated mailing list or Usenet newsgroup. Moderators are responsible for determining which email submissions are passed on to the list or newsgroup. , and rules for roundtable discussions were of prime importance in helping the stakeholder feel comfortable in contributing to the discussion. Overall, participants at the workshops reaffirmed the need to encourage successful two-way dialogue between stakeholders through both conventional and nonconventional communication methods.
Major themes of stakeholder interest. Interviews and focus group discussions can provide better insight on stakeholder questions (Lion et al. 2002). Our focus group discussions and interviews produced a list of themes for workshop agendas that varied slightly by country (Table 2). The most prominent theme for all workshops was traffic-related air pollution and human health. Except for Spain, air quality standards were also of major interest. In addition, issues on asthma and allergy allergy, hypersensitive reaction of the body tissues of certain individuals to certain substances that, in similar amounts and circumstances, are innocuous to other persons. Allergens, or allergy-causing substances, can be airborne substances (e.g. , as well as child/infant health, were a major focus for three of the five workshops. Except for Hungary, policy options aimed at air pollution and health were included in the program.
These initial themes were used to help promote attendance at each workshop but not necessarily to drive the direction of the discussion among participants. In the end, the Netherlands and Hungary roundtable discussions focused on the need to a) increase and improve public transportation, and b) encourage the public to take environmentally friendly Environmentally friendly, also referred to as nature friendly, is a term used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment. steps to reduce the volume of traffic. Similarly, participants from the Swedish workshop indicated that health-orientated decision making would benefit from a) the development of traffic-related indicators of air quality, b) acute and chronic health effect studies for traffic, and c) integration of traffic and health policy with policies for air pollution reduction. For more detailed summaries of each workshop, see the AIRNET Web site (AIRNET 2002).
Although the workshop themes varied little among countries (Table 2), key messages emerging from each workshop were different in scope (Appendix 1). For instance, the effects of wood burning and spring dust were important topics in Sweden. In Hungary, many of the discussions focused on the health effects of ragweed ragweed, any plant of the genus Ambrosia, coarse, weedy herbs belonging to the family Asteraceae (aster family), most of which are native to America. They have inconspicuous greenish flowers and soft subdivided leaves. exposure. Participants at the Netherlands workshop placed a greater focus on actions for the government and policy makers. In Spain, a dry climate resulting in dust production was an issue of importance among the attendees.
European scope of the national workshops. A geographical spread (northern, western, central/eastern, and southern Europe Southern Europe or sometimes Mediterranean Europe is a region of the European continent. There is no clear definition of the term which can vary depending on whether geographic, cultural, linguistic or historical factors are taken into account. ) of national workshops allowed discussion of air pollution and health issues specific to each region. This aided in attracting policy makers and other stakeholders (e.g., environmental and health organizations) working at the local, regional, or national level (Table 1). A broad diversity of stakeholder perspectives helps improve decisions over the status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. by adding new information and ideas while ensuring adequate access to resources (Beierle 2002).
As a converging con·verge
v. con·verged, con·verg·ing, con·verg·es
a. To tend toward or approach an intersecting point: lines that converge.
b. point for the national workshop activities on a European and regional level, answers to several questions posed during the parallel breakout sessions at the Third AIRNET conference are listed in Appendix 2. At this pan-European meeting, discussions relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc policy and decision-making priorities and the value of national or regional meetings reinforced AIRNET network activities (workgroup meetings, conferences, AIRNET network days). Overall, for all regions of Europe, improved communication between scientists, decision makers, and stakeholders was seen by the participants as highly desirable to increase the effectiveness of decision-making processes Presented below is a list of topics on decision-making and decision-making processes:
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Participant feedback. Participant feedback from the workshops was positive. On a scale of 1 to 10 (where 1 is bad and 10 is good), the overall ratings by participants in the Netherlands, Sweden, and Spain were 7.9, 7.2, and 8.1, respectively. (No rating was available for Hungary.) Most participants at each workshop felt that the objectives of the day, to exchange knowledge and strengthen personal networks, were well achieved. Moreover, participants were positive about the work formats used (specifically the roundtable discussions), despite not having worked in such formats before. Overall, most participants felt that it would be valuable to hold events of this type in the future, providing valuable feedback for the organizers.
