Medicinal plants used by the Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines.
Since the beginning of human civilization people have used plants as medicine. The earliest uses are found in Babylonia circa 1770 BC in the code of Hammurabi and in ancient Egypt circa 1550 BC . The relationship between man and plants is extremely important because plants affect every aspect of man's existence by providing a continuous and infinite source of varying materials such as food, timber, fibers, dyes, tools, and many others . Popular knowledge of plants used by humans is based on thousands of years experience. By "trial and error," people learned how to recognize and use plants, including those with a magic-religious function. Until the middle of the 19th century, plants were the main therapeutic agents used by humans and even today their role in medicine is still relevant . Many of today's drugs have been derived from plant resources.
In recent years, work on ethnobotanical knowledge worldwide has increased especially in some parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite many ethnobotanical studies were performed all over the world, in the Philippines, ethnobotanical documents are relatively few, with some focusing on well known indigenous groups like the Pinatubo Negritoes, the Tasadays in Mindanao, the Itawes of Cagayan, and the Ibaloi of Benguet province [9,5,16,11,1]. The Higaonon tribe is one of the 18 Lumad (a group of Non-Moro Indigenous Communities in Mindanao) ethno-linguistic groups in the Philippines. Lumads comprise 12 to 13 million or 18% of the Philippine population and are divided into 110 ethno-linguistic groups living in hinterlands, forests, lowlands, and coastal areas. The Higaonon tribe is located on the provinces of Bukidnon, Agusan del Sur, Misamis Oriental, and Rogongon (in Iligan City). Most Higaonons still have a rather traditional way of living where farming is the most important economic activity . The term Higaonon is a combination of the root words: 'HIGA' which means 'to live' or 'to lay in bed,' 'GAON' which means 'mountain,' and 'ONON' which means 'people'. Thus people who live in the mountains--our Higaonon spiritual leaders and scholars--defined as "People in the Living Mountains" (UNAHI Mindanao Inc.). The Higaonons have lived and continue to live in their ancestral forest homes, undisturbed, managing the forest in a natural way, and protecting it against destruction by loggers who started cutting their way into the forested homeland more than sixty years ago. This present paper was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plant utilization and healthcare practices among the Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City. Nowadays, indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants is fast diminishing because as more plants are lost, so is the knowledge of their value to humanity. Thus, the findings of this research would be of great help to ethnobotanists and ecologists in the future studies and provide insights on the management and conservation of medicinal plants in the area.
Materials And Methods
Rogongon is one of the 44 Barangays in Iligan City, Philippines. It is situated in the northeastern part of Iligan City, 34 kilometers away from the city proper, 1010 meters above sea level (masl), and having a land area of 38,000 hectares. It consists mainly of patches of residual forest and dipterocarp forest. This Barangay has 23 sitios or puroks inhabited by the Higaonons, Maranaos, a mixture of Higaonon-Maranao, and some Christians. There are access roads in the Barangay but can only be possible by riding a motorcycle or "habal-habal," about 1-2 hours ride from the city proper which costs 200-300 pesos for a one way ride.
A prior informed consent was done through their Barangay chairman and some local administrators. Six (6) residential settlements were selectively chosen as sampling sites, namely: Poblacion, Scaling, Bayanihan, Kasayanan, Malandog, and Tawagon because these areas are occupied mostly by the pure Higaonons. Information on demographic (age, gender, source of livelihood, etc.) and ethnobotanical knowledge (medicinal plants and its uses) were gathered from a series of interviews between January to March 2012 using a semi-structured questionnaire. The interviews were developed as informal conversations in order to let them speak spontaneously and not feel pressured. A total of 65 individuals (30-78 years old) were interviewed mostly elderly, "datus" (recognized community leader of the tribe), and some babaylans (local healers), who were identified by the "datus" and other local people as owning huge knowledge on medicinal plants. The data acquired for each plant comprises the common local name (Higaonon name), the part of the plant used, its preparation and mode of administration, and its uses or effects. Some of the plants were observed in situ during short field walks with the local people and samples were collected for scientific identification. Photos were taken especially the uncommon species of plants. Collected plants were pressed, dried, identified, and deposited in the herbarium. Plants were identified with the help of the literature [6,7,4,8].
