Mechanisms of endocrine resistance.Introduction
Two-thirds of breast cancers are associated with oestrogen oes·tro·gen
Variant of estrogen.
see estrogen. receptor (ER) signalling, and hormonal manipulation was first shown to be a successful strategy against breast cancer over 100 years ago . Currently available endocrine strategies include targeting the ER itself with the selective ER modulator Modulator
Any device or circuit by means of which a desired signal is impressed upon a higher-frequency periodic wave known as a carrier. The process is called modulation. The modulator may vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier. tamoxifen tamoxifen (təmŏk`sĭfĕn'), synthetic hormone used in the treatment of breast cancer. Introduced in 1978, tamoxifen is used to prevent recurrences of cancer in women who have already undergone surgery to remove their tumors. or the ER downregulator fulvestrant, as well as suppressing the amount of available ligand for the receptor with gonadal gonadal
pertaining to or arising from a gonad. See also testicular, ovarian.
cords formed by epithelial cells which migrate from the mesonephric tubules in the embryo to the gonadal ridge and establish the indifferent suppression in premenopausal pre·me·no·paus·al
Of or relating to the years or the stage of life immediately before the onset of menopause.
premenopausal adjective women or aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in postmenopausal post·men·o·paus·al
Of or occurring in the time following menopause.
postmenopausal Change of life Gynecology adjective Referring to the time in ♀ when menstrual periods stop for ≥ 1 yr women.
Among postmenopausal women with early ER-positive breast cancer, endocrine therapy has been shown to have a greater impact on reducing annual breast cancer death rate than adjuvant chemotherapy Adjuvant chemotherapy
Treatment of the tumor with drugs after surgery to kill as many of the remaining cancer cells as possible.
Mentioned in: Neuroblastoma (31% versus 20%) . Given their favourable side effect profile and their potential for significant anti-tumour activity, endocrine therapies represent an important tool in our armamentarium ar·ma·men·tar·i·um
n. pl. ar·ma·men·tar·i·ums or ar·ma·men·tar·i·a
The complete equipment of a physician or medical institution, including drugs, books, supplies, and instruments. against breast cancer. Unfortunately, despite documented levels of ERs, up to 50% of patients with metastatic Metastatic
The term used to describe a secondary cancer, or one that has spread from one area of the body to another.
Mentioned in: Coagulation Disorders
pertaining to or of the nature of a metastasis. disease do not respond to first-line endocrine treatment (de novo [Latin, Anew.] A second time; afresh. A trial or a hearing that is ordered by an appellate court that has reviewed the record of a hearing in a lower court and sent the matter back to the original court for a new trial, as if it had not been previously heard nor decided. resistance), while the remainder will eventually relapse (acquired resistance) . Understanding the various biological mechanisms responsible for the development of endocrine resistance can identify new strategies to enhance the efficacy of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer treatment This article or section recently underwent a major revision or rewrite and needs further review. You can help!
The mainstay of breast cancer treatment is surgery when the tumor is localized, with possible adjuvant hormonal therapy (with tamoxifen or an aromatase .
A number of theories, supported by preclinical data, have been proposed to explain endocrine resistance. These vary according to the sustained dependence on ER-mediated signalling and a significant number implicate im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. growth factor-mediated mitogenic signalling (Table 1). Identifying which resistance mechanism(s) is (are) operational is of obvious clinical relevance in tailoring the most appropriate subsequent therapy (i.e. non-ER-targeted treatment, further endocrine manipulation, or a combination of both).
Normal ER function
The ER belongs to the steroid nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors (Figure 1A). The transcription of ER-regulated genes is regulated by two activating function (AF) domains. AF-2 is located at the C-terminus and requires binding of oestradiol Noun 1. oestradiol - the most powerful female hormone that occurs naturally; synthesized and used to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
Loestrin - trade name for an oral contraceptive containing estradiol and norethindrone (E2) to the ligand-binding domain (LBD LBD Little Black Dress
LBD Ligand Binding Domain
LBD Lewy Body Dementia (aka Lewy Body Disease)
LBD Lesbian Bed Death
LBD London Beth Din
LBD Little Black Duck
LBD Laser Beam Detector
LBD Lost Bather Drill ) of the receptor, whereas AF-1 is located at the N-terminus and is hormone independent. E2 binding to the LBD induces a conformational change in the receptor, leading to the recruitment of nuclear co-activators (NCOAs) that increase ER interaction with DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
or deoxyribonucleic acid
One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes. . The activated ER binds as a dimer dimer /di·mer/ (di´mer)
1. a compound formed by combination of two identical molecules.
2. a capsomer having two structural subunits.
1. to oestrogen response elements in the promoters of target genes and activates transcription. In contrast, AF-1 can be phosphorylated by growth factor receptors or other downstream effectors and can act both independently or synergistically syn·er·gis·tic
1. Of or relating to synergy: a synergistic effect.
2. Producing or capable of producing synergy: synergistic drugs.
3. with AF-2 to increase the efficiency of ER transcriptional activity .
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Tamoxifen acts as a competitive inhibitor. Upon binding to the LBD, it induces a conformational change that inactivates AF-2, but has no effect on AF-1 transcriptional activity . Because ER activity in the breast is predominantly mediated via AF-2, tamoxifen has an overall antagonist effect in the breast, but can act as an agonist agonist /ag·o·nist/ (ag´ah-nist)
1. one involved in a struggle or competition.
2. agonistic muscle.
3. in other tissues primarily driven by AF-1, such as the uterus .
In addition, tamoxifen recruits co-repressors (NCORs) thereby further inhibiting transcription. Alterations in the relative contributions of AF-1/AF-2 to transcription, as well as the amounts of NCOAs/NCORs available, may shift the balance of tamoxifen activity towards agonism and have been implicated im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. in endocrine resistance. In addition to its role as a classical transcription factor, ER can also enhance transcription without direct DNA binding by participating in protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors (non-classical genomic activity). For example, ER can essentially act as a co-activator and increase the activity of the Jun/Fos activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription complex  (Figure 1B).
Finally, in addition to these nuclear transcriptional functions, non-genomic actions have more recently been ascribed to the ER. Oestrogen-bound ER has been shown to interact directly with, and phosphorylate phos·pho·ryl·ate
tr.v. phos·pho·ryl·at·ed, phos·pho·ryl·at·ing, phos·pho·ryl·ates
To add a phosphate group to (an organic molecule).
phos , membrane-associated growth factor receptors [9,10] as well as downstream effectors such as the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K PI3K Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase
PI3K Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase ) , resulting in further pro-survival and anti-apoptotic signalling (Figure 1C).
