Measuring gifted adolescents' implicit theories of creativity.
For decades, theorists have debated the degree to which gifted individuals are inherently creative, describing creativity as both a specific type of giftedness gift·ed
1. Endowed with great natural ability, intelligence, or talent: a gifted child; a gifted pianist.
2. and an inherent component of giftedness in general (Renzulli, 1986; Sternberg Stern·berg , George Miller 1838-1915.
American army physician who was US surgeon general (1893-1902) and organized (1900) the Yellow Fever Commission. & Lubart Liubartas (also Lubart, Lubko, baptized Dymitr; died ca. 1385) was the King of Halych-Volhynia, mostly in present-day Ukraine, Poland, and Belarus. He was the youngest son of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. Ca. 1320 or ca. , 1993: Winner, 2000). Evidence for the creative nature of the gifted can be found in the fact that the gifted often outperform Outperform
An analyst recommendation meaning a stock is expected to do slightly better than the market return.
Exact definitions vary by brokerage, but in general this rating is better than neutral and worse than buy or strong buy. their non-gifted peers on measures of creativity, scoring in the upper bounds on standard creativity measures and tasks (Feldhusen, Treffinger, Van Mondfrans, & Ferris, 1971; Mumford Mum·ford , Lewis 1895-1990.
American social critic and writer whose works, such as The Culture of Cities (1938) and The Conduct of Life (1951), decry dehumanizing technology and call for a return to humanitarian and moral values. , Baughman, Costanza For Costanza, see:
American playwright, producer, and director who won a Pulitzer Prize for The Green Pastures (1930), a play based on Southern African-American interpretations of biblical stories. , 1993; Plucker pluck
v. plucked, pluck·ing, plucks
1. To remove or detach by grasping and pulling abruptly with the fingers; pick: pluck a flower; pluck feathers from a chicken. & Renzulli, 1999; Runco, 1986, 1987, 1993; Ward, Saunders Saun´ders
n. 1. See Sandress. , & Dodds, 1999). However, while superior performance on creativity measures does indicate that there is some relationship between creative or generative gen·er·a·tive
1. Having the ability to originate, produce, or procreate.
2. Of or relating to the production of offspring.
pertaining to reproduction. thought processes This is a list of thinking styles, methods of thinking (thinking skills), and types of thought. See also the List of thinking-related topic lists, the List of philosophies and the . and giftedness, it does not clarify the nature of that relationship. Are the gifted, as theorists have suggested, simply endowed en·dow
tr.v. en·dowed, en·dow·ing, en·dows
1. To provide with property, income, or a source of income.
a. with faster processing speed See MHz. and abilities and thus able to produce more answers during divergent thinking Noun 1. divergent thinking - thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions; associated with creativity
out-of-the-box thinking tasks than others in the normal population, or are there other metacognitive factors that might explain their creative abilities?
Research on a wide variety of metacognitive tasks shows the gifted, as compared to their non-gifted peers, seem to excel at Verb 1. excel at - be good at; "She shines at math"
excel, surpass, stand out - distinguish oneself; "She excelled in math" tasks, such as problem finding, idea evaluation, and attentional focus, which involve the direction and management of thought resources in the service of creative problem solving Creative problem solving is the mental process of creating a solution to a problem. It is a special form of problem solving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance. Creative problem solving requires more than just knowledge and thinking. (Groborz & Necka, 2003; Mumford et al, 1993; Runco, 1987). Further research has found that the gifted also appear to be able to tap into these skills without being instructed to do so (Runco, 1984; Ward et al., 1999). In studies looking at the role of instructions on generative thinking ability in gifted adolescents, gifted teens gave more original responses than college students when asked to create novel aliens, but their originality o·rig·i·nal·i·ty
n. pl. o·rig·i·nal·i·ties
1. The quality of being original.
2. The capacity to act or think independently.
3. Something original.
Noun 1. was not influenced, unlike the college students, by being instructed to "be creative" or original (Ward et al.). Runco (1986) also found that gifted individuals were less affected than non-gifted individuals by instructions to "be creative" and "give only original responses" in their production of original items on divergent thinking tasks. Thus, it appears that the gifted possess some metacognitive ability that provides resistance to the robust finding of the role of instructions in creative thought processes (Harrington Harrington can refer to:
Places in the United Kingdom:
Implicit theories are our personal theories of the causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.
