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Medical malpractice and respondeat superior. (Review Articles).



ABSTRACT: The legal concept of vicarious liability The tort doctrine that imposes responsibility upon one person for the failure of another, with whom the person has a special relationship (such as Parent and Child,  and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior [Latin, Let the master answer.] A common-law doctrine that makes an employer liable for the actions of an employee when the actions take place within the scope of employment.

The common-law doctrine of respondeat superior
 occurs when the servant (employee) commits a tort or civil wrong within the scope of employment and the master (employer) is held liable although the master may have done nothing wrong. In this article, legal cases are presented to emphasize the importance of these issues, which frequently involve physician extenders and physicians as employers in our current health care climate. Physicians need to be aware of this doctrine in the supervision of their staff and their day-to-day medical practice.

**********

MALPRACTICE is defined as failure to provide professional services (job) professional services - A department of a supplier providing consultancy and programming manpower for the supplier's products.  with the skill usually exhibited by responsible and careful members of the profession, resulting in injury, loss, or damage to the party contracting for those services. Although accountants, lawyers, and other professionals can be charged with malpractice, the term is most commonly associated with medical professionals. (1)

Most medical malpractice Improper, unskilled, or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician, dentist, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care professional.  suits are filed as result of negligence (ie, a type of tort or civil wrong) - Negligence is defined by what a reason ably prudent person would or would not do in the same or similar circumstance. Negligence can result from the individual medical provider or from some type of agency relationship that exists between two or more health care providers. In general, when we discuss the relationship between agency and malpractice, we refer to the concept of vicarious liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior.

Under agency principles, the concept of vicarious liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior occurs when the servant (employee; commits a tort within the scope of employment and the master (employer) is held liable though the master may have done nothing wrong. (2)

Once it is determined that the man at work is a servant, the master becomes subject to vicarious liability for his torts. But his vicarious liability, for conduct which is in no way his own, extends to any and all tortious Wrongful; conduct of such character as to subject the actor to civil liability under Tort Law.

In order to establish that a particular act was tortious, a plaintiff must prove that an actionable wrong existed and that damages ensued from that wrong.
 conduct of the servant which is within the "scope of the employment."

... It has been said in general, the servant's conduct is within the scope of his job or employment if it is of the kind which he is employed to perform, occurs substantially within the authorized limits of time and space and is actuated at least in part, by a purpose to serve the master.

The fact that the servant's act is expressly forbidden by the master, or is done in a manner which he has prohibited, is to be considered in determining what the servant has been hired to do, but it is usually not conclusive and does not in itself prevent the act from being within the scope of employment. A master cannot escape liability merely by ordering his servant to act carefully. (3)

Under Tennessee law, which is in accord with that of most states, a master can be liable for his servant's negligence solely by Respondeat Superior. (4) That doctrine is based on the principle "that the wrong of the agent is the wrong of his employer. (5)

The Doctrine of Respondeat Superior has been used in determining a medical provider's negligence. Tennessee Code Annotated Section 29-26-115 (1980) states that to hold a doctor or other provider liable individually for malpractice, one must show by competent expert testimony Testimony about a scientific, technical, or professional issue given by a person qualified to testify because of familiarity with the subject or special training in the field.  "(1) the standard of care, (2) that the defendant deviated from that standard, and (3) that as a proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.

prox·i·mate
adj.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.



proximate

immediate; nearest.
 result of the defendant's negligent act or omission, the plaintiff suffered injuries which would not otherwise have occurred." (6)

Although many factors lead to a malpractice claim, in the past the major focus by malpractice insurance Noun 1. malpractice insurance - insurance purchased by physicians and hospitals to cover the cost of being sued for malpractice; "obstetricians have to pay high rates for malpractice insurance"  carriers has been on improving communication regarding services between individual provider and patient as well as adequately documenting these services in the medical record. (7) However, because of the recent changes in health care, the liability of many health care providers has been assigned as a result of their employment relationship with a third party. A physician or other health care provider may be found just as liable for a negative medical outcome that results from another health care provider's negligence. Liability attaches when it is determined that the medical provider exercised control over the negligent provider's means and methods of work. A medical provider's liability for others is solely referred to as the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior and when used is similar to the concept of master and servant An archaic generic legal phrase that is used to describe the relationship arising between an employer and an employee.