Results And Discussion
Knowledge on the use of plants for traditional medicine is maintained and developed in all indigenous societies in the world. In the Philippines, this knowledge is inherited from their great ancestors through verbal communication. In this study, a total of 62 (two are fern allies) plant species distributed to 56 genera and 34 families were documented as medicinal plants utilized by the Higaonons to treat different kinds of diseases and ailments (refer to Table 1). Family Asteraceae/Compositae was represented by the highest number of species (8 species) followed by Moraceae (5 species), Graminae/Poaceae (4 species), and Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species). Families Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae or Leguminoseae, Labiatae/Lamiaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Palmae/Arecaceae, Verbenaceae, and Sellaginellaceae were represented by two (2) species each, while the rest of the families were all represented by one (1) species. It indicated that the area consists of considerable diversity of plant species of medicinal value. Moreover, because the area is far from the city and their access to modern healthcare is limited, thus, most of the Higaonons still resort to traditional healthcare practices.
Based on the responses, the common health problems in most Higaonons were stomach ailments (due to diarrhea), respiratory diseases (such as common colds and cough), wounds or cuts, and muscle pains or over fatigue in women or "bughat." The preparation and administration (application) of the medicinal plants vary based on the type of disease treated. The usual method of preparation was boiling the plant part (usually leaves) with water and by oral (drink the juice) administration. For immediate treatment of cuts or wounds, either the leaves (crushed) or stems (scraped and juice is extracted) were used and administered topically (externally). The leaves of some plants such as Plumeria obtuse, can be roasted (heated) partly and applied directly (or "hampol") on the chest and back for the relief of muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women, especially those who gave birth. Conversely, leaves of Artemisia vulgaris can be roasted (heated) partly and the juice or sap is extracted (squeezed) and taken internally for the treatment of stomachache; leaves of Emilia sonchifolia and Coleus amboinicus for curing common colds and cough; and young shoots of Musa textilis to treat diarrhea. Few were prepared from underground (modified) plant parts such as the bulbs of Allium sativum and the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa.
The most commonly used plant part for herbal preparations was the leaves. It indicated that the survival and continuity of useful medicinal plants in Rogongon is greatly maintained and protected by the Higaonons in their use mostly (only) of the leaves, thus, it ensures sustainability in the utilization of their medicinal plants. Stems, roots, bark, fruit or seeds and others were often used in their preparations. The use of either bark or roots in some of their preparations was observed to be related to reproductive healthcare in women. The bark of Voacanga mindanaensis can relieve irregular or heavy menstruation while the roots of Solanum verbascifolium abates excessive bleeding after a miscarriage; the roots or bark of Smilax bracteata and Caryota rumphiana relieve and prevent muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women especially after giving birth; and Ficus gul (bark) and Ficus minahassae (roots) enhance milk flow in lactating mothers.
Other indigenous groups in the Philippines exhibit similar utilization pattern of medicinal plant use with the Higaonons of Rogongon to treat certain diseases. For example, the findings on the medicinal plant utilization of the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao showed that the Kalanguyas used boiled leaves of Blumea balsamifera and Vitex negundo, and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale to cure cough; observed that Citrus microcarpa can lower hypertension; Acmella oleracea or Spillanthes acmella causes numbing effect on the gums and relieves toothache; and a person with urinary tract (kidney) infection would drink the boiled roots and young hairs of Imperata cylindrica and Zea mays, respectively, because these grasses stimulate normal urination . Moreover, the Tasaday of Mindanao, Itawes of Cagayan, Ibalois of Tabaan Norte, and Kalanguyas of Ifugao also use Psidium guajava as an antiseptic wash for wounds and other skin diseases. Relative to other tribes in the country, plant mixtures were also noted to be more effective in treating a particular ailment, like the mixture of boiled leaves of Persea Americana, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Psidium guajava, Syzygium malaccense, and Chrysophyllum cainito is more effective to treat diarrhea. Other medicinal plants were utilized to treat two or more diseases like Annona squamosa which are used to treat diarrhea, diabetes, and rheumatism and Lindheimera texana relieves headache, fever, and cure wounds. In contrast, several species of plants were used to treat the same ailment or disease, such as Plumeria obtuse, Eleusine indica, Ficus benjamina, Ficus minahassae, Flacourtia rukam, Smilax bracteata, and Vitex negundo which were used to relieve muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women.
