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Medicinal plants used by the Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines.

Introduction

Since the beginning of human civilization people have used plants as medicine. The earliest uses are found in Babylonia circa 1770 BC in the code of Hammurabi and in ancient Egypt circa 1550 BC [15]. The relationship between man and plants is extremely important because plants affect every aspect of man's existence by providing a continuous and infinite source of varying materials such as food, timber, fibers, dyes, tools, and many others [2]. Popular knowledge of plants used by humans is based on thousands of years experience. By "trial and error," people learned how to recognize and use plants, including those with a magic-religious function. Until the middle of the 19th century, plants were the main therapeutic agents used by humans and even today their role in medicine is still relevant [3]. Many of today's drugs have been derived from plant resources.

In recent years, work on ethnobotanical knowledge worldwide has increased especially in some parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite many ethnobotanical studies were performed all over the world, in the Philippines, ethnobotanical documents are relatively few, with some focusing on well known indigenous groups like the Pinatubo Negritoes, the Tasadays in Mindanao, the Itawes of Cagayan, and the Ibaloi of Benguet province [9,5,16,11,1]. The Higaonon tribe is one of the 18 Lumad (a group of Non-Moro Indigenous Communities in Mindanao) ethno-linguistic groups in the Philippines. Lumads comprise 12 to 13 million or 18% of the Philippine population and are divided into 110 ethno-linguistic groups living in hinterlands, forests, lowlands, and coastal areas. The Higaonon tribe is located on the provinces of Bukidnon, Agusan del Sur, Misamis Oriental, and Rogongon (in Iligan City). Most Higaonons still have a rather traditional way of living where farming is the most important economic activity [14]. The term Higaonon is a combination of the root words: 'HIGA' which means 'to live' or 'to lay in bed,' 'GAON' which means 'mountain,' and 'ONON' which means 'people'. Thus people who live in the mountains--our Higaonon spiritual leaders and scholars--defined as "People in the Living Mountains" (UNAHI Mindanao Inc.). The Higaonons have lived and continue to live in their ancestral forest homes, undisturbed, managing the forest in a natural way, and protecting it against destruction by loggers who started cutting their way into the forested homeland more than sixty years ago[13]. This present paper was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plant utilization and healthcare practices among the Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City. Nowadays, indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants is fast diminishing because as more plants are lost, so is the knowledge of their value to humanity. Thus, the findings of this research would be of great help to ethnobotanists and ecologists in the future studies and provide insights on the management and conservation of medicinal plants in the area.

Materials And Methods

Rogongon is one of the 44 Barangays in Iligan City, Philippines. It is situated in the northeastern part of Iligan City, 34 kilometers away from the city proper, 1010 meters above sea level (masl), and having a land area of 38,000 hectares. It consists mainly of patches of residual forest and dipterocarp forest. This Barangay has 23 sitios or puroks inhabited by the Higaonons, Maranaos, a mixture of Higaonon-Maranao, and some Christians. There are access roads in the Barangay but can only be possible by riding a motorcycle or "habal-habal," about 1-2 hours ride from the city proper which costs 200-300 pesos for a one way ride.

A prior informed consent was done through their Barangay chairman and some local administrators. Six (6) residential settlements were selectively chosen as sampling sites, namely: Poblacion, Scaling, Bayanihan, Kasayanan, Malandog, and Tawagon because these areas are occupied mostly by the pure Higaonons. Information on demographic (age, gender, source of livelihood, etc.) and ethnobotanical knowledge (medicinal plants and its uses) were gathered from a series of interviews between January to March 2012 using a semi-structured questionnaire. The interviews were developed as informal conversations in order to let them speak spontaneously and not feel pressured. A total of 65 individuals (30-78 years old) were interviewed mostly elderly, "datus" (recognized community leader of the tribe), and some babaylans (local healers), who were identified by the "datus" and other local people as owning huge knowledge on medicinal plants. The data acquired for each plant comprises the common local name (Higaonon name), the part of the plant used, its preparation and mode of administration, and its uses or effects. Some of the plants were observed in situ during short field walks with the local people and samples were collected for scientific identification. Photos were taken especially the uncommon species of plants. Collected plants were pressed, dried, identified, and deposited in the herbarium. Plants were identified with the help of the literature [6,7,4,8].