The feedback sheets from the workshops contained numerous suggestions and ideas for the future, some of which are summarized below:
* Events should be longer and contain more scientific lectures and discussions.
* Circle of participants should be wider.
* Such events should be continued, where different sectors, interest groups, and stakeholders communicate with each other and with the public.
* Students dealing with health issues and protection of the environment should participate.
Usefulness of national workshops. A dynamic science-stakeholder-policy interplay in·ter·play
Reciprocal action and reaction; interaction.
intr.v. in·ter·played, in·ter·play·ing, in·ter·plays
To act or react on each other; interact. is needed to achieve successful air pollution abatement A reduction, a decrease, or a diminution. The suspension or cessation, in whole or in part, of a continuing charge, such as rent.
With respect to estates, an abatement is a proportional diminution or reduction of the monetary legacies, a disposition of property by will, when measures to decrease health risks. This interplay is important when developing sustainable policies that are transparent and sound and that carry the support of the policy makers, researchers, other stakeholders (industry and NGOs), and the general public. AIRNET attempted to incorporate the needs and views of all players involved during its 3-year existence. To help get this interplay running, the national workshops were used to improve communication between all players and to better understand each other's needs.
Traditionally, expert workshops in Europe and internationally have been used to discuss the scientific and policy issues related to ambient Surrounding. For example, ambient temperature and humidity are atmospheric conditions that exist at the moment. See ambient lighting. air quality and human health [Bell et al. 2002; O'Neill et al. 2003; World Health Organization (WHO) 2000, 2001, 2003]. Agencies, and the WHO in particular, regularly perform expert reviews of air pollution and health information (WHO 2000, 2001, 2003). In comparison, relatively few national workshops are organized by involving the stakeholders in the planning of the meeting itself. Moreover, there is a scarcity Scarcity
The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently. of publications offering clear guidance and suggestions on how to organize and conduct multiparticipatory workshops for a heterogeneous Not the same. Contrast with homogeneous.
heterogeneous - Composed of unrelated parts, different in kind.
Often used in the context of distributed systems that may be running different operating systems or network protocols (a heterogeneous network). group of individuals. The workshops organized by AIRNET included a wide range of stakeholders. Crucially, a representative subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original. of the invited stakeholders was involved in the development of the meeting itself.
By organizing events aimed at bringing a diverse audience together, AIRNET gave stakeholders a responsibility to create and broaden their own personal network, and to share their knowledge and questions. The national workshops were a good opportunity for stakeholders to try out different modes of communication. Overall, we believe that the workshops held by AIRNET were a step forward in stakeholder engagement in the field of air pollution and health and a clear response to discussions from previous meetings on the use of scientific knowledge in decision making (Ginsburg and Cowling 2003; Samet and Lee 2001).
How will such workshop activities continue? Who has the time and inclination inclination, in astronomy, the angle of intersection between two planes, one of which is an orbital plane. The inclination of the plane of the moon's orbit is 5°9' with respect to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun). to organize them? How is discussion translated into action?
Answers to the above questions are challenging, given AIRNET's initial focus and the relatively short mandate given by the EU (3 years). Nonetheless, these issues were dominant at the final AIRNET conference, where attendees clearly wanted events that enhanced participant interaction (Appendix 2). However, since AIRNET officially ceased to exist in 2005, other supporters (EU, national governments, NGOs, industry, etc.) will need to take the initiative and time to organize, sponsor, and promote similar events. Doing so may help ensure that future actions are taken by maintaining a direct link with those who will be making the decisions. Although the issues are often big and the meeting times relatively short, events such as national workshops can be seen as a beginning or continuation of the existing dialogue and debate.
A limitation of the workshops (which were not initially part of AIRNET's planned activities) is that they did not examine the steps needed to achieve subsequent actions resulting from the workshops. However, a legacy of these activities is the creation of a stakeholder network that will continue to interact (at some level) through other means. For example, many of the participants of the workshop in Spain decided that they would continue to communicate and work toward collectively feeding into policy debate in their country. Reducing environmental exposures may also require substantial financial investment, where broad support by a variety of stakeholders can be achieved through meaningful, relevant, and understandable communication. For a variety of reasons, this publication of the meetings summary is a step toward action rather than just keeping ideas merely at the level of discussion. This is important, if not critical, for comprehensive and sound management of any real or perceived risk to the human health (Jardine et al. 2003).