Generally, different indigenous groups in the country exhibited similar utilization patterns of their plants with medicinal value probably because their knowledge on traditional medicine is intrinsic among them and inherited from their great ancestors. Most of these tribal communities have strong beliefs on spirits which are thought to be protectors of the bountiful resources of nature, such as plants. Further, they believe that certain diseases are caused by supernatural beings. In Ibaloi and Kalanguya societies, the main cause of illness is claimed to be caused by dissatisfied spirits or a dead relative . Thus, rituals and certain ceremonies were performed relative to their utilization of medicinal plants which were believed to enhance the efficacy of these plants. In Rogongon, Higaonons usually perform rituals and offerings or "himata" before they can reveal or share their indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants because they believe that these plants are protected by spirits as well as to maintain its effectiveness.
Ethnobotany is perhaps the most important method to study the natural resources and their management by indigenous people . Unfortunately there is no provision or law for the protection of the indigenous knowledge or intellectual property rights of the native people. Today, herbal medicine plays an important role in rural areas and some locally produce drugs are still used as household remedies for various diseases. This is because modern medicine and healthcare services are very expensive. The use of traditional medicine (indigenous knowledge) is now globally recognized and accepted. In fact, some of these herbal drugs are marketed worldwide.
In this study most of the medicinal plants were gathered from the wild while some were found in the deeper parts of the forests. Some species were cultivated by few Higaonons as ornamental plants and crops such as Plumeria obtuse, Blumea balsamifera, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus blumei, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Nicotiana tabacum, Musa textilis, and Zea mays. Although the Higaonons practice sustainability in their use of the medicinal plants, still many of these important medicinal species are facing the danger of extinction. There are various factors considered as main threats to these medicinal plants that were recorded by interviewing the participants, like deforestation, land conversion or agricultural expansion, and natural calamities or disasters (drought). For example, some areas in Rogongon were affected by the tropical typhoon "Sendong," experienced landslides which destroyed their homes including their cultivated medicinal plants. Moreover, the Higaonons indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use was observed more on their older community members like the datus and their folk healers. Younger members of their community are less knowledgeable because they are taught by their elders only once they reach a certain age or rank in their society (such as a Datu or Chieftain). If this knowledge is not documented, the plants, especially those with high medicinal value, would eventually become extinct.
The Higaonons have managed to maintain the skills and knowledge that will protect its forested mountains. This was clearly exhibited in their own indigenous knowledge in traditional medicine using medicinal plants. Their belief that these plants are protected by supernatural beings ensures sustainable pattern of their medicinal plant use. A close similarities in the traditional use of plants as medicine was observed among the Higaonons with other tribal groups in the country. Probably because the indigenous knowledge is inherent to them and they share the same cultural traditions and also because this traditional medicine has been practiced by our indigenous communities for several decades. However, there is still a need to test the active component of these medicinal plants in terms of its pharmacologic effects especially the species collected in the wild and rarely used. In the other hand, there is also a need to conserve the medicinal plants in the area and in any other areas in the country as many important medicinal species of plants are facing danger of extinction due to the continued deforestation and land conversion in different areas in the Philippines. There is a need of coordination and cooperation among various agencies in the country for the achievement of well established protection of our biodiversity, as a whole, and ensures the transmission of this indigenous knowledge to the succeeding generations. This study records the ingenuity of the Higaonons on their use of various medicinal plants as well as their traditional healthcare practices.