Results And Discussion

Knowledge on the use of plants for traditional medicine is maintained and developed in all indigenous societies in the world. In the Philippines, this knowledge is inherited from their great ancestors through verbal communication. In this study, a total of 62 (two are fern allies) plant species distributed to 56 genera and 34 families were documented as medicinal plants utilized by the Higaonons to treat different kinds of diseases and ailments (refer to Table 1). Family Asteraceae/Compositae was represented by the highest number of species (8 species) followed by Moraceae (5 species), Graminae/Poaceae (4 species), and Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species). Families Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae or Leguminoseae, Labiatae/Lamiaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Palmae/Arecaceae, Verbenaceae, and Sellaginellaceae were represented by two (2) species each, while the rest of the families were all represented by one (1) species. It indicated that the area consists of considerable diversity of plant species of medicinal value. Moreover, because the area is far from the city and their access to modern healthcare is limited, thus, most of the Higaonons still resort to traditional healthcare practices.

Based on the responses, the common health problems in most Higaonons were stomach ailments (due to diarrhea), respiratory diseases (such as common colds and cough), wounds or cuts, and muscle pains or over fatigue in women or "bughat." The preparation and administration (application) of the medicinal plants vary based on the type of disease treated. The usual method of preparation was boiling the plant part (usually leaves) with water and by oral (drink the juice) administration. For immediate treatment of cuts or wounds, either the leaves (crushed) or stems (scraped and juice is extracted) were used and administered topically (externally). The leaves of some plants such as Plumeria obtuse, can be roasted (heated) partly and applied directly (or "hampol") on the chest and back for the relief of muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women, especially those who gave birth. Conversely, leaves of Artemisia vulgaris can be roasted (heated) partly and the juice or sap is extracted (squeezed) and taken internally for the treatment of stomachache; leaves of Emilia sonchifolia and Coleus amboinicus for curing common colds and cough; and young shoots of Musa textilis to treat diarrhea. Few were prepared from underground (modified) plant parts such as the bulbs of Allium sativum and the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa.

The most commonly used plant part for herbal preparations was the leaves. It indicated that the survival and continuity of useful medicinal plants in Rogongon is greatly maintained and protected by the Higaonons in their use mostly (only) of the leaves, thus, it ensures sustainability in the utilization of their medicinal plants. Stems, roots, bark, fruit or seeds and others were often used in their preparations. The use of either bark or roots in some of their preparations was observed to be related to reproductive healthcare in women. The bark of Voacanga mindanaensis can relieve irregular or heavy menstruation while the roots of Solanum verbascifolium abates excessive bleeding after a miscarriage; the roots or bark of Smilax bracteata and Caryota rumphiana relieve and prevent muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women especially after giving birth; and Ficus gul (bark) and Ficus minahassae (roots) enhance milk flow in lactating mothers.

Other indigenous groups in the Philippines exhibit similar utilization pattern of medicinal plant use with the Higaonons of Rogongon to treat certain diseases. For example, the findings on the medicinal plant utilization of the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao showed that the Kalanguyas used boiled leaves of Blumea balsamifera and Vitex negundo, and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale to cure cough; observed that Citrus microcarpa can lower hypertension; Acmella oleracea or Spillanthes acmella causes numbing effect on the gums and relieves toothache; and a person with urinary tract (kidney) infection would drink the boiled roots and young hairs of Imperata cylindrica and Zea mays, respectively, because these grasses stimulate normal urination [1]. Moreover, the Tasaday of Mindanao, Itawes of Cagayan, Ibalois of Tabaan Norte, and Kalanguyas of Ifugao also use Psidium guajava as an antiseptic wash for wounds and other skin diseases. Relative to other tribes in the country, plant mixtures were also noted to be more effective in treating a particular ailment, like the mixture of boiled leaves of Persea Americana, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Psidium guajava, Syzygium malaccense, and Chrysophyllum cainito is more effective to treat diarrhea. Other medicinal plants were utilized to treat two or more diseases like Annona squamosa which are used to treat diarrhea, diabetes, and rheumatism and Lindheimera texana relieves headache, fever, and cure wounds. In contrast, several species of plants were used to treat the same ailment or disease, such as Plumeria obtuse, Eleusine indica, Ficus benjamina, Ficus minahassae, Flacourtia rukam, Smilax bracteata, and Vitex negundo which were used to relieve muscle pains or over fatigue or "bughat" in women.

Generally, different indigenous groups in the country exhibited similar utilization patterns of their plants with medicinal value probably because their knowledge on traditional medicine is intrinsic among them and inherited from their great ancestors. Most of these tribal communities have strong beliefs on spirits which are thought to be protectors of the bountiful resources of nature, such as plants. Further, they believe that certain diseases are caused by supernatural beings. In Ibaloi and Kalanguya societies, the main cause of illness is claimed to be caused by dissatisfied spirits or a dead relative [2]. Thus, rituals and certain ceremonies were performed relative to their utilization of medicinal plants which were believed to enhance the efficacy of these plants. In Rogongon, Higaonons usually perform rituals and offerings or "himata" before they can reveal or share their indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants because they believe that these plants are protected by spirits as well as to maintain its effectiveness.