The degree to which these individual functions of the ER contribute to malignant proliferation may vary from one patient to another and evolve over time thereby contributing to the development of endocrine resistance.
Implication of growth factor receptor and downstream mitogenic signalling in endocrine resistance
Membrane growth factor receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor This article is about a cell suface receptor. For estimated measure of kidney function (eGFR), see Glomerular filtration rate.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (a kinase enzyme)
EGFR Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate ), the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or the insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF (Internet Governance Forum) An international organization of governments and U.N. agencies that was founded to discuss Internet issues such as security and spam. It was created at the United Nations Summit in 2005 after the U.S. 1R) have been implicated in endocrine resistance. Upregulation of HER2 occurs in approximately 15-20% of breast cancers and has been associated with poor prognosis and de novo resistance to tamoxifen in the neoadjuvant setting . Similarly, EGFR is overexpressed in a number of breast cancers and has also been associated with poor response to tamoxifen . It is important to note that cell models of acquired resistance to both tamoxifen and oestrogen deprivation (ED) have shown that the development of resistance is associated with adaptative upregulation of growth factor signalling pathways [13,14].
Activation of these membrane receptors stimulates two major intracellular kinase signalling cascades--the ras/mitogenic-activated protein kinase protein kinase /pro·tein ki·nase/ (pro´ten ki´nas) an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine, threonine, or tyrosine groups in enzymes or other proteins, using ATP as a phosphate donor. (MAPK MAPK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase
MAPK Map Kinase ) pathway and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These pathways activate downstream effectors leading to a cascade of signals involved in malignant growth and survival, and can be involved in endocrine resistance by a number of mechanisms including downregulation of ER expression, a switch to ER-independent growth, or bi-directional crosstalk between ER and mitogenic signalling.
ER and HER2 expression are frequently described as inversely related. ER-positive cell lines stably transfected with full-length HER2 demonstrate downregulation of ER, while quantitative measurements of ER levels in tumour samples show consistently lower levels of the receptor among patients with HER2-amplified breast cancer .
There is some evidence that hyperactive growth factor signalling can suppress ER expression, and may eventually lead to complete loss of ER . Conversely, interruption of hyperactive MAPK or EGFR has been shown to re-induce ER expression in cell lines and xenograft xenograft /xeno·graft/ (zen´o-graft) a graft of tissue transplanted between animals of different species; it may be concordant, models [17,18]. In fact, in a small study of 10 patients with ER-negative/HER2-positive breast cancer receiving trastuzumab, three patients acquired ER expression with treatment . Studies with the dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor lapatinib have shown that long-term treatment with this agent was associated with adaptive increase in ER signalling . The degree to which complete loss of ERs secondary to mitogenic signalling may contribute to acquired resistance needs further confirmation as serial clinical samples from women who have relapsed on endocrine therapy suggest that this is a rare event (10-15%) [21,22]. However, this 'yin and yang' dynamic interaction between ER and growth factor signalling would support using ER- and growth factor-targeted therapies in combination, or in fact in sequence, as one may sensitise Verb 1. sensitise - cause to sense; make sensitive; "She sensitized me with respect to gender differences in this traditional male-dominated society"; "My tongue became sensitized to good wine"
sensitize to the other.
Switch to ER-independent growth
Other mechanisms are likely to account for endocrine resistance in HER2-amplified breast cancer, as measurable levels of ERs are expressed in 50% of cases. Another possible mode of escape from the inhibitory effects of endocrine therapy is an adaptive switch to ER-independent growth, where the ER is still present but no longer driving proliferation. A cell model for acquired resistance to fulvestrant has shown that cells adapt to long-term treatment with the ER downregulator by pronounced upregulation of multiple growth-stimulatory pathways, resulting in oestrogen-independent autocrine-regulated proliferation . This would imply pan-endocrine resistance and support the use of non-ER-targeted therapies.
Endocrine resistance is usually associated with a functional ER
Most in vitro in vitro /in vi·tro/ (in ve´tro) [L.] within a glass; observable in a test tube; in an artificial environment.
In an artificial environment outside a living organism. and clinical observations would suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signalling continues to play an important role in the proliferation of breast cancer. Biopsies of tumours from breast cancer patients who have relapsed while receiving treatment with an anti-oestrogen agent show a functional ER , while women who have become refractory to tamoxifen or non-steroidal AIs actually respond to further endocrine manipulation with the ER[alpha] downregulator fulvestrant [24,25], indicating that ER-mediated signalling remains functional. There is increasing evidence that crosstalk with growth factor and downstream mitogenic pathways can augment the genomic and non-genomic functions of ERs.
Synergistic interaction between ER and mitogenic signalling resulting in enhanced genomic and non-genomic functions of ER
Increase in classical transcription via AF-1
Growth factor-mediated activation of MAPK or Akt can potentiate po·ten·ti·ate
1. To make potent or powerful.
2. To enhance or increase the effect of a drug.
3. To promote or strengthen a biochemical or physiological action or effect. E2-mediated ER classical transcriptional activity by directly phosphorylating AF-1 . Of note, both MAPK and Akt have been shown to phosphorylate ER within AF-1 (at serine serine (sĕr`ēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. 118 and serine 167, respectively) in the absence of E2, thereby contributing to ligand-independent ER transactivation Transactivation is an increased rate of gene expression triggered either by endogenous cellular or viral proteins - transactivators. These protein factors act in trans (i.e., intermolecularly). [27,28]. Other downstream effectors of peptide growth factor receptors have also been shown to activate ERs, such as protein kinase A and the cyclin cy·clin
A class of proteins that fluctuate in concentration at specific points during the cell cycle and that regulate the cycle by binding to a kinase. E-cdk-2 complex .
An increase in AF-1 transcription may predict for differential sensitivity to endocrine agents. Tamoxifen may efficiently block AF-2-mediated transcription; however, in tumours that exhibit high levels of AF-1 activity driven by mitogenic signalling, tamoxifen may act as an agonist . This is supported by the high rate of primary tamoxifen resistance observed in neoadjuvant trials of HER2-amplified breast cancer . There are some data to suggest that E2 deprivation using an AI, or ER downregulation using fulvestrant, may therefore be a more effective anti-cancer strategy in EGFR-positive/HER2-positive breast cancer [12,30,31].