The authors wish to thank all the informants who contributed to the accomplishment of this study; the Higaonons particularly the datus and the folk healers for sharing their valuable knowledge on the medicinal plants in Rogongon; and to the local officials especially to Barangay Captain Dimapinggun Comunug for allowing us to conduct this study.
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Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo: Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines
Lilybeth F. Olowa, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the Higaonon of Barangay Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines. FAMILY/ ENGLISH/ SCIENTIFIC COMMON NAME NAME Alliaceae Allium sativum L. Garlic Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Mango Annonaceae Annona muricata L. Soursop Annona squamosa L. Sugar apple Apocynaceae Plumeria obtuse L. White calachuche Voacanga - mindanaensis Merr. & Quis. Asteraceae/Compositae Acmella oleracea Spilanthes or Toothache plant Artemisia vulgaris L. Mugwort Bidens pilosa L. Beggar ticks Blumea balsamifera Camphor plant Chromolaena odorata Hagonoy Emilia sonchifolia (L.) Lilac DC. ex Wight tassel flower Lindheimera texana Lindheimer Gray & Engelm. daisy Pseudoelephantopus Tobacco spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. weed Bombacaceae Durio zibethinus Murr. Durian Boraginaceae Cordia dichotoma Soap berry Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Papaya Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Life plant pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia calabura L. Panama cherry Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta L. Cat's hair Jatropha curcas Tuba-tuba plant Fabace ae/Legumino seae Caesalpinia sappan Sappanwood Pterocarpus indicus Rosewood Willd. Graminae/Poaceae Cymbopogon citratu Lemon grass Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn Goosegrass Imperata cylindrica Grass Zea mays L. Corn Labiatae/ Lamiaceae Coleus amboinicus Oregano Coleus blumei Painted nettle/ Mayana Lauraceae Persea americana Gaertn. Alligator pear Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Hibiscus Meliaceae Swietenia mahogani Jacq. Mahogany Menispermaceae Tinospora reticulata Heavenly Elixir Mimosaceae Leucaena leucocephala Lam. Lead tree Moraceae Artocarpus Jack fruit heterophyllus Lam. Ficus benjamina Banyan tree Ficus gul Laut. & K Schum. Ficus minahassae Hagimit Tesym. & De Vr. Poi kilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. Moringaceae Moringa oleifera L. Horse radish tree Musaceae Musa paradisiaca Banana Musa textilis Nee Abaca Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Guava Syzygium malaccense (Linn.) Malay apple Merr. and Perry Palmae/Arecaceae Caryota rumphiana Mart. Fishtail palm Cocos nucifera L Coconut Piperaceae Piper porphyroneuria Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge Chinese orange Sabiaceae Meliosma sp. Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. Governor's plum/Ruka m Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum cainito L. Star apple Smilacaceae Smilax bracteata Presl. Sarsaparill a vine Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens L. Red pepper Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco Solanum verbascifolium L. - Verbenaceae Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L. Bastard vervain Vitex negundo L. Five-leaved chaste tree Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe Ginger Costus igneus - Curcuma longa L. Turmeric (Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae Sellaginella oregano Spikemoss and Sellaginella moellendorffii FAMILY/ LOCAL/ PLANT SCIENTIFIC HIGAONON PART NAME NAME USED Alliaceae Allium sativum L. Ahos stem (bulbs) Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Mangga leaves Annonaceae Annona muricata L. Abana/labana leaves Annona squamosa L. Atis leaves Apocynaceae Plumeria obtuse L. Kalatsutsi leaves Voacanga Nilo bark mindanaensis Merr. & Quis. Asteraceae/Compositae Acmella oleracea Beto-on flower Artemisia vulgaris L. Hilbas leaves Bidens pilosa L. Tuway-tuway roots or Kadagom Blumea balsamifera Gabon/Pahid leaves Chromolaena odorata Hagonoy leaves Emilia sonchifolia (L.) Pisaw-pisaw leaves DC. ex Wight Lindheimera texana Tae sa talapan leaves Gray & Engelm. Pseudoelephantopus Dila-sa-iro leaves spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. Bombacaceae Durio zibethinus Murr. Durian bark Boraginaceae Cordia dichotoma Anonang