Ethnobotany is perhaps the most important method to study the natural resources and their management by indigenous people [10]. Unfortunately there is no provision or law for the protection of the indigenous knowledge or intellectual property rights of the native people. Today, herbal medicine plays an important role in rural areas and some locally produce drugs are still used as household remedies for various diseases. This is because modern medicine and healthcare services are very expensive. The use of traditional medicine (indigenous knowledge) is now globally recognized and accepted. In fact, some of these herbal drugs are marketed worldwide.

In this study most of the medicinal plants were gathered from the wild while some were found in the deeper parts of the forests. Some species were cultivated by few Higaonons as ornamental plants and crops such as Plumeria obtuse, Blumea balsamifera, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus blumei, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Nicotiana tabacum, Musa textilis, and Zea mays. Although the Higaonons practice sustainability in their use of the medicinal plants, still many of these important medicinal species are facing the danger of extinction. There are various factors considered as main threats to these medicinal plants that were recorded by interviewing the participants, like deforestation, land conversion or agricultural expansion, and natural calamities or disasters (drought). For example, some areas in Rogongon were affected by the tropical typhoon "Sendong," experienced landslides which destroyed their homes including their cultivated medicinal plants. Moreover, the Higaonons indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use was observed more on their older community members like the datus and their folk healers. Younger members of their community are less knowledgeable because they are taught by their elders only once they reach a certain age or rank in their society (such as a Datu or Chieftain). If this knowledge is not documented, the plants, especially those with high medicinal value, would eventually become extinct.

Conclusion:

The Higaonons have managed to maintain the skills and knowledge that will protect its forested mountains. This was clearly exhibited in their own indigenous knowledge in traditional medicine using medicinal plants. Their belief that these plants are protected by supernatural beings ensures sustainable pattern of their medicinal plant use. A close similarities in the traditional use of plants as medicine was observed among the Higaonons with other tribal groups in the country. Probably because the indigenous knowledge is inherent to them and they share the same cultural traditions and also because this traditional medicine has been practiced by our indigenous communities for several decades. However, there is still a need to test the active component of these medicinal plants in terms of its pharmacologic effects especially the species collected in the wild and rarely used. In the other hand, there is also a need to conserve the medicinal plants in the area and in any other areas in the country as many important medicinal species of plants are facing danger of extinction due to the continued deforestation and land conversion in different areas in the Philippines. There is a need of coordination and cooperation among various agencies in the country for the achievement of well established protection of our biodiversity, as a whole, and ensures the transmission of this indigenous knowledge to the succeeding generations. This study records the ingenuity of the Higaonons on their use of various medicinal plants as well as their traditional healthcare practices.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank all the informants who contributed to the accomplishment of this study; the Higaonons particularly the datus and the folk healers for sharing their valuable knowledge on the medicinal plants in Rogongon; and to the local officials especially to Barangay Captain Dimapinggun Comunug for allowing us to conduct this study.

References

[1.] Balangcod, T.D., 2001. The useful flora of Tabaan Norte, Tuba, Benguet Province, In: towards understanding peoples of the Cordillera: A review of research on history, governance, resources, institutions and living traditions. Cordillera Studies Center, UP Baguio., 3: 82-83.

[2.] Balangcod, T.D. and A.K.D. Balangcod, 2011. Ethnomedical knowledge of plants and healthcare practices among the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10(2): 221-238.

[3.] Camejo-Rodrigues, J., L. Ascensao, M.A. Bonet and J. Valles, 2003. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and aromatic pants in the Natural Park of "Serra de Sao Mamede" (Portugal). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89: 199-209.

[4.] Fernando, E.S., B.Y. Sun, M. H. Suh, H.Y. Kong and K.S. Koh, 2004. Flowering plants and ferns of Mt. Makiling. Korea: ASEAN-Korea Environmental Cooperation Unit (AKECU).

[5.] Fox, R.B., 1952. The Pinatubo Negritoes: their useful plants and material culture. Philippine Journal of Science, 81(3-4): 173-391.

[6.] Madulid, D.A., 1995. A pictorial cyclopedia of Philippine ornamental plants. Metro Manila, Philippines: Bookmark, Inc.

[7.] Madulid, D.A., 2001. Dictionary of plant names: Vol I. Local name-scientific name. Makati City, Philippines. The bookmark Inc.