Potentiation potentiation /po·ten·ti·a·tion/ (po-ten?she-a´shun)
1. enhancement of one agent by another so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects of each one alone.
2. posttetanic p. of genomic activity by altering the balance of co-regulators
ER transcription is tightly regulated by the balance of NCOAs/NCORs. Mitogenic signalling can alter the expression of some of these co-regulators thereby enhancing classical and non-classical ER transcription. The co-activator NCOA NCOA National Change Of Address (USPS)
NCOA National Council On the Aging
NCOA Nuclear Receptor Coactivator
NCOA National Corvette Owners Association
NCoA New Care-Of Address
NCOA Non-Commissioned Officer Academy 3, also known as amplified in breast cancer-1 (AIB AIB n abbr (BRIT) (= Accident Investigation Bureau) → oficina de investigación de accidentes
AIB n abbr (Brit) (= Accident Investigation Bureau) → 1) is overexpressed in 50% of breast cancers and amplified in 5% . Among untreated patients with ER-positive breast cancer it is associated with improved survival. In contrast, AIB1 has been associated with poor outcome on tamoxifen in HER2-amplified breast cancer because HER2 activates AIB1 and enhances the agonist effects of tamoxifen [33,34]. Similarly, decreased levels of NCORs have been shown to enhance tamoxifen agonism by shifting the balance towards ER transcriptional activity .
Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in 50% and amplified in 25% of breast cancers. As a transducer transducer, device that accepts an input of energy in one form and produces an output of energy in some other form, with a known, fixed relationship between the input and output. of both ER and growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 emerged as a potentially useful target in endocrine-resistant breast cancer. In addition, more recent data suggested that cyclin D1 could interact directly with ERs via recruitment of members of the steroid receptor co-activators (Src) family of NCOAs in the absence of endogenous ligand . However, there are conflicting clinical data regarding the causal relationship between cyclin D1 and endocrine responsiveness [37,38].
In addition to binding directly to DNA and increasing transcription of ER-dependent genes (classical), ligand-bound ER can also complex with other transcriptional factors, such as Jun/Fos via AP-1 (non-classical genomic activity). Acquired tamoxifen resistance in tumour samples has been associated with increased AP-1 activity presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. via tamoxifen-liganded ER agonist activity . The stress-activated kinase p38 MAPK is a major upstream modulator of AP-1 transcriptional activity and may potentiate the agonist effects of tamoxifen at AP-1 .
There are data to suggest that mitogenic signalling can alter the ratio of NCOAs/NCORs and result in a hypersensitive response of ERs to E2, or an agonist effect of tamoxifen-bound ERs. Whether profiling tumours by measuring the levels of various transcription co-regulators may offer useful predictive information regarding endocrine responsiveness has not been clearly established.
Enhanced non-genomic functions of ER
Conversely, as detailed in Figure 1, in addition to its effects on transcription, oestrogen-bound ER has also been shown to result in non-genomic effects via rapid activation of EGFR , IGF1R , HER2  or the cleavage of membrane-bound growth factor receptor ligands such as epidermal growth factor Epidermal growth factor or EGF is a growth factor that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Human EGF is a 6045 Da protein with 53 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bonds. or transforming growth factor [alpha] . This bi-directional interaction between ERs and growth factor pathways creates a self-reinforcing synergistic loop that potentiates pro-survival signals and may allow breast cancer to escape normal endocrine responsiveness. Furthermore, the extranuclear extranuclear /ex·tra·nu·cle·ar/ (-noo´kle-er) situated or occurring outside a cell nucleus. functions of ERs appear to require a ligand, and both E2 and tamoxifen can act as agonists .
It is important to note that this crosstalk does not seem to be operational in hormone-sensitive ER-positive MCF7 cells; its relevance appears to be limited to HER2-amplified cell lines or those with acquired endocrine resistance . Unfortunately, while supported by extensive in vitro models, the clinical relevance of the non-genomic actions of the ERs remains controversial as membrane and/or cytoplasmic cytoplasmic
pertaining to or included in cytoplasm.
include secretory inclusions (enzymes, acids, proteins, mucosubstances), nutritive inclusions (glycogen, lipids), pigment granules (melanin, lipofuscin, ERs have yet to be conclusively demonstrated in clinical samples.
Growth factor signalling has been extensively implicated in endocrine resistance. In some cases the interaction between ER and mitogenic pathways can be described as a dynamic inverse relationship, where inhibition of one results in a compensatory increase in the other. This is supported by pre-clinical and clinical data which show that growth factor inhibition may increase ER expression or function and re-sensitise breast cancer cells to endocrine therapy, and which would support combination, or in fact sequential treatment.
Alternatively, growth factor signalling can interact synergistically with the ER and augment both genomic and non-genomic functions of the receptor. This would provide a strong rationale for simultaneous blockade of both ERs and mitogenic pathways. Given this body of evidence, a number of trials have been completed exploring the benefit of various inhibitors of growth factor receptors or downstream effectors [e.g. mammalian target of rapamycin The mammalian target of rapamycin, commonly known as mTOR, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. (mTOR)] in modulating endocrine resistance (for reviews see [43,44]). As shown in Table 2, despite strong pre-clinical evidence, some of these studies have yielded disappointing results, which may be in part attributable to a poor selection of patients. It is unlikely that patients will respond to a combination of specific inhibitors unless the intended target is a significant driver of endocrine-resistant growth. Conversely, while significant overexpression of HER2 is a known requirement for benefit from trastuzumab, further studies are needed to determine whether more moderate receptor expression or activation may be relevant in the setting of endocrine resistance. Most ongoing studies are therefore including parallel biological studies in an effort to define the subset of patients most likely to benefit from specific combinations (Table 3).
Other mechanisms implicated in endocrine resistance
Loss of ER expression due to promoter Hypermethylation
ER expression is an obligate obligate /ob·li·gate/ (ob´li-gat) pertaining to or characterized by the ability to survive only in a particular environment or to assume only a particular role, as an obligate anaerobe. , albeit insufficient, requirement for sensitivity to endocrine therapy, and loss of ERs with progressive disease due to clonal selection could account for acquired endocrine resistance. ER silencing as a result of promoter hypermethylation has been documented in a proportion of breast cancers . It is important to note that this process has been shown to be reversible. Demethylating agents or histone deacetylase (HDAC HDAC Histone Deacetylase (biochemistry)
HDAC Heavy Duty Air Cylinder ) inhibitors can re-activate expression of a functional ER in cell lines with ER silencing due to promoter methylation methylation,
n a phase-II detoxification pathway in the liver; methyl groups combine with toxins to rid the body of various substances.