Well-planned and-moderated workshops can enhance communication and knowledge sharing among individuals who do not know each other well (or at all) and have different levels of understanding (Huntington et al. 2002; Kontic et al. 2006). Through activities such as the AIRNET national workshops, we believe that a substantial contribution to research planning or influencing policy can be achieved by ensuring that
* Stakeholders are familiar with the extent of the knowledge base (and its limitations or gaps) and how to gain access to this information.
* Stakeholders are able to use the information (available in a suitable format) for practical application in their own fields of specialty (Sanderson et al., in press).
* Stakeholders know whom to turn to with specific questions and will do so actively.
* Stakeholders know with whom they can share their acquired knowledge to maximize the impact of their efforts and help others in their pursuits.
* Stakeholders have a sufficient understanding of the subject matter under policy scrutiny to make a constructive and positive contribution to the decision-making process.
In conclusion, we feel that the national workshops were highly valuable in promoting participant interaction and improving communication among a wide range of stakeholders. Herein, active participation is key to enable a two-way flow of information. By bringing together the relevant stakeholders, well-planned workshops can empower empower verb To encourage or provide a person with the means or information to become involved in solving his/her own problems a group of individuals who share a common interest or vision to participate collectively in the policy debate.
Appendix 1. Examples of key messages resulting from the national workshops.
Netherlands (western Europe Western Europe
The countries of western Europe, especially those that are allied with the United States and Canada in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (established 1949 and usually known as NATO). ) network day:
* Development of an integrated air pollution and climate policy.
* Harmonization har·mo·nize
v. har·mo·nized, har·mo·niz·ing, har·mo·niz·es
1. To bring or come into agreement or harmony. See Synonyms at agree.
2. Music To provide harmony for (a melody). and validation See validate.
validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements. of the models used to assess urban air quality.
* Investigation of methods to protect the environment, with open options for managing local hotspots.
Sweden (northern Europe) network day:
* Need for action and research is most important for particulate matter particulate matter
n. Abbr. PM
Material suspended in the air in the form of minute solid particles or liquid droplets, especially when considered as an atmospheric pollutant.
Noun 1. from road and tire wear.
* Health effects of ozone have been somewhat forgotten--a need to refocus Verb 1. refocus - focus once again; The physicist refocused the light beam"
focus - cause to converge on or toward a central point; "Focus the light on this image"
2. some attention.
* Maintainance of an air quality standard for the coarse fraction of particulate matter.
Hungary (central/eastern Europe) network day:
* Air quality limit value system should be as dynamic as possible and monitored continuously.
* Means of transportation and urban planning urban planning: see city planning.
Programs pursued as a means of improving the urban environment and achieving certain social and economic objectives. should be developed in consideration of health issues.
* Allergy is the endemic endemic /en·dem·ic/ (en-dem´ik) present or usually prevalent in a population at all times.
1. of the 21st century, necessitating suitable preventative measures.
Spain (southern Europe) network day:
* Need for a professional organization to oversee monitoring station criteria for the EU.
* Promotion for the reduction of air pollution (i.e., urban planning, technology, public information).
* A shift from epidemiological surveillance Epidemiological surveillance is the discipline of continuously gathering, analysing, and interpreting data about diseases, and disseminating conclusions of the analyses to relevant organisations. As such, it is a key element in epidemiology. to more vigilance VIGILANCE. Proper attention in proper time.
2. The law requires a man who has a claim to enforce it in proper time, while the adverse party has it in his power to defend himself; and if by his neglect to do so, he cannot afterwards establish such claim, the toward lifestyle risk factors.
Network day summaries in English are available on the AIRNET Web site (http://airnet.iras.uu.nl/).
Appendix 2. Summary of the Third AIRNET Conference regional breakout sessions.
Within our region, what air pollution and health problems and abatement needs do we have in common?
* Northern Europe: soil dust, noise, and traffic-related emissions.