[8.] Merrill, E.D., 1903. A dictionary of the plant names of the Philippine islands. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing.

[9.] Quisumbing, E., 1978. Medicinal plants of the Philippines. Katha Publishing Co, Inc.

[10.] Qureshi, R.A., M.A. Ghufran, S.A. Gilani, K. Sultana and M. Ashraf, 2007. Ethnobotanical studies of selected medicinal plants of Sudhan Gali and Ganga Chotti Hills, District Bagh, Azad Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39(7): 2275-2283.

[11.] Rocero, M. Sr. Ethnobotany of the Itawes of Cagayan Province Philippines. National Museum, Manila, Philippines.

[12.] UNAHI Mindanao Incorporated. History of the Higaonon Tribe.

[13.] www.aliawanenterprises.com. The last Tribes from Mindanao, the Higaonon, People of the Living Mountains.

[14.] www.en.wikipilipinas.org. Lumad Peoples.

[15.] www.wwfpak.org. What is Ethnobotany?

[16.] Yen, D.H. and H.G. Guttierrez, 1974. The ethnobotany of the Tasaday: the useful plants. Philippine Journal of Science, 103(2): 97-140.

Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City

Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo: Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines

Corresponding Authors

Lilybeth F. Olowa, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City

E-mail: lilybetholowa@gmail.com, cgdemayo@gmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the Higaonon
of Barangay Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao,
Philippines.

FAMILY/                           ENGLISH/
SCIENTIFIC                        COMMON
NAME                              NAME

Alliaceae

Allium sativum L.                 Garlic

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica L.               Mango

Annonaceae

Annona muricata L.                Soursop

Annona squamosa L.                Sugar
                                  apple

Apocynaceae

Plumeria obtuse L.                White
                                  calachuche

Voacanga                          -
mindanaensis Merr.
& Quis.

Asteraceae/Compositae

Acmella oleracea                  Spilanthes or
                                  Toothache
                                  plant

Artemisia vulgaris L.             Mugwort

Bidens pilosa L.                  Beggar ticks

Blumea balsamifera                Camphor plant

Chromolaena odorata               Hagonoy

Emilia sonchifolia (L.)           Lilac
  DC. ex Wight                    tassel
                                  flower
Lindheimera texana                Lindheimer
  Gray & Engelm.                  daisy

Pseudoelephantopus                Tobacco
  spicatus (Juss.) Rohr.          weed

Bombacaceae

Durio zibethinus Murr.            Durian

Boraginaceae

Cordia dichotoma                  Soap berry

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L.                  Papaya

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe                         Life plant
  pinnata (Lam.) Pers.

Elaeocarpaceae

Muntingia calabura L.             Panama
                                  cherry

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia hirta L.                Cat's hair

Jatropha curcas                   Tuba-tuba
                                  plant

Fabace ae/Legumino seae

Caesalpinia sappan                Sappanwood

Pterocarpus indicus               Rosewood
  Willd.

Graminae/Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratu                Lemon grass

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn       Goosegrass

Imperata cylindrica               Grass

Zea mays L.                       Corn

Labiatae/ Lamiaceae

Coleus amboinicus                 Oregano

Coleus blumei                     Painted
                                  nettle/
                                  Mayana

Lauraceae

Persea americana Gaertn.          Alligator pear

Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.         Hibiscus

Meliaceae

Swietenia mahogani Jacq.          Mahogany

Menispermaceae

Tinospora reticulata              Heavenly Elixir

Mimosaceae

Leucaena leucocephala Lam.        Lead tree

Moraceae

Artocarpus                        Jack fruit
  heterophyllus Lam.

Ficus benjamina                   Banyan tree

Ficus gul Laut.
  & K Schum.

Ficus minahassae                  Hagimit
  Tesym. & De Vr.

Poi kilospermum suaveolens
  (Blume) Merr.

Moringaceae

Moringa oleifera L.               Horse radish tree

Musaceae

Musa paradisiaca                  Banana

Musa textilis Nee                 Abaca

Myrtaceae

Psidium guajava                   Guava

Syzygium malaccense (Linn.)       Malay apple
  Merr. and Perry

Palmae/Arecaceae

Caryota rumphiana Mart.           Fishtail palm

Cocos nucifera L                  Coconut

Piperaceae

Piper porphyroneuria

Rutaceae

Citrus microcarpa Bunge           Chinese orange

Sabiaceae

Meliosma sp.

Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae

Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.     Governor's
                                  plum/Ruka m
Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum cainito L.          Star apple
Smilacaceae
Smilax bracteata Presl.           Sarsaparill a vine

Solanaceae

Capsicum frutescens L.            Red pepper

Nicotiana tabacum                 Tobacco

Solanum verbascifolium L.         -

Verbenaceae

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L.     Bastard
                                  vervain

Vitex negundo L.                  Five-leaved
                                  chaste tree

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber officinale Roscoe        Ginger

Costus igneus                     -

Curcuma longa L.                  Turmeric

(Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae

Sellaginella oregano              Spikemoss
  and Sellaginella

moellendorffii

FAMILY/                           LOCAL/              PLANT
SCIENTIFIC                        HIGAONON            PART
NAME                              NAME                USED

Alliaceae

Allium sativum L.                 Ahos                stem
                                                      (bulbs)

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica L.               Mangga              leaves

Annonaceae

Annona muricata L.                Abana/labana        leaves

Annona squamosa L.                Atis                leaves

Apocynaceae

Plumeria obtuse L.                Kalatsutsi          leaves

Voacanga                          Nilo                bark
mindanaensis Merr.
& Quis.

Asteraceae/Compositae

Acmella oleracea                  Beto-on             flower

Artemisia vulgaris L.             Hilbas              leaves

Bidens pilosa L.                  Tuway-tuway         roots
                                  or Kadagom

Blumea balsamifera                Gabon/Pahid         leaves

Chromolaena odorata               Hagonoy             leaves

Emilia sonchifolia (L.)           Pisaw-pisaw         leaves
  DC. ex Wight

Lindheimera texana                Tae sa talapan      leaves
  Gray & Engelm.

Pseudoelephantopus                Dila-sa-iro         leaves
  spicatus (Juss.) Rohr.

Bombacaceae

Durio zibethinus Murr.            Durian              bark

Boraginaceae

Cordia dichotoma                  Anonang             leaves

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L.                  Kapayas             flower

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe                         Kataka-taka/        leaves
  pinnata (Lam.) Pers.            Danggaw

Elaeocarpaceae

Muntingia calabura L.             Mansanitas          bark
                                  (use with
                                  Makopa)

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia hirta L.                Tawa-tawa/          whole plant
                                  Mangagaw

Jatropha curcas                   Tuba-tuba           stem
                                  (with Gabon)

Fabace ae/Legumino seae

Caesalpinia sappan                Sedocaw             stem

Pterocarpus indicus               Narra/Tagok         bark
  Willd.

Graminae/Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratu                Tanglad             leaves

                                                      roots

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn       Bila-bila/          whole plant
                                  Bangat with
                                  roots of Sida
                                  rhombifolia
Imperata cylindrica               Kogon               roots

Zea mays L.                       Mais                young hairs

Labiatae/ Lamiaceae

Coleus amboinicus                 Kalabo/kanab        leaves
                                  o (used with
                                  pisaw-pisaw)

Coleus blumei                     Mayana              leaves

Lauraceae

Persea americana Gaertn.          Abukado             leaves

                                                      bark

Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.         Antuwanga           flower buds

Meliaceae

Swietenia mahogani Jacq.          Mahogany            seeds

Menispermaceae

Tinospora reticulata              Panyawan/           stem
                                  Kamangyawan

Mimosaceae

Leucaena leucocephala Lam.        Ipil-ipil           seeds

Moraceae

Artocarpus                        Nangka (often       leaves
  heterophyllus Lam.              used with
                                  Bayabas and
                                  Kaimito)
Ficus benjamina                   Salin-ubod or       roots
                                  Matamsi
                                  (used with
                                  Banag &
                                  Lanagon)
Ficus gul Laut.                   Kayakaya            bark
  & K Schum.

Ficus minahassae                  Logemit             roots
  Tesym. & De Vr.

                                                      leaves

Poi kilospermum suaveolens        Hanopol             stem
  (Blume) Merr.

Moringaceae

Moringa oleifera L.               Kamunggay           leaves

                                                      young leaves

Musaceae

Musa paradisiaca                  Saging              young leaves
                                                      (shoots)

Musa textilis Nee                 Abaka               young shoot

Myrtaceae

Psidium guajava                   Bayabas             leaves

                                                      bark

Syzygium malaccense (Linn.)       * Makopa/Tubal      bark
  Merr. and Perry                 (often used with
                                  Bayabas and
                                  Avocado)