(meth´ [46,47]. These observations are provocative and have obvious clinical implications for a proportion of patients with ER-negative tumours who may benefit from endocrine therapy if ER expression could be reactivated using a demethylating agent. A trial of tamoxifen in combination with an HDAC inhibitor in patients who have relapsed after endocrine therapy is ongoing to investigate whether the HDAC inhibitor may restore endocrine sensitivity by enhancing ER expression.
Adaptive increase in ER and E2 hypersensitivity hypersensitivity, heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
The biological mechanisms contributing resistance to ED using AIs or gonadal suppression are less well defined than those underpinning tamoxifen resistance and may in fact be quite distinct. Long-term ED can be associated with adaptive aberrant mitogenic signalling as previously described. However, as ED strategies do not involve direct interaction with ERs, none of the paradoxical agonist activities of tamoxifen would be expected. In addition, whereas acquired tamoxifen resistance has been frequently associated with relative decrease in ER expression, adaptation to ED may lead to upregulation of ERs. In vitro models of long-term ED have shown that part of the adaptive process involves an increase in ER expression and E2 hypersensitivity to very low levels of residual oestrogen . This is supported by a recent clinical trial showing that women who have relapsed on an AI respond to more potent endocrine manipulation using the irreversible AI exemestane, or ER downregulation with fulvestrant . If part of the adaptive process to AIs involves E2 hypersensitivity, then there may be a rationale for continued ED in combination with a novel agent, rather than switching to it. The current Study of Faslodex, Exemestane and Arimidex (SOFEA SOFEA Study of Faslodex, Exemestane and Arimidex (drug trial) ) trial will address this question. In this trial, women who have relapsed on a non-steroidal AI (anastrozole or letrozole) are randomly assigned to the irreversible steroidal AI exemestane, fulvestrant or fulvestrant in combination with anastrozole.
A single activating mutation in the ER gene has been identified and shown to result in constitutive constitutive /con·sti·tu·tive/ (kon-stich´u-tiv) produced constantly or in fixed amounts, regardless of environmental conditions or demand. ER transactivation . However, screening of clinical samples has revealed that mutations occur in fewer than 1% of breast cancers and most are silent [3,49]. In addition, a significant number of naturally occurring mRNA splice variants encoding truncated ER have been identified; however, these have not been shown to modulate endocrine responsiveness in the clinical setting .
Altered drug metabolism Drug Metabolism/Interactions Definition
Drug metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and converts medication into active chemical substances.
Drugs can interact with other drugs, foods, and beverages. and cellular clearance
Measurements of intratumoral levels of tamoxifen have shown that women with acquired resistance to tamoxifen have lower levels than sensitive controls . Whether low intracellular levels of tamoxifen are attributable to decreased influx of the drug or increased efflux efflux Medtalk That which flows outward via a membrane pump such as p-glycoprotein has not been established. However, this mechanism is likely to be a minor contributor to tamoxifen resistance as clinical samples have consistently demonstrated that tamoxifen saturates ERs with greater than 99.9% occupancy . The cytochrome cytochrome (sī`təkrōm'), protein containing heme (see coenzyme) that participates in the phase of biochemical respiration called oxidative phosphorylation. P450 2D6 enzyme is required to convert tamoxifen to its more potent metabolite metabolite, organic compound that is a starting material in, an intermediate in, or an end product of metabolism. Starting materials are substances, usually small and of simple structure, absorbed by the organism as food. , endoxifen. CYP CYP
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Cyprus Pound.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. 2D6 variants have been identified and bi-allelic polymorphism polymorphism, of minerals, property of crystallizing in two or more distinct forms. Calcium carbonate is dimorphous (two forms), crystallizing as calcite or aragonite. Titanium dioxide is trimorphous; its three forms are brookite, anatase (or octahedrite), and rutile. results in decreased levels of circulating endoxifen, fewer hot flushes and an increased risk of relapse among women treated with tamoxifen . Similarly, CYP2D6 inhibitors, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
A class of antidepressants that work by blocking the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain, raising the levels of antidepressants Antidepressants
Medications prescribed to relieve major depression. Classes of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine/Prozac, sertraline/Zoloft), tricyclics (amitriptyline/ Elavil), MAOIs (phenelzine/Nardil), and heterocyclics , which are frequently used to treat postmenopausal hot flushes, also decrease endoxifen levels leading some to suggest that these agents should be avoided in women treated with tamoxifen [52,53]. Whether women with homozygous ho·mo·zy·gous
Having the same alleles at one or more gene loci on homologous chromosome segments.
Identical genes controlling a specified inherited trait. CYP2D6 variants would benefit from higher doses of tamoxifen or an alternative endocrine therapy has not been investigated.
Alterations in aromatase expression or function
In postmenopausal women, the only source of E2 is from the aromatisation of adrenal adrenal /ad·re·nal/ (ah-dre´n'l)
2. adrenal gland.
3. pertaining to an adrenal gland.
1. androgens Androgens
Male sex hormones produced by the adrenal glands and testes, the male sex glands.
Mentioned in: Acne, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Finasteride, Homocysteine, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Salpingo-Oophorectomy
. While peripheral conversion in adipose tissue adipose tissue (ăd`əpōs'): see connective tissue.
or fatty tissue
Connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells, specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat, within a contributes to measurable levels of circulating E2, local production via tumoural aromatase activity results in 10- to 20-fold higher E2 concentrations in the tumour than in plasma . Variations in tumour aromatase levels could therefore contribute to responsiveness to AIs. A small study suggested that the level of intratumoral aromatase activity could predict for response to the first-generation AI aminoglutethemide . However, more recent studies have shown no correlation between aromatase mRNA levels and response to AIs . A number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the aromatase gene (CYP19); however, most do not translate into a clinically significant variation in circulating E2 levels . One SNP SNP Scottish National Party
Noun 1. SNP - (genetics) genetic variation in a DNA sequence that occurs when a single nucleotide in a genome is altered; SNPs are usually considered to be point mutations that have been evolutionarily has been shown in vitro to reduce affinity of the aromatase enzyme for exemestane ; however, there is no clinical evidence to date that genetic variations in CYP19 lead to resistance to aromatase inhibition in vivo in vivo /in vi·vo/ (ve´vo) [L.] within the living body.
Within a living organism.
in vivo adv. .