leaves Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Kapayas flower Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Kataka-taka/ leaves pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Danggaw Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia calabura L. Mansanitas bark (use with Makopa) Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta L. Tawa-tawa/ whole plant Mangagaw Jatropha curcas Tuba-tuba stem (with Gabon) Fabace ae/Legumino seae Caesalpinia sappan Sedocaw stem Pterocarpus indicus Narra/Tagok bark Willd. Graminae/Poaceae Cymbopogon citratu Tanglad leaves roots Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn Bila-bila/ whole plant Bangat with roots of Sida rhombifolia Imperata cylindrica Kogon roots Zea mays L. Mais young hairs Labiatae/ Lamiaceae Coleus amboinicus Kalabo/kanab leaves o (used with pisaw-pisaw) Coleus blumei Mayana leaves Lauraceae Persea americana Gaertn. Abukado leaves bark Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Antuwanga flower buds Meliaceae Swietenia mahogani Jacq. Mahogany seeds Menispermaceae Tinospora reticulata Panyawan/ stem Kamangyawan Mimosaceae Leucaena leucocephala Lam. Ipil-ipil seeds Moraceae Artocarpus Nangka (often leaves heterophyllus Lam. used with Bayabas and Kaimito) Ficus benjamina Salin-ubod or roots Matamsi (used with Banag & Lanagon) Ficus gul Laut. Kayakaya bark & K Schum. Ficus minahassae Logemit roots Tesym. & De Vr. leaves Poi kilospermum suaveolens Hanopol stem (Blume) Merr. Moringaceae Moringa oleifera L. Kamunggay leaves young leaves Musaceae Musa paradisiaca Saging young leaves (shoots) Musa textilis Nee Abaka young shoot Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Bayabas leaves bark Syzygium malaccense (Linn.) * Makopa/Tubal bark Merr. and Perry (often used with Bayabas and Avocado) Palmae/Arecaceae Caryota rumphiana Mart. Pugahan roots Cocos nucifera L Lubi husk Piperaceae Piper porphyroneuria Bagalbal stem Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge Limon leaves fruits Sabiaceae Meliosma sp. Kadabudabo stem Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. Lanagon (often roots used with Banag) Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum cainito L. Kaimito bark Smilacaceae Smilax bracteata Presl. Banag roots, bark Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens L. Sili/Katumbal leaves Nicotiana tabacum Tabako leaves stem Solanum verbascifolium L. Tabako-sa-lako roots Verbenaceae Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L. Kanding-kanding/ leaves Kabirobiro Vitex negundo L. Lagundi leaves Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe Luy-a stem (rhizome) Costus igneus Mantawasi bark Curcuma longa L. Dulaw/Kalaw Stem (rhizome) (Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae Sellaginella oregano Duknay roots and Sellaginella moellendorffii FAMILY/ PREPARATION AND MODE SCIENTIFIC OF APPLICATION NAME Alliaceae Allium sativum L. chew and eaten raw Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Annonaceae Annona muricata L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Annona squamosa L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Apocynaceae Plumeria obtuse L. roast partly, put in chest and back with a piece of cloth or "hampol" boil with water, drink thrice a day Voacanga boil with water, mindanaensis Merr. drink thrice a & Quis. day Asteraceae/Compositae Acmella oleracea chew, put in decaying teeth Artemisia vulgaris L. roast partly, squeeze, drink the sap Bidens pilosa L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Blumea balsamifera boil with water, drink thrice a day roast partly, squeeze, rub or massage the leaves into the body Chromolaena odorata pound, apply directly Emilia sonchifolia (L.) roast partly and DC. ex Wight squeeze, drink the sap or juice Lindheimera texana pound, put in Gray & Engelm. forehead with a piece of cloth or hampol Pseudoelephantopus boil with water, spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. drink thrice a day Bombacaceae Durio zibethinus Murr. boil with water, drink thrice a day Boraginaceae Cordia dichotoma boil with water, drink thrice a day Caricaceae Carica papaya L. roast, apply on the neck wrapped with a piece of cloth or "hampol" Crassulaceae Kalanchoe pound and apply pinnata (Lam.) Pers. directly Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia calabura L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Jatropha curcas roast partly, scrape, squeeze and rub or massage on the body roast