A servant is anyone who works for another individual, the master, with or without pay.
 or employer and employee under general agency principles. (8)

TENNESSEE CASES

To understand this Doctrine and its effect on malpractice actions against health care providers in Tennessee, one must review past and current Tennessee court decisions. In Meadows v Patterson, (9) Dr. Patterson performed an appendectomy Appendectomy Definition

Appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix. The appendix is a worm-shaped hollow pouch attached to the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine.
 on Mr. Meadows. After the operation and through the night, the defendant was placed in the care of Miss Nipper nipper

a tool for clipping, e.g. for claws and beaks of small cagebirds.


hoof nipper
a pincer-like tool with the blades curved in to face each other at the ends which are composed of two chisel edges opposing one another.
, a graduate and experienced nurse. The next morning when he regained consciousness, he discovered that his eye had been injured. It appeared that defendant had injured himself during the night with his fingernail fin·ger·nail
n.
The nail on a finger.
. The plaintiff sued the doctor claiming he remained under the defendant's control during the night. The courts found the following:

The rule is that a hospital nurse, although not in the regular employ of the operating surgeon, is under his special supervision and control during the operation and the relation of master and servant, or principal and agent, exists during the operation and the surgeon is responsible for the negligence of the nurse. But, in the absence of special contract, the surgeon is not responsible for the negligent act of a nurse in the after treatment of the patient following the operation unless it appears that the surgeon assumes to continue his control and direction of the nurse following the operation. (9)

In Rural Educational Association v. Bush, (10) the defendant operated a hospital where plaintiff was admitted for examination and treatment. Several physicians were on the "resident staff' of the hospital. The doctors found the plaintiff had mastoiditis mastoiditis

Inflammation of the mastoid process, a bony projection just behind the ear, almost always due to otitis media. It may spread into small cavities in the bone, blocking their drainage. Very severe cases infect the whole middle ear cleft.
 and recommended an operation. Plaintiff accepted. After recovery from the mastoid mastoid /mas·toid/ (mas´toid)
1. breast-shaped.

2. mastoid process.

3. pertaining to the mastoid process.


mas·toid
n.
The mastoid process.
 operation, further operation was indicated on the abdomen. The operations took place in the surgery rooms of the defendant, Dr. Schuler. The defendant furnished all facilities and all personnel. The nurse and anesthetist anesthetist /anes·the·tist/ (ah-nes´the-tist) a nurse or technician trained to administer anesthetics.

a·nes·the·tist
n.
A person trained to administer anesthetics.
 were among the attendants. They were servant and employees of the defendant. After the abdominal surgery The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. Surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with separately in connection with the description of that organ (see stomach, kidney, liver, etc. , the plaintiff did not recover as expected. He became desperately sick. He was again sent to surgery, and the operation disclosed a gangrenous gangrenous

pertaining to, marked by, or of the nature of gangrene.


gangrenous cellulitis
gangrenous necrosis of the skin of the thorax and thighs of chickens of 1 to 4 months of age caused by Clostridium septicum
 intestine caused by the sponge that had been left in the intestine. The court found that the nurse was the agent of the defendant hospital rather than the doctor. The court stated:

When a nurse acts under the orders of a private physician in matters involving professional skill and decision, she is absolved from liability for her acts. Many acts of a nurse, however, do not result from the orders of the physician. Furnishing proper personnel and equipment for an operation are duties of a hospital. The selection of proper sponges was the duty of the Hospital. Counting the sponges so as to see that no sponge was left in the body of the patient required no special professional skill or decision of the surgeon. Indeed, Dr. Schuler relied upon the sponge count of the nurse. (10)

In French v Fischer, (11) Rebecca was born May 2, 1959, at Methodist Hospital Methodist Hospital is the name of numerous medical institutions.
  • Methodist Hospital of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
  • Methodist Hospital (Omaha, Nebraska)
  • The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas
See also
  • List of hospitals in Kentucky
, Memphis, Tennessee For the ancient Egyptian capital, see .

Memphis is a city in the southwest corner of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. Memphis rises above the Mississippi River on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff just below the mouth of the Wolf River.
. On May 17, 1959, she began to have severe vomiting attacks. Her parents called in Dr. Allen, who diagnosed the baby's ailment ail·ment
n.
A physical or mental disorder, especially a mild illness.
 as pyloric stenosis Pyloric Stenosis Definition

Pyloric stenosis refers to a narrowing of the passage between the stomach and the small intestine. The condition, which affects infants during the first several weeks of life, can be corrected effectively with surgery.
 and advised the parents that an operation was needed. The operation was scheduled and done that evening at Baptist Memorial Hospital. During the operation, the doctor sent the circulating nurse circulating nurse A nurse who participates in a surgical procedure, coordinating, planning and implementing all the nurse-related activities during an operation, but who has not scrubbed with the surgical team itself. See Scrub nurse.  out of the operating room operating room
n. Abbr. OR
A room equipped for performing surgical operations.
. The circulating nurse had difficulty completing the job he gave to her and was gone for most of the operation. The scrub nurse scrub nurse
n.
A nurse who assists the surgeon in the operating room.