Palmae/Arecaceae

Caryota rumphiana Mart.           Pugahan             roots

Cocos nucifera L                  Lubi                husk

Piperaceae

Piper porphyroneuria              Bagalbal            stem

Rutaceae

Citrus microcarpa Bunge           Limon               leaves

                                                      fruits
Sabiaceae

Meliosma sp.                      Kadabudabo          stem

Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae

Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.     Lanagon (often      roots
                                  used with Banag)
Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum cainito L.          Kaimito             bark
Smilacaceae
Smilax bracteata Presl.           Banag               roots, bark

Solanaceae

Capsicum frutescens L.            Sili/Katumbal       leaves

Nicotiana tabacum                 Tabako              leaves

                                                      stem

Solanum verbascifolium L.         Tabako-sa-lako      roots

Verbenaceae

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L.     Kanding-kanding/    leaves
                                  Kabirobiro

Vitex negundo L.                  Lagundi             leaves

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber officinale Roscoe        Luy-a               stem
                                                      (rhizome)

Costus igneus                     Mantawasi           bark

Curcuma longa L.                  Dulaw/Kalaw         Stem
                                                      (rhizome)

(Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae

Sellaginella oregano              Duknay              roots
  and Sellaginella

moellendorffii

FAMILY/                           PREPARATION AND MODE
SCIENTIFIC                        OF APPLICATION
NAME

Alliaceae

Allium sativum L.                 chew and eaten raw

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica L.               boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a
                                  day

Annonaceae

Annona muricata L.                boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a
                                  day
Annona squamosa L.                boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a
                                  day

Apocynaceae

Plumeria obtuse L.                roast partly, put
                                  in chest and back
                                  with a piece of
                                  cloth or "hampol"
                                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day
Voacanga                          boil with water,
mindanaensis Merr.                drink thrice a
& Quis.                           day

Asteraceae/Compositae

Acmella oleracea                  chew, put in
                                  decaying teeth

Artemisia vulgaris L.             roast partly,
                                  squeeze, drink the
                                  sap
Bidens pilosa L.                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Blumea balsamifera                boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

                                  roast partly,
                                  squeeze, rub or
                                  massage the leaves
                                  into the body
Chromolaena odorata               pound, apply
                                  directly
Emilia sonchifolia (L.)           roast partly and
  DC. ex Wight                    squeeze, drink the
                                  sap or juice
Lindheimera texana                pound, put in
  Gray & Engelm.                  forehead with a
                                  piece of cloth or
                                  hampol
Pseudoelephantopus                boil with water,
  spicatus (Juss.) Rohr.          drink thrice a day

Bombacaceae

Durio zibethinus Murr.            boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Boraginaceae

Cordia dichotoma                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L.                  roast, apply on the
                                  neck wrapped with
                                  a piece of cloth or
                                  "hampol"

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe                         pound and apply
  pinnata (Lam.) Pers.            directly

Elaeocarpaceae

Muntingia calabura L.             boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia hirta L.                boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Jatropha curcas                   roast partly,
                                  scrape, squeeze and
                                  rub or massage on
                                  the body
                                  roast partly. scrape,
                                  apply directly on
                                  joints with a cloth
                                  or "hampol"

Fabace ae/Legumino seae

Caesalpinia sappan                boil with water,
                                  drink
Pterocarpus indicus               scrape and squeeze
  Willd.                          the sap, apply
                                  directly on gums

Graminae/Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratu                boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

                                  crush or boil
                                  with water, put on
                                  decaying tooth
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn       boil with water,
                                  use as first bath
                                  for baby and mother

Imperata cylindrica               boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Zea mays L.                       boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Labiatae/ Lamiaceae

Coleus amboinicus                 roast partly and
                                  squeeze, drink
                                  the sap or juice
                                  thrice a day
Coleus blumei                     pound until become
                                  soft and juicy,
                                  apply directly or
                                  topically
                                  roast partly and
                                  apply/put over the
                                  forehead while still
                                  hot

Lauraceae

Persea americana Gaertn.          boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

                                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.         pound until become
                                  soft and juicy,
                                  apply directly or
                                  topically

Meliaceae

Swietenia mahogani Jacq.          chew and swallow
                                  the juice or sap

Menispermaceae

Tinospora reticulata              boil with water,
                                  drink once a day
                                  latex or sap,
                                  squeeze over tooth

Mimosaceae

Leucaena leucocephala Lam.        chew and eaten
                                  directly

Moraceae

Artocarpus                        boil with water,
  heterophyllus Lam.              drink thrice a day

Ficus benjamina                   boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Ficus gul Laut.                   boil with water,
  & K Schum.                      drink thrice a day

Ficus minahassae                  boil with water,
  Tesym. & De Vr.                 drink thrice a day