A number of theories involving ER mutations or drug metabolism and clearance have been proposed to contribute to endocrine responsiveness. However, there is an increasing body of evidence implicating im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. growth factor receptor and downstream kinases in both de novo and acquired endocrine resistance. The nature of the interaction between ER and mitogenic signalling probably varies over time and from one patient to another. In some models, activated growth factor-mediated signalling suppresses expression of ERs and function, raising the intriguing possibility that growth factor-targeted therapy may, over time, restore endocrine responsiveness. In other cases, ERs and growth factor signalling may interact synergistically providing the basis for combination strategies. Importantly, a significant proportion of endocrine-resistant breast cancer still depends on a functional ER. Acquired resistance can be attributed to tamoxifen agonism due to AF-1-driven transcription, or an increase in non-genomic ER activity. Degrading the receptor with fulvestrant might provide an effective strategy in this setting, while ED would be expected to abrogate abrogate v. to annul or repeal a law or pass legislation that contradicts the prior law. Abrogate also applies to revoking or withdrawing conditions of a contract. (See: repeal) ligand-dependent non-genomic activity. Comparatively little is known about the mechanisms underpinning resistance to ED; however, as more postmenopausal women are receiving first-line adjuvant adjuvant /ad·ju·vant/ (aj?dbobr-vant) (a-joo´vant)
1. assisting or aiding.
2. a substance that aids another, such as an auxiliary remedy.
3. treatment with AIs, this question has become increasingly relevant. Both growth factor signalling and E2 hypersensitivity have been shown to contribute and would suggest that continued ED with an AI might be a superior approach to growth factor targeting alone. A huge number of trials (Table 3) are currently exploring the benefit of various targeted agents in combination or in sequence with endocrine therapy and include biological analyses that may shed further light on the clinically relevant mechanisms of endocrine resistance.
[1.] Beaston GT. On the treatment of inoperable inoperable /in·op·er·a·ble/ (in-op´er-ah-b'l) not susceptible to treatment by surgery.
Unsuitable for a surgical procedure. cases of carcinoma of the mamma: suggestions for a new method of treatment with illustrative cases. Lancet, 1896, ii, 104-107.
[2.] Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG EBCTCG Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group ). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy Hormonal therapy
Use of hormone medications to inhibit menstruation and relieve the symptoms of endometriosis.
Mentioned in: Endometriosis for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised Adj. 1. randomised - set up or distributed in a deliberately random way
irregular - contrary to rule or accepted order or general practice; "irregular hiring practices" trials. Lancet, 2005, 365, 1687-1717.
[3.] Ring A and Dowsett M. Mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance. Endocr Relat Cancer, 2004, 11, 643-658.
[4.] Shibata H, Spencer TE, Onate SA et al. Role of co-activators and co-repressors in the mechanism of steroid/thyroid receptor action. Recent Prog Horm Res, 1997, 52, 141-164; discussion 164-165.
[5.] Glaros S, Atanaskova N, Zhao C et al. Activation function-1 domain of estrogen receptor estrogen receptor A protein of a superfamily of nuclear receptors for small hydrophilic ligands–eg, steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, retinoids; the presence of ERs in breast CA generally is associated with a better prognosis, as they respond to regulates the agonistic agonistic /ag·o·nis·tic/ (ag?o-nis´tik) pertaining to a struggle or competition; as an agonistic muscle, counteracted by an antagonistic muscle. and antagonistic actions of tamoxifen. Mol Endocrinol, 2006, 20, 996-1008.
[6.] Metzger D, Losson R, Bornert JM et al. Promoter specificity of the two transcriptional activation functions of the human oestrogen receptor in yeast. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids
The cellular molecules DNA and RNA that act as coded instructions for the production of proteins and are copied for transmission of inherited traits. Res, 1992, 20, 2813-2817.
[7.] Tzukerman MT, Esty A, Santiso-Mere D et al. Human estrogen receptor transactivational capacity is determined by both cellular and promoter context and mediated by two functionally distinct intramolecular in·tra·mo·lec·u·lar
Within a molecule.
intra·mo·lec regions. Mol Endocrinol, 1994, 8, 21-30.
[8.] Kushner PJ, Agard DA, Greene GL et al. Estrogen receptor pathways to AP-1. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2000, 74, 311-317.
[9.] Fan P, Wang J, Santen RJ et al. Long-term treatment with tamoxifen facilitates translocation translocation /trans·lo·ca·tion/ (trans?lo-ka´shun) the attachment of a fragment of one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome. Abbreviated t. of estrogen receptor alpha out of the nucleus and enhances its interaction with EGFR in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Res, 2007, 67, 1352-1360.
[10.] Kahlert S, Nuedling S, van Eickels M et al. Estrogen receptor alpha rapidly activates the IGF-1 receptor pathway. J Biol Chem, 2000, 275, 18447-18453.
[11.] Simoncini T, Hafezi-Moghadam A, Brazil DP et al. Interaction of oestrogen receptor with the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Nature, 2000, 407, 538-541.
[12.] Ellis MJ, Coop A, Singh B et al. Letrozole is more effective neoadjuvant endocrine therapy than tamoxifen for ErbB-1-and/or ErbB-2-positive, estrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer: evidence from a phase III randomized ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. trial. J Clin Oncol, 2001, 19, 3808-3816.
[13.] Knowlden JM, Hutcheson IR, Jones HE et al. Elevated levels of epidermal growth factor receptor/c-erbB2 heterodimers mediate an autocrine autocrine /au·to·crine/ (-krin) denoting a mode of hormone action in which a hormone binds to receptors on and affects the function of the cell type that produced it.
adj. growth regulatory pathway in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells. Endocrinology, 2003, 144, 1032-1044,
[14.] Martin LA, Farmer I, Johnston SR et al. Enhanced estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERBB2, and MAPK signal transduction pathways operate during the adaptation of MCF-7 cells to long term estrogen deprivation. J Biol Chem, 2003, 278, 30458-30468.
[15.] Konecny G, Pauletti G, Pegram M et al. Quantitative association between HER-2/neu and steroid hormone receptors in hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2003, 95, 142-153.
[16.] Creighton CJ, Hilger AM, Murthy S et al. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (EC 18.104.22.168) are serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that respond to extracellular stimuli (mitogens) and regulate various cellular activities, such as gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, and cell survival/apoptosis. in estrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer cells in vitro induces an in vivo molecular phenotype of estrogen receptor alpha-negative human breast tumors. Cancer Res, 2006, 66, 3903-3911,
[17.] Oh AS, Lorant LA, Holloway JN et al. Hyperactivation of MAPK induces loss of ERalpha expression in breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol, 2001, 15, 1344-1359.