scrub nurse A nurse–or technician who participates in a sterile surgical operation, prepares sterile supplies and passes them to the surgeon,
 verified the count of sponges used and removed from the incision, but she made a mistake and one of the sponges remained. On June 2, 1959, Rebecca was taken to LeBonheur Hospital because of problems. She was found to have a sponge in her abdomen and had to have two thirds of her small intestine small intestine

Long, narrow, convoluted tube in which most digestion takes place. It extends 22–25 ft (6.7–7.6 m), from the stomach to the large intestine.
 removed. Her parents filed suit. The courts stated that Tennessee had elected to follow the cases, which made the counting of sponges an administrative function and not the result of the surgeon's control over the operation. However, the court did find that there was negligence individually on the part of both the doctor and the scrub nurse. The doctor was held for his own individual negligence and Baptist Memorial Hospital was held for negligence of the scrub nurse under the theory of vicarious liability. (11)

In McCay v Mitchell, (12) a malpractice action was initiated in the case of a child who lost a portion of her arm after an injury on a swing. On June 9, 1962, the child fell from a swing and injured her left forearm. She was taken to her primary physician and was referred to an orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Mitchell. He diagnosed a compound fracture compound fracture
n.
See open fracture.


Compound fracture
A fracture in which the broken end or ends of the bone have torn through the skin.
 of both bones of the left forearm. He reduced and closed the fracture, applying a splint splint, rigid or semiflexible device for the immobilization of displaced or fractured parts of the body. Most commonly employed for fractures of bones, a splint may be a first-aid measure that allows the patient to be moved without displacing the injured part, or it  and cast. The child began to have pain after leaving the hospital. Several days later, the family tried to contact Dr. Mitchell but found he was off for the day. In his place, they were given the name of Dr. Williams, who saw the child and removed the cast. The cast was replaced, and the child was sent home. The child had to go to the hospital the next day because of continued problems and was seen by Dr. Mitchell who was back at work. Dr. Mitchell noted that the child's arm was blue and immediately sent her to have vascular surgery Vascular surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed, largely via surgical intervention. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular . The operation was unsuccessful, and the left arm had to be amputated. The court found that there was a question in fact about whether Dr. Williams was an agent of Dr. Mitchell and thus liable under an agency theory. The court determined that the trial court had erred in allowing summary judgment. A new trial was ordered to determine this issue. (12)

In Edmands v Chamberlain Memorial The Chamberlain Memorial was erected in Chamberlain Square, Birmingham, England on October 20 1880, to commemorate Joseph Chamberlain's mayoralty who was present at the inauguration ceremony.  Hospital, (13) a suit was brought against the hospital for the death of plaintiff's husband. On April 20, 1978, plaintiffs husband was taken to the emergency department of the defendant hospital, where the emergency physician examined the patient and sent him home. His condition continued to deteriorate. The next morning, the patient was returned to the hospital where he was examined. Emergency surgery was done, and he died during the procedure. The defendant contended that the physician, Dr. Loftis, was not an employee of the hospital but a staff physician. The court disagreed with this as fact and cited a well settled opinion that hospitals are liable for the negligent acts of their agents and employees even though they are selected with due care under the theory of vicarious liability. The court found as a result of this theory that in this case there was a disputed issue of material fact about whether Dr. Loftis was the hospital's agent. The court stated:

We conclude the record in this case establishes a disputed issue of material fact as to whether or not Dr. Loftis was the hospital's agent. The emergency room is to staff the facility with physicians to treat members of the public who come to the hospital for emergency medical care. The patient does not know or select the physician but relies upon the hospital for providing the physician. Significantly when decedent's condition worsened after being turned away by Dr. Loftis, plaintiff called the hospital and apprised Dr. Loftis of the decedent's condition rather than attempting to contact the treating physician."