                                  roast, pound, mix
                                  with oil, apply
                                  directly
Poi kilospermum suaveolens        cut a portion of
  (Blume) Merr.                   the stem to extract
                                  latex or sap then apply
                                  or drop on the eyes

Moringaceae

Moringa oleifera L.               pound until soft
                                  and juicy, apply
                                  directly or topically
                                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Musaceae

Musa paradisiaca                  pound until soft and
                                  juicy, squeeze the
                                  juice over the wound
                                  and apply bandage
                                  (piece of cloth)
Musa textilis Nee                 roast partly and
                                  squeeze, drink the
                                  sap or juice thrice
                                  a day

Myrtaceae

Psidium guajava                   boil with water,
                                  use as an antiseptic
                                  wash
                                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day
Syzygium malaccense (Linn.)       boil with water,
  Merr. and Perry                 drink thrice a day

Palmae/Arecaceae

Caryota rumphiana Mart.           boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Cocos nucifera L                  scrape, apply
                                  topically on navel
Piperaceae

Piper porphyroneuria              cut into small pieces,
                                  chew and used as
                                  lozenges
                                  cut into small pieces,
                                  chew and drink the
                                  sap or apply directly
                                  (for snake bites)

Rutaceae

Citrus microcarpa Bunge           boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day
                                  roast partly and
Sabiaceae                         squeeze, drink the juice

Meliosma sp.                      remove the bark, scrape
                                  the stem until soft
                                  and juicy, apply directly

Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae         on affected area

Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.     boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day
Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum cainito L.          boil with water,
Smilacaceae                       drink thrice a day
Smilax bracteata Presl.           boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Solanaceae

Capsicum frutescens L.            pound and rub on chest

Nicotiana tabacum                 chew, allow to stay
                                  in mouth for several
                                  hours
                                  roast, mix with apog
                                  with aceite manzanilla,
                                  rub or apply directly
                                  on the navel
Solanum verbascifolium L.         boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day
Verbenaceae

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L.     pound until soft and
                                  juicy, apply directly
                                  on affected areas
Vitex negundo L.                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber officinale Roscoe        pound and squeeze,
                                  drink the sap
                                  cut into small pieces
                                  and use as lozenges
                                  (candy), allow to stay
                                  in mouth for several hours
Costus igneus                     scrape the stem,
                                  squeeze the sap or
                                  juice in the eyes
Curcuma longa L.                  boil with water,
                                  drink thrice a day

(Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae

Sellaginella oregano              pound and squeeze
  and Sellaginella                the sap directly on
                                  fresh wounds or cuts
moellendorffii

FAMILY/                           MEDICINAL USES
SCIENTIFIC
NAME

Alliaceae

Allium sativum L.                 lowers hypertension
                                  and as an antioxidant

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica L.               treats diarrhea

Annonaceae

Annona muricata L.                treats diarrhea

Annona squamosa L.                diarrhea; diabetes;
                                  and rheumatism

Apocynaceae

Plumeria obtuse L.                relief of muscle
                                  pains or over
                                  fatigue or "bughat"
                                  in women diarrhea

Voacanga                          relief of irregular
mindanaensis Merr.                or heavy menstruation
& Quis.                           (bleeding) in women

Asteraceae/Compositae

Acmella oleracea                  produces numbing
                                  effect to tongue and
                                  gums for the relief
                                  of toothache
Artemisia vulgaris L.             relief of
                                  stomachache

Bidens pilosa L.                  diarrhea and
                                  stomachache

Blumea balsamifera                Cough; colds; and
                                  fever

                                  lowers hypertension;
                                  mild stroke; gas
                                  pains; edema

Chromolaena odorata               abate bleeding on
                                  cuts or wounds
Emilia sonchifolia (L.)           common colds
  DC. ex Wight

Lindheimera texana                relief headache and
  Gray & Engelm.                  fever; and cure
                                  wounds

Pseudoelephantopus                cures cough; expel
  spicatus (Juss.) Rohr.          phlegm

Bombacaceae

Durio zibethinus Murr.            diarrhea with
                                  vomiting

Boraginaceae

Cordia dichotoma                  treat tuberculosis

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L.                  relief of inflamed
                                  tonsils

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe                         heals wounds and
  pinnata (Lam.) Pers.            boils

Elaeocarpaceae

Muntingia calabura L.             treats diarrhea

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia hirta L.                lowers very high
                                  fever and dengue
                                  fever

Jatropha curcas                   mild stroke and
                                  relief of flatulence
                                  or "panuhot"