[18.] Massarweh S, Osborne CK, Jiang S et al. Mechanisms of tumor regression and resistance to estrogen deprivation and fulvestrant in a model of estrogen receptor-positive, HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer. Cancer Res, 2006, 66, 8266-8273.
[19.] Munzone E, Curigliano G, Rocca A et al. Reverting estrogen-receptor-negative phenotype in HER-2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer patients exposed to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res, 2006, 8, R4.
[20.] Xia W, Bacus S, Hegde P et al. A model of acquired autoresistance to a potent ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor Noun 1. tyrosine kinase inhibitor - a drug used in cases of chronic myeloid leukemia
medicament, medication, medicinal drug, medicine - (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease and a therapeutic strategy to prevent its onset in breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006, 103, 7795-7800.
[21.] Johnston SR, Saccani-Jotti G, Smith IE et al. Changes in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor progesterone receptor A progesterone-binding protein complex found in the cytoplasm of certain cells in particular of the breast, which belongs to the nuclear receptor family. See Progesterone receptor assay. Cf Estrogen receptor. , and pS2 expression in tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer. Cancer Res, 1995, 55, 3331-3338.
[22.] Kuukasjarvi T, Kononen J, Helin H et al. Loss of estrogen receptor in recurrent breast cancer is associated with poor response to endocrine therapy. J Clin Oncol, 1996, 14, 2584-2589.
[23.] Johnston SR, Lu B, Dowsett M et al. Comparison of estrogen receptor DNA binding in untreated and acquired antiestrogen-resistant human breast tumors. Cancer Res, 1997, 57, 3723-3727.
[24.] Dowsett M, Nicholson RI and Pietras RJ. Biological characteristics of the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant: overcoming endocrine resistance. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2005, 93 (suppl 1), S11-18.
[25.] Gradishar W, Chia S, Piccart M et al, on behalf of the EFECT writing committee: Fulvestrant versus exemestane following prior non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy: first results from EFECT, a randomized, phase III trial in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer, San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 2006, Abstr. 12.
[26.] Chen D, Washbrook E, Sarwar N et al. Phosphorylation phosphorylation, chemical process in which a phosphate group is added to an organic molecule. In living cells phosphorylation is associated with respiration, which takes place in the cell's mitochondria, and photosynthesis, which takes place in the chloroplasts. of human estrogen receptor alpha at serine 118 by two distinct signal transduction pathways revealed by phosphorylation-specific antisera. Oncogene oncogene
Gene that can cause cancer. It is a sequence of DNA that has been altered or mutated from its original form, the proto-oncogene (see mutation). Proto-oncogenes promote the specialization and division of normal cells. , 2002, 21, 4921-4931.
[27.] Kato S, Endoh H, Masuhiro Y et al. Activation of the estrogen receptor through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinase. Science, 1995, 270, 1491-1494.
[28.] Campbell RA, Bhat-Nakshatri P, Patel NM et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-mediated activation of estrogen receptor alpha: a new model for anti-estrogen resistance. J Biol Chem, 2001, 276, 9817-9824.
[29.] Ali S and Coombes Coombes is a hamlet and civil parish in the Adur District of West Sussex, England. It is located three miles (5km) north of Shoreham by Sea on the River Adur. The 11th century village church has frescoes, some of the most important in England, and painted about 1100 A.D. RC. Endocrine-responsive breast cancer and strategies for combating resistance. Nat Rev Cancer, 2002, 2, 101-112.
[30.] Dowsett M, Ebbs SR, Dixon JM et al. Biomarker changes during neoadjuvant anastrozole, tamoxifen, or the combination: influence of hormonal status and HER-2 in breast cancer-a study from the IMPACT trialists. J Clin Oncol, 2005, 23, 2477-2492.
[31.] Smith IE, Dowsett M, Ebbs SR et al. Neoadjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer with anastrozole, tamoxifen, or both in combination: the Immediate Preoperative pre·op·er·a·tive
Preceding a surgical operation.
preceding an operation.
the preparation of a patient before operation. Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, or Combined with Tamoxifen (IMPACT) multicenter double-blind randomized trial. J Clin Oncol, 2005, 23, 5108-5116.
[32.] Bautista S, Valles H, Walker RL et al. In breast cancer, amplification of the steroid receptor coactivator gene AIB1 is correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. Clin Cancer Res, 1998, 4, 2925-2929.
[33.] Osborne CK, Bardou V, Hopp TA et al. Role of the estrogen receptor coactivator AIB1 (SRC-3) and HER-2/neu in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2003, 95, 353-361.
[34.] Kirkegaard T, McGlynn LM, Campbell FM et al. Amplified in breast cancer 1 in human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive tumors of tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res, 2007, 13, 1405-1411.
[35.] Lavinsky RM, Jepsen K, Heinzel T et al. Diverse signaling pathways modulate nuclear receptor recruitment of N-CoR and SMRT SMRT Smart
SMRT Singapore Mass Rapid Transit
SMRT Silencing Mediator for Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors
SMRT Section for Magnetic Resonance Technologists
SMRT Sampling Modeling and Research Technology
SMRT Single Message-Unit Rate Timing
SMRT Signal Message Rate Timing complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1998, 95, 2920-2925.
[36.] Zwijsen RM, Buckle RS, Hijmans EM et al. Ligand-independent recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators to estrogen receptor by cyclin D1. Genes Dev, 1998, 12, 3488-3498.
[37.] Kenny FS, Hui R, Musgrove EA et al. Overexpression of cyclin D1 messenger RNA mes·sen·ger RNA
See mRNA. predicts for poor prognosis in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 1999, 5, 2069-2076.
[38.] Han S, Park K, Bae BN et al. Cyclin D1 expression and patient outcome after tamoxifen therapy in estrogen receptor positive estrogen receptor positive Oncology Breast CA cells with a receptor to which estrogens can attach; this is associated with an improved prognosis as the CA usually responds to antiestrogen therapy that blocks the receptors. See Estrogen receptor. metastatic breast cancer. Oncol Rep, 2003, 10, 141-144.
[39.] Johnston SR, Lu B, Scott GK et al. Increased activator protein-1 DNA binding and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activity in human breast tumors with acquired tamoxifen resistance. Clin Cancer Res, 1999, 5, 251-256.