In the case of Bass v Barksdale, (14) a medical malpractice action was brought against the nurse and physician who worked at the Metropolitan Public Health Clinic because Mrs. Bass allegedly had blindness caused by drugs prescribed for treatment of tuberculosis. Nurse Barksdale was employed as a charge nurse of the TB health clinic. She wrote prescriptions that were signed by Dr. Quinn, who was also an employee of the clinic. Nurse Barksdale stated she wrote the prescriptions for Mrs. Bass after talking with Mrs. Bass' private physician. Dr. Quinn signed the prescriptions for the antituberculosis medications but never saw Mrs. Bass directly. The court found the following:

We find nothing in the record upon which to base vicarious liability. Both Dr. Quinn and Nurse Barksdale were employees of the Metropolitan Government. Dr. Quinn was Nurse Barksdale's supervisor but not her employer. Dr. Quinn was an intermediate superior employee of Nurse Barksdale and is not liable for negligent acts of omission or commission committed by nurse Barksdale. Dr. Quinn as an intermediate superior employee is to be held to respond only if his personal negligence in an immediate act or command was the efficient cause or coefficient cause of the injury. He is not to be held along with the employer to constructive liability.

However, at the conclusion of the opinion, the court did find evidence that Dr. Quinn failed to exercise duty to supervise the nurse's treatment of the patient. (14) In Tutton v Patterson, (15) a medical malpractice action was brought against an obstetrician obstetrician /ob·ste·tri·cian/ (ob?ste-trish´in) one who practices obstetrics.

ob·ste·tri·cian
n.
A physician who specializes in obstetrics.
 after a sponge was found in the patient's body several months after the physician had done a cesarean section cesarean section (sĭzâr`ēən), delivery of an infant by surgical removal from the uterus through an abdominal incision. The operation is of ancient origin: indeed, the name derives from the legend that Julius Caesar was born in this  and delivered a healthy baby boy. After the cesarean cesarean /ce·sar·e·an/ (se-zar´e-an) see under section.

ce·sar·e·an or cae·sar·e·an or cae·sar·i·an or ce·sar·i·an
adj.
Of or relating to a cesarean section.
, the patient became ill and eventually had to have abdominal surgery and removal of large portion of the intestines. The hospital that employed the nurses who had been responsible for the sponge count during the cesarean surgery settled out of court. As a result, the court found the physician could not be held vicariously liable for the conduct of the hospital nurses where the nurses had been released from any liability owed to the patient via this settlement. The court also found that there was sufficient evidence to find the physician negligent in leaving a sponge in the patient's abdomen. (1 5)

In Estate of Shirley J. Dannenhold v Knoxville Pathology Group PC, (16) a medical malpractice action was sought after the misreading MISREADING, contracts. When a deed is read falsely to an illiterate or blind man, who is a party to it, such false reading amounts to a fraud, because the contract never had the assent of both parties. 5 Co. 19; 6 East, R. 309; Dane's Ab. c. 86, a, 3, Sec. 7; 2 John. R. 404; 12 John. R.  of a 1993 Pap smear Pap smear
 or Papanicolaou smear

Sample of cells from the vagina and cervix of the uterus for laboratory staining and examination to detect genital herpes and early-stage cancer, especially of the cervix. Developed by the Greek-born U.S.
 allegedly led to terminal cancer. Knoxville Pathology Group PC had an exclusive contract with Fort Sanders Regional Medical Center to provide management services and physician coverage for the pathology and laboratory departments of the hospital. The cytology cytology (sītŏl`əjē), in biology, the study of the structure of all normal and abnormal components of cells and the changes, movements, and transformations of such components.  department in the laboratory processed the Pap smears submitted to the hospital laboratory for examination and diagnosis. Three cytotechnologists were employed in the cytology department, and the pathologists were members of the Knoxville Pathology Group. The pathologists were responsible for supervising the cytotechnologists' work. The cytotechnologists were paid employees of the hospital, but a large portion of their time was spent each day performing pre-screen readings on slides, the reports for which would be issued by members of the Knoxville Pathology Group. The slide involving the patient was su bmitted by her gynecologist gynecologist /gy·ne·col·o·gist/ (-kol´ah-jist) a person skilled in gynecology.

gy·ne·col·o·gist
n.
A physician specializing in gynecology.
 and was read by the cytotechnologist cy·to·tech·nol·o·gist
n.
A technician trained in medical examination and identification of cellular abnormalities.



cytotechnologist

a medical laboratory technologist specializing in cytology.
, who issued a negative reading. However, a year later, the patient sought treatment from a different physician and her Pap smear sample was submitted to a different laboratory. A cancer diagnosis was reported. The cancer was invasive at that time. The trial court sustained a motion for summary judgment motion for summary judgment n. a written request for a judgment in the moving party's favor before a lawsuit goes to trial and based on recorded (testimony outside court) affidavits (or declarations under penalty of perjury), depositions, admissions of fact, answers  for the defendants. The appeal was filed, and the plaintiff raised the issues of whether the cytotechnologist who misread mis·read  
tr.v. mis·read , mis·read·ing, mis·reads
1. To read inaccurately.