partly. scrape, apply directly on joints with a cloth or "hampol" Fabace ae/Legumino seae Caesalpinia sappan boil with water, drink Pterocarpus indicus scrape and squeeze Willd. the sap, apply directly on gums Graminae/Poaceae Cymbopogon citratu boil with water, drink thrice a day crush or boil with water, put on decaying tooth Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn boil with water, use as first bath for baby and mother Imperata cylindrica boil with water, drink thrice a day Zea mays L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Labiatae/ Lamiaceae Coleus amboinicus roast partly and squeeze, drink the sap or juice thrice a day Coleus blumei pound until become soft and juicy, apply directly or topically roast partly and apply/put over the forehead while still hot Lauraceae Persea americana Gaertn. boil with water, drink thrice a day boil with water, drink thrice a day Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. pound until become soft and juicy, apply directly or topically Meliaceae Swietenia mahogani Jacq. chew and swallow the juice or sap Menispermaceae Tinospora reticulata boil with water, drink once a day latex or sap, squeeze over tooth Mimosaceae Leucaena leucocephala Lam. chew and eaten directly Moraceae Artocarpus boil with water, heterophyllus Lam. drink thrice a day Ficus benjamina boil with water, drink thrice a day Ficus gul Laut. boil with water, & K Schum. drink thrice a day Ficus minahassae boil with water, Tesym. & De Vr. drink thrice a day roast, pound, mix with oil, apply directly Poi kilospermum suaveolens cut a portion of (Blume) Merr. the stem to extract latex or sap then apply or drop on the eyes Moringaceae Moringa oleifera L. pound until soft and juicy, apply directly or topically boil with water, drink thrice a day Musaceae Musa paradisiaca pound until soft and juicy, squeeze the juice over the wound and apply bandage (piece of cloth) Musa textilis Nee roast partly and squeeze, drink the sap or juice thrice a day Myrtaceae Psidium guajava boil with water, use as an antiseptic wash boil with water, drink thrice a day Syzygium malaccense (Linn.) boil with water, Merr. and Perry drink thrice a day Palmae/Arecaceae Caryota rumphiana Mart. boil with water, drink thrice a day Cocos nucifera L scrape, apply topically on navel Piperaceae Piper porphyroneuria cut into small pieces, chew and used as lozenges cut into small pieces, chew and drink the sap or apply directly (for snake bites) Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge boil with water, drink thrice a day roast partly and Sabiaceae squeeze, drink the juice Meliosma sp. remove the bark, scrape the stem until soft and juicy, apply directly Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae on affected area Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. boil with water, drink thrice a day Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum cainito L. boil with water, Smilacaceae drink thrice a day Smilax bracteata Presl. boil with water, drink thrice a day Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens L. pound and rub on chest Nicotiana tabacum chew, allow to stay in mouth for several hours roast, mix with apog with aceite manzanilla, rub or apply directly on the navel Solanum verbascifolium L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Verbenaceae Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L. pound until soft and juicy, apply directly on affected areas Vitex negundo L. boil with water, drink thrice a day Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe pound and squeeze, drink the sap cut into small pieces and use as lozenges (candy), allow to stay in mouth for several hours Costus igneus scrape the stem, squeeze the sap or juice in the eyes Curcuma longa L. boil with water, drink thrice a day (Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae Sellaginella oregano pound and squeeze and Sellaginella the sap directly on fresh wounds or cuts moellendorffii FAMILY/ MEDICINAL USES SCIENTIFIC NAME Alliaceae Allium sativum L. lowers hypertension and as an antioxidant Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. treats diarrhea Annonaceae Annona muricata L. treats diarrhea Annona squamosa L. diarrhea; diabetes; and rheumatism Apocynaceae Plumeria obtuse L. relief of muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women diarrhea Voacanga relief of irregular mindanaensis Merr. or heavy menstruation & Quis. (bleeding) in women Asteraceae/Compositae Acmella oleracea