[40.] Webb P, Lopez GN, Uht RM et al. Tamoxifen activation of the estrogen receptor/AP-1 pathway: potential origin for the cell-specific estrogen-like effects of antiestrogens. Mol Endocrinol, 1995, 9, 443-456.
[41.] Chung YL, Sheu ML, Yang SC et al. Resistance to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis is associated with direct interaction between Her2/neu and cell membrane Cell membrane
The membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell; it is also called the plasma membrane or, in a more general sense, a unit membrane. This is a very thin, semifluid, sheetlike structure made of four continuous monolayers of molecules. estrogen receptor in breast cancer. Int J Cancer, 2002, 97, 306-312.
[42.] Osborne CK, Shou J, Massarweh S et al. Crosstalk between estrogen receptor and growth factor receptor pathways as a cause for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 2005, 11, 865s-870s.
[43.] Johnston SR. Combinations of endocrine and biological agents: present status of therapeutic and presurgical investigations. Clin Cancer Res, 2005, 11, 889s-899s.
[44.] Leary A and Dowsett M. Combination therapy with aromatase inhibitors: the next era of breast cancer treatment? Br J Cancer, 2006, 95, 661-666.
[45.] Giacinti L, Claudio PP, Lopez M et al. Epigenetic epigenetic /epi·ge·net·ic/ (-je-net´ik)
1. pertaining to epigenesis.
2. altering the activity of genes without changing their structure. information and estrogen receptor alpha expression in breast cancer. Oncologist, 2006, 11, 1-8.
[46.] Yang X, Phillips DL, Ferguson AT et al. Synergistic activation of functional estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha by DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibition in human ER-alpha-negative breast cancer cells. Cancer Res, 2001, 61, 7025-7029.
[47.] Ferguson AT, Lapidus RG, Baylin SB et al. Demethylation of the estrogen receptor gene in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells can reactivate re·ac·ti·vate
1. To make active again.
2. To restore the ability to function or the effectiveness of.
re·ac estrogen receptor gene expression. Cancer Res, 1995, 55, 2279-2283.
[48.] Zhang QX, Borg A, Wolf DM et al. An estrogen receptor mutant with strong hormone-independent activity from a metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Res, 1997, 57, 1244-1249.
[49.] Herynk MH and Fuqua SA. Estrogen receptor mutations in human disease. Endocr Rev, 2004, 25, 869-898.
[50.] Johnston SR, Haynes BP, Smith IE et al. Acquired tamoxifen resistance in human breast cancer and reduced intra-tumoral drug concentration. Lancet, 1993, 342, 1521-1522.
[51.] Dowsett M and Haynes BP. Hormonal effects of aromatase inhibitors: focus on premenopausal effects and interaction with tamoxifen. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2003, 86, 255-263.
[52.] Goetz MP, Rae JM, Suman VJ et al. Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenetics Definition
Pharmacogenetics is the study of how the actions of and reactions to drugs vary with the patient's genes.
Description of tamoxifen biotransformation biotransformation /bio·trans·for·ma·tion/ (-trans?for-ma´shun) the series of chemical alterations of a compound (e.g., a drug) occurring within the body, as by enzymatic activity. is associated with clinical outcomes of efficacy and hot flashes hot flashes Hot flush Gynecology A symptom afflicting 80-85% of middle-aged ♀, first occurring during the perimenopause, continuing with ↓ intensity for yrs, manifesting itself as transient waves of erythema and uncomfortable warmth beginning in the . J Clin Oncol, 2005, 23, 9312-9318.
[53.] Goetz MP, Knox SK, Suman VJ et al. The impact of cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2007, 101, 113-121.
[54.] Chetrite GS, Cortes-Prieto J, Philippe JC et al. Comparison of estrogen concentrations, estrone estrone /es·trone/ (es´tron) an estrogen isolated from pregnancy urine, human placenta, palm kernel oil, and other sources, also prepared synthetically; for properties and uses, see estrogen. sulfatase sulfatase /sul·fa·tase/ (sul´fah-tas) an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of inorganic sulfate from sulfate esters.
n. and aromatase activities in normal, and in cancerous, human breast tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2000, 72, 23-27.
[55.] Miller WR, Anderson TJ and Jack WJ. Relationship between tumour aromatase activity, tumour characteristics and response to therapy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 1990, 37, 1055-1059.
[56.] Lin Z RS, Cotterill H, Rademaker A et al. Messenger RNA levels of estrogen-related genes in malignant breast tumor tissue predict responsiveness to aromatase inhibitors. San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 2006, Abstr. 14.
[57.] Dunning AM, Dowsett M, Healey CS et al. Polymorphisms associated with circulating sex hormone sex hormone
Any of various steroid hormones, such as estrogen and androgen, affecting the growth or function of the reproductive organs and the development of secondary sex characteristics. levels in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2004, 96, 936-945.
[58.] Ma CX, Adjei AA, Salavaggione OE et al. Human aromatase: gene resequencing and functional genomics. Cancer Res, 2005, 65, 11071-11082.
[59.] Mita M, de Bono J, Mita A et al. A phase II and biologic correlative Having a reciprocal relationship in that the existence of one relationship normally implies the existence of the other.
Mother and child, and duty and claim, are correlative terms. study investigating anastrozole in combination with gefinitib in post menopausal patients with estrogen receptor positive metasatic breast carcinoma who have previously failed hormonal therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2005, 94 (suppl S1), Abstr. 1117.
[60.] Dowsett M, Smith I, Skene skene
In ancient Greek theatre, a building behind the playing area that was originally a hut in which actors changed masks and costumes. It eventually became the scenic backdrop for the drama. First used c. A et al.; on behalf of the Study 0223 Trialists. Biological and clinical outcomes from a phase II placebo-controlled neoadjuvant study of anastrozole alone or with gefinitib in post menopausal women with ER/PgR+ breast cancer. Proc ASCO ASCO American Society of Clinical Oncology
ASCO Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (since 1941; Rockville, Maryland)
ASCO Australian Standard Classification of Occupations
ASCO Automatic Switch Company , 2006, 25, Abstr. 515.
[61.] Polychronis A, Sinnett HD, Hadjiminas D et al. Preoperative gefinitib versus gefinitib and anastrozole in post menopausal patients with oestrogen-receptor positive and epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-positive primary breast cancer; a double- blind placebo-controlled phase II randomised trial. Lancet Oncol, 2005, 6, 383-391.