2. To misinterpret or misunderstand: misread our friendly concern as prying.
 the Pap smear slide was the agent and/or borrowed servant of the pathologist who issued the negative report and whether the cytotechnologist was engaged in the business of and under the supervision of the pathologist at the time the slide was read. The Court of Appeals found a basis for this issue and that the theory of vicarious liability may apply. The case was remanded back to the trial court for further proceedings. (16)

CONCLUSION

Under agency principles, an employer can be liable vicariously for the torts of an employee even when the employer is without fault. This type of relationship exists when an employee acts on behalf of and subject to the control of the employer. When the employer has the right to exercise detailed control over the physical actions of the employee, the concept of vicarious liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior may be invoked. An action based on negligence, whatever the specific situation, involves basic problems of the relationship among the parties, the risk, and the reason.

In the context of medical malpractice a negligence action is often precipitated by a bad outcome. Numerous cases have involved the concept of vicarious liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior as a successful cause of a medically negligent action. Recent changes in the health care system may contribute to additional causes of action being recognized. As managed care has moved to the forefront of health care, many medical providers have left independent practice and become employees of large health care organizations (HMOs) or hospitals. Some medical providers have formed their own business with health care extenders who perform many of the services previously provided by the medical provider. As a result, HMOs and hospitals have become employers of medical providers, and medical providers have become employers of their health care extenders.

In the past, the relationship with the patient and extensive documentation in the medical record were the most important elements in preventing malpractice litigation An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.

When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation.
. (7) These efforts, while important, may have less of an effect in the evolving health care climate. With these changes, principles of agency and vicarious liability may become increasingly important in evaluating malpractice liability. Both the negligence of a health care employee employed by an individual medical provider and the negligence of an individual medical provider employed by a health care company have given rise to successful malpractice suits in the state of Tennessee. The Doctrine of Respondeat Superior is one to weigh carefully by both plaintiffs and defendants in their current practice of law and medicine.

References

(1.) Malpractice. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2000. http://kids.infoplease.lycos.com/ipd/A0401963.html

(2.) Gross L: The Professor Series, Agency and Partnership. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, Larchmont, 1998, p 91

(3.) Dobbs D, Keeton RE, Owen DG: Prosser and Keaton on Torts. Keeton WP (ed). St. Paul St. Paul

as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]

See : Bravery
, west Publishing Go, 5th Ed, 1984, pp 501-502

(4.) Smith v Henson, 381 SW2d 892, 897 (Tenn 1964)

(5.) Raines v Mercer, 55 5W2d 263, 264 (Tenn 1932)

(6.) Tenn Code Ann Section 29-26-115 (1980)

(7.) Avery KJ: Let the Record Show. Brentwood, Tenn, State Volunteer Mutual Insurance Go, 2000, pp 337-338

(8.) Parker v Vanderbilt University, 767 SW2d 412,414 (Tenn Ct App 1988)

(9.) Meadows v Patterson, 109 SW2d 417,419,429 (Tenn Ct App 1937)

(10.) Rural Educational Association v Bush, 298 SW2d 761-766 (Tenn Ct App 1956)

(11.) French v Fischer, 362 SW2d 926 (Tenn Ct App 1962)

(12.) McCay V Mitchell, 463 SW2d 710 (Tenn Ct App 1970)

(13.) Edmonds v Chamberlain Memorial Hospital, 629 SW2d 28 (Tenn Ct App 1981)

(14.) Bass v Barksdale, 671 SW2d 476,478,479,488 (Tenn Ct App 1984)

(15.) Tutton v Patterson, 714 SW2d 268-270 (Tenn 1986)

(16.) Estate of Shirley J Dannenhold v Knoxville Pathology Group PC, 1998 WL 79236

RELATED ARTICLE: KEY POINTS

* Malpractice occurs as a result of negligence

* Under agency principles, the concept of vicarious liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior may be used in determining a physicians negligence.

* Physician extenders and physicians who employ them may need to be cautious of their liability under this Doctrine.

From the Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities developmental disabilities (DD),
n.pl the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age.
, and the Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center The Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) is a collection of several hospitals and clinics associated with Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. It comprises the following units:[2]
  • Vanderbilt University Hospital
  • Monroe Carell, Jr.
, Nashville, Tenn.

Reprint requests to Judith J. Regan. MD, MBA MBA
abbr.
Master of Business Administration

Noun 1. MBA - a master's degree in business
Master in Business, Master in Business Administration
, Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities, 425 5th Ave N, Nashville, TN 37243.
COPYRIGHT 2002 Southern Medical Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2002, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Regan, William M.
Publication:Southern Medical Journal
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2002
Words:3304
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