                                  relief of rheumatism
                                  and arthritis

Fabace ae/Legumino seae

Caesalpinia sappan                treat tuberculosis

Pterocarpus indicus               relief of swollen
  Willd.                          gums

Graminae/Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratu                lowers hypertension

                                  relief of toothache

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn       prevent diseases in
                                  newborn and muscle
                                  pains or over fatigue
                                  or "bughat" of mother
Imperata cylindrica               treats kidney
                                  infections; induces
                                  urination
Zea mays L.                       stimulate urination
                                  in person with
                                  kidney infections

Labiatae/ Lamiaceae

Coleus amboinicus                 cures cough

Coleus blumei                     heals wounds and
                                  bruises

                                  relief of sinusitis

Lauraceae

Persea americana Gaertn.          treats diarrhea

                                  relief of stomach
                                  pains and vertigo

Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.         heals swellings,
                                  bruises; and as
                                  anti-inflammatory
                                  agent

Meliaceae

Swietenia mahogani Jacq.          relief of
                                  stomachache

Menispermaceae

Tinospora reticulata              stomachache; induces
                                  abortion
                                  relief of toothache

Mimosaceae

Leucaena leucocephala Lam.        expel intestinal
                                  parasites or worms

Moraceae

Artocarpus                        treats diarrhea
  heterophyllus Lam.

Ficus benjamina                   relief of muscle
                                  pains or over fatigue
                                  or "bughat" in women;
                                  appetite stimulant

Ficus gul Laut.                   enhance milk production
  & K Schum.                      in women after
                                  giving birth
Ficus minahassae                  enhance milk production
  Tesym. & De Vr.                 in lactating mothers;
                                  relief of muscle pains
                                  or over fatigue
                                  or "bughat" in women
                                  heals boils and bruises

Poi kilospermum suaveolens        relief or heals
  (Blume) Merr.                   sore eyes

Moringaceae

Moringa oleifera L.               antibiotic for wounds,
                                  cuts and sores

                                  enhance the flow of
                                  milk in lactating
                                  mothers; induces
                                  normal urination

Musaceae

Musa paradisiaca                  abate bleeding wounds

Musa textilis Nee                 treats diarrhea

Myrtaceae

Psidium guajava                   Wounds and scabies;
                                  and post-partum
                                  care in women
                                  diarrhea, vertigo

Syzygium malaccense (Linn.)       diarrhea; relief gas
  Merr. and Perry                 pains or stomach pains

Palmae/Arecaceae

Caryota rumphiana Mart.           prevent muscle pains
                                  or over fatigue
                                  or "bughat" in women
                                  who gave birth
Cocos nucifera L                  heal wounds on navel
                                  (newborn)
Piperaceae

Piper porphyroneuria              relief of toothache

                                  eliminate poison,
                                  sting, or venom due
                                  to insect or snake bites
Rutaceae

Citrus microcarpa Bunge           lowers hypertension

                                  cures cough and colds
Sabiaceae

Meliosma sp.                      antibiotic and abate
                                  bleeding in wounds or
                                  cuts

Salicaceae/Flacourtiaceae

Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.     relief of muscle pains
                                  over fatigue or "bughat"
Sapotaceae                        in women; stomach ulcer;
                                  lung infection; enhance
                                  menstruation in women
                                  after birth; and for
                                  anemia
Chrysophyllum cainito L.          treats diarrhea
Smilacaceae
Smilax bracteata Presl.           relief of muscle pains
                                  or over fatigue
                                  or "bughat" in women

Solanaceae

Capsicum frutescens L.            cold comfort for
                                  asthmatic attack
Nicotiana tabacum                 relief of toothache

                                  fast healing on the
                                  wound of the navel
                                  of newborns

Solanum verbascifolium L.         to stop excessive
                                  bleeding after a
Verbenaceae                       miscarriage

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L.     abate bleeding in fresh
                                  wounds or cuts; cures
                                  ulcers and sores
Vitex negundo L.                  cures cough and relief
                                  muscle pains or over
                                  fatigue or "bughat"
                                  in women

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber officinale Roscoe        cures cough
                                  relief of sore throat

Costus igneus                     relief of sore eyes

Curcuma longa L.                  treats diarrhea, abdominal
                                  pain, flatulence,
                                  arthritis; lowers
                                  hypertension
(Fern allies) Sellaginellaceae

Sellaginella oregano              to abate bleeding
  and Sellaginella                in wounds and cuts

moellendorffii
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Olowa, Lilybeth F.; Torres, Mark Anthony J.; Aranico, Eduardo C.; Demayo, Cesar G.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PHIL
Date:Apr 1, 2012
Words:5142
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