* Western Europe: primarily particulate matter, although nitrogen dioxide nitrogen dioxide
A poisonous brown gas, NO2, often found in smog and automobile exhaust fumes and synthesized for use as a nitrating agent, a catalyst, and an oxidizing agent.
Noun 1. is still an issue.
* Central/eastern Europe: air quality affected by local heating and traffic.
* Southern Europe: traffic-related emissions, desert dust, and secondary air pollutants pollutants
see environmental pollution. .
What have we learned from this conference that we can take home/apply to our region?
* Northern Europe: promotion of bicycle use to decrease traffic-related air pollution.
* Western Europe: lack of clear communication among scientists, policy makers, and stakeholders.
* Central/eastern Europe: improvement in the public understanding of environmental health issues.
* Southern Europe: good public transportation is needed to decrease traffic in cities.
What are the research priorities for our region?
* Northern Europe: confirmation of the improvement in air quality as a result of implemented policy.
* Western Europe: carrying out long-term health studies of low-concentration air pollutants.
* Central/eastern Europe: impact of changing air pollution on human health, especially in children.
* Southern Europe: research targeted on defining source and composition of air pollution.
Session summaries in English are available on the AIRNET Web site (http://airnet.iras.uu.nl/).
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Eric Gordon Eric Gordon (born December 25, 1988 in Indianapolis, Indiana) is an American basketball player. The 6-4, 205 lb. Gordon played his High School basketball at North Central High School in Indianapolis, Indiana. Sanderson, (1) Nina Fudge, (2) Annike Irene Totlandsdal, (2) Ingrid Hovelynck, (3) Herbert Korbee, (3) Edith Rameckers, (4) Bert Brunekreef, (1) and Leendert van Bree (2)
(1) Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; (2) Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Dutch: Milieu en Natuur Planbureau) is a Dutch research institute that advises the Dutch government on environmental policy issues. , Bilthoven, the Netherlands; (3) Korbee & Hovelynck BV, De Bilt is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. Population centres , the Netherlands; (4) European Federation of Allergy and Airways airways Anatomy The 'pipes'–trachea, bronchi, bronchioles–through which air passes to and from the alveoli. See Small airways. Diseases Patients' Association, Brussels, Belgium
Address correspondence to B. Brunekreef, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Universiteit Utrecht, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht, the Netherlands. Telephone: 31 30 253 9490. Fax: 31 30 253 9499. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The AIRNET group especially thanks the national workshop coordinators (Sweden: T. Kirklund, T. Bellander, and B. Forsberg; Hungary: P. Rudnai; Spain: J. Sunyer and M. Hansen) and all individuals at the local communications agencies (the Netherlands: Korbee & Hovelynck BV; Sweden: Gullers Group; Hungary: Young Smile; Spain: Suport Serveis) who played an active role in the development and organization of the AIRNET network days.
AIRNET (2002-2004) was funded by the European Union Sixth Framework programme The Sixth Framework Programme (abbreviated FP6) was the Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development from 2002 till 2006 set up by the European Union (EU) in order to fund and promote European research and technological development. under the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources, Key Action 4--Environment and Health.
I. Hovelynck and H. Korbee work for the communications firm contracted by AIRNET (Korbee & Hovelynck BV). The remaining authors declare they have no competing financial interests.
Received 21 July 2005; accepted 14 March 2006.
Table 1. Overview of national workshop attendance by stakeholder category. Stakeholder category Meeting No. of Research Industry Workshop length (hr) participants (%) (%) Netherlands 4 52 23 12 Sweden 5.5 54 56 13 Hungary 5 40 43 3 Spain 6 39 20 5 3rd Annual Conference 2.5 days 138 64 9 Stakeholder category Health Environment Transport and Workshop (%) (%) Policy (%) mobility (%) Netherlands 10 8 42 6 Sweden 2 4 20 6 Hungary 18 15 10 13 Spain 35 20 10 0 3rd Annual Conference 7 5 15 -- Table 2. Major themes of interest included in the national workshop programs. Allergy Children/ Indoor Other and infant air Air quality policy Workshop Traffic asthma health quality standards options Netherlands x x x Sweden x x x x Hungary x x x x x Spain x x x 3rd Annual x x x x x x Conference