produces numbing effect to tongue and gums for the relief of toothache Artemisia vulgaris L. relief of stomachache Bidens pilosa L. diarrhea and stomachache Blumea balsamifera Cough; colds; and fever lowers hypertension; mild stroke; gas pains; edema Chromolaena odorata abate bleeding on cuts or wounds Emilia sonchifolia (L.) common colds DC. ex Wight Lindheimera texana relief headache and Gray & Engelm. fever; and cure wounds Pseudoelephantopus cures cough; expel spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. phlegm Bombacaceae Durio zibethinus Murr. diarrhea with vomiting Boraginaceae Cordia dichotoma treat tuberculosis Caricaceae Carica papaya L. relief of inflamed tonsils Crassulaceae Kalanchoe heals wounds and pinnata (Lam.) Pers. boils Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia calabura L. treats diarrhea Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta L. lowers very high fever and dengue fever Jatropha curcas mild stroke and relief of flatulence or "panuhot" relief of rheumatism and arthritis Fabace ae/Legumino seae Caesalpinia sappan treat tuberculosis Pterocarpus indicus relief of swollen Willd. gums Graminae/Poaceae Cymbopogon citratu lowers hypertension relief of toothache Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn prevent diseases in newborn and muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" of mother Imperata cylindrica treats kidney infections; induces urination Zea mays L. stimulate urination in person with kidney infections Labiatae/ Lamiaceae Coleus amboinicus cures cough Coleus blumei heals wounds and bruises relief of sinusitis Lauraceae Persea americana Gaertn. treats diarrhea relief of stomach pains and vertigo Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. heals swellings, bruises; and as anti-inflammatory agent Meliaceae Swietenia mahogani Jacq. relief of stomachache Menispermaceae Tinospora reticulata stomachache; induces abortion relief of toothache Mimosaceae Leucaena leucocephala Lam. expel intestinal parasites or worms Moraceae Artocarpus treats diarrhea heterophyllus Lam. Ficus benjamina relief of muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women; appetite stimulant Ficus gul Laut. enhance milk production & K Schum. in women after giving birth Ficus minahassae enhance milk production Tesym. & De Vr. in lactating mothers; relief of muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women heals boils and bruises Poi kilospermum suaveolens relief or heals (Blume) Merr. sore eyes Moringaceae Moringa oleifera L. antibiotic for wounds, cuts and sores enhance the flow of milk in lactating mothers; induces normal urination Musaceae Musa paradisiaca abate bleeding wounds Musa textilis Nee treats diarrhea Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Wounds and scabies; and post-partum care in women diarrhea, vertigo Syzygium malaccense (Linn.) diarrhea; relief gas Merr. and Perry pains or stomach pains Palmae/Arecaceae Caryota rumphiana Mart. prevent muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women who gave birth Cocos nucifera L heal wounds on navel (newborn) Piperaceae Piper porphyroneuria relief of toothache eliminate poison, sting, or venom due to insect or snake bites Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge lowers hypertension cures cough and colds Sabiaceae Meliosma sp. antibiotic and abate bleeding in wounds or cuts Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. relief of muscle pains over fatigue or "bughat" Sapotaceae in women; stomach ulcer; lung infection; enhance menstruation in women after birth; and for anemia Chrysophyllum cainito L. treats diarrhea Smilacaceae Smilax bracteata Presl. relief of muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens L. cold comfort for asthmatic attack Nicotiana tabacum relief of toothache fast healing on the wound of the navel of newborns Solanum verbascifolium L. to stop excessive bleeding after a Verbenaceae miscarriage Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L. abate bleeding in fresh wounds or cuts; cures ulcers and sores Vitex negundo L. cures cough and relief muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe cures cough relief of sore throat Costus igneus relief of sore eyes Curcuma longa L. treats diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, arthritis; lowers hypertension (Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae Sellaginella oregano to abate bleeding and Sellaginella in wounds and cuts moellendorffii