[62.] Marcom PK, Isaacs C, Harris L et al. The combination of letrozole and trastuzumab as first or second-line biological therapy produces durable responses in a subset of HER2 positive and ER positive advanced breast cancers. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2006, Epub ahead of print.
[63.] Mackey JR, Kaufman B, Clemens M et al. Trastuzumab prolongs progression-free survival in hormone-dependent and HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2007, 100 (suppl S1), Abstr. 3.
[64.] Awada AC, Cardoso F, Fontaine C et al. A phase Ib study of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) in combination with letrozole (femara), investigating the safety and pharmokinetics in patients with advanced breast cancer stable or slowly progressing on letrozole. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2004, 88 (suppl 1), Abstr. 6043.
[65.] Baselga J, Roche H, Fumoleau P et al. Treatment of postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer with letrozole alone or in combination with temsirolimus: a randomised, 3-arm, phase 2 study. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2005, 94 (suppl 1), Abstr. 1068.
[66.] Chow LW, Shun Y, Jassem J et al. Phase 3 study of temsirolimus with letrozole or letrozole alone in postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2006, 100 (suppl S1), Abstr. 6091.
Alexandra Leary and Stephen Johnston
Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK
Correspondence to: Alexandra Leary, Department of Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ, UK (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Table 1: Postulated mechanisms of endocrine resistance and potential avenues for therapy Biological mechanism Therapeutic options / comments Growth factor driven Downregulation of ER expression Sequential growth factor--ER- and/or function targeted therapy Switch to ER-independent Non-ER-targeted therapy proliferation Enhanced genomic and non-genomic Dual ER and growth factor functions of ER targeting Other ER silencing due to promoter Demethylating agents or HDAC hypermethylation inhibitors E2 hypersensitivity Continued ED plus ER downregulator or growth factor inhibitor ER mutations Rare Altered tamoxifen metabolism and Higher tamoxifen doses in selected cellular clearance patients? Aromatase expression and function Relevance unknown ER, oestrogen receptor; E2, oestradiol; HDAC, histone deacetylase; ED, oestrogen deprivation. Table 2: Combinations of endocrine therapies with inhibitors of membrane receptors or downstream effectors: selected completed trials (data from ). Clinical Clinical setting Phase Intervention endpoints Reference Combinations with EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (GEF) MBC II ANA + GEF PR=0 SD=0  Endocrine ORR=61% vs  resistant 48%, P=0.067 Neoadjuvant II RCT ANA vs ANA + ORR=50% vs 54% PBC GEF x 16  weeks Preoperative II RT GEF vs GEF + PBC ANA EGFR+ only x 4-6 Combinations with trastuzumab (TRAS) HER2+ MBC II TRAS + LET PR=26% SD=26%  HER2 MBC (all III RCT ANA vs ANA + PFS=2.4 mo vs  pts were IHC TRAS 4.8 mo, 3+ or FISH+) P=0.0016 OS=23.9 mo vs 28.5 mo, P=0.325 mTor inhibitors: everolimus (EVE) or temsirolimus (TEM) MBC Ib n=9 LET+EVE 1, 5 No grade 3/4  stable or or 10 mg toxicities slowly daily at 5 mg progressing (6 pts) or on letrozole 10 mg (3 pts) MBC II n=92 Let vs LET+TEM ORR=45% vs 33%  10 mg daily vs 40% vs LET+TEM PFS=11.6 mo 30 mg vs 11.5 mo intermittent vs 13.2 mo MBC III RCT LET vs ORR=24% vs 24%  n=992 letrozole+ SD=19% vs TEM 16% PFS=9.2 intermittent mo vs 9.2 mo EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; MBC, metastatic breast cancer; PBC, primary breast cancer; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RT, randomised trial; PR, partial response; SD, stable disease; ORR, objective response rate (PR+CR); ANA, anastrozole; LET, letrozole; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; PFS, progression-free survival; OS, overall survival; vs, versus; +, positive; mo, months; pts, patients; IHC, immunohistochemistry; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Table 3. Endocrine combinations: selected ongoing or recently closed trials. NCT Clinical Trial Biological protocol setting phase Intervention endpoints number Endocrine combinations MBC III FUL vs EXEM vs Serum hormone 00253422 Previously FUL+ANA levels treated with AI MBC III ANA vs ANA + Not available 00256698 1st line FUL With EGFR inhibitors: gefitinib (GEF) or erlotinib (ERL) Neoadjuvant II GEF x 2 wks Tumour biomarker 00206492 PBC followed by analysis at (HER2+ only) GEF+TAM weeks 1, 2 and 6, and surgery Neoadjuvant II ANA + FUL + GEF Tumour biomarker 00206414 PBC analysis pre- and post-treatment MBC II RCT TAM [+ or -] Correlate RR to 00069290 GEF HER2/A1B1 status and other biomarker studies MBC II RCT ANA [+ or -] biomarker study 00077025 GEF MBC II RCT ANA [+ or -] None specified 00066378 GEF MBC II FUL + GEF None specified 00234403 MBC II RT ANA + GEF vs Identify 00057941 FUL + GEF biologic predictors MBC II LET + ERL Correlation of 00179296 EGFR, HER2 and pERSer118 to benefit MBC II RT GEF [+ or -] Correlate early 00080743 TAM resistant TAM changes on PET and in plasma DNA to response With trastuzumab (TRAS) HER2+ MBC II TRAS Correlate 00238290 AI-resistant monotherapy benefit with until PD HER2 ECD at followed by baseline and TRAS + LET after treatment HER2+ MBC III RCT ANA [+ or -] None specified 00022672 TRAS HER2+ MBC IV LET + TRAS None specified 00171847 TRAS-naive With lapatinib (LAP) MBC II LAP + TAM None specified 00118157 TAM resistant MBC III RCT LET [+ or -] Biomarker and 00073528 LAP genetic variant analysis With mTOR inhibitors: everolimus (EVE) and temsirolimus (TEM) Neoadjuvant II RCT LET [+ or -] None specified 00107016 PBC EVE MBC II RCT LET [+ or -] None specified 00061971 TEM Combination with HDAC inhibitor SAHA MBC II TAM+SAHA Pre-and post 00365599 treatment ER expression and histone acetylation PBC, primary breast cancer; MBC, metastatic breast cancer; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RT, randomised trial; RR, response rate; ECD, extracellular domain: ANA, anastrozole; FUL, fulvestrant; EXEM, exemestane; LET, letrozole; TAM, tamoxifen; SAHA, suberoylanalide hydroxamic acid; PET, positron emission tomography.