relating to or emanating from cause. nature and structure of mental events and behaviors. They are not formal but guide us in identifying and describing those events in both the self and others (Runco & Bahleda, 1986; Sternberg, 1985). Research on implicit theories has shown that we hold implicit theories for a wide variety of mental events and that those theories influence our perception of our abilities and the abilities of others for attributes such as affect, intelligence, and achievement (Ablard & Mills, 1996; Barden Barden could be
London, city (1991 pop. 303,165), SE Ont., Canada, on the Thames River. The site was chosen in 1792 by Governor Simcoe to be the capital of Upper Canada, but York was made capital instead. London was settled in 1826. , & Dweck Dweck is a common last name in the Jewish Community. It belongs primarily to Sephardic Jews. Its meaning in English is "vessel maker." , 1991; Little & Lopez Lo·pez , Nancy Born 1957.
American golfer who in 1987 achieved her 35th career victory and was inducted into the Ladies Professional Golf Association Hall of Fame. , 1997; Murrone & Gynther, 1989, 1991; Sternberg; Sternberg, Conway Conway, city, United States
Conway, city (1990 pop. 26,481), seat of Faulkner co., central Ark., in a farm and cotton area; inc. 1873. It is a trade and industrial center. Conway was settled (c.1865) near the site of a French trading post (c.1770). , Ketron, & Bernstein Bern·stein , Leonard 1918-1990.
American conductor and composer who wrote numerous choral and symphonic works, including Kaddish (1963), and musicals, notably On the Town (1944) and West Side Story (1957). , 1981). Implicit theories of creativity, then, should help us define what behaviors and thought processes are a part of creativity, as well as aid us in assessing creativity in ourselves and others.
Research on implicit theories of creativity has found that individuals do hold concrete theories and use them to guide who we judge as creative (Sternberg, 1985; Runco & Bahleda, 1986). Sternberg asked college students to sort the creative attributes generated by laypeople lay·peo·ple or lay people
Laymen and laywomen. and professionals into groups of attributes most likely to be found together in a creative person. Looking at the structure of these specific creativity attributes, Sternberg found that both professionals and laypersons generated a consistent set of adjectives that they regarded as descriptive of creativity.
The resulting group of adjectives, determined by factor analysis, produced a description of creativity with four main dimensions. The first of these dimensions included the sets of polar attributes Sternberg (1985) labeled as nonentrenchment and intellectuality, and it included attributes such as impulsivity, nonconformity non·con·form·i·ty
n. pl. non·con·form·i·ties
a. Refusal or failure to conform to accepted standards, conventions, rules, or laws.
b. , emotionality, high ability, and productivity. The second set of these dimensions contained attributes of aesthetic taste and imagination, such as good taste and an ability to draw, write, or compose com·pose
v. com·posed, com·pos·ing, com·pos·es
1. To make up the constituent parts of; constitute or form: music, as well as attributes of decisional skill and flexibility. The third dimension included attributes of perspicacity such as perceptiveness per·cep·tive
1. Of or relating to perception: perceptive faculties.
a. Having the ability to perceive; keen in discernment.
b. and an ability to question conventions, and a drive for accomplishment and recognition such as being energetic and highly motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo . Finally, the last dimension Sternberg referred to contains the creative attributes of inquisitiveness in·quis·i·tive
1. Inclined to investigate; eager for knowledge.
2. Unduly curious and inquiring. See Synonyms at curious. and intuition intuition, in philosophy, way of knowing directly; immediate apprehension. The Greeks understood intuition to be the grasp of universal principles by the intelligence (nous), as distinguished from the fleeting impressions of the senses. .
Research on individual's implicit theories of creativity in various domains by Runco and Bahleda (1986) found similar attributes as key facets of creativity. Interested in the differences in implicit theories of artistic, scientific, and everyday creativity, they asked artists and laypersons to generate lists of characteristics related to the various types of domain specific creativity. While there was overlap o·ver·lap
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.
2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.
v. in regard to both the responses generated by artists and laypersons as well as among the three domains of creativity, each group gave a specific definition for artistic, scientific, and everyday creativity (Runco & Bahleda).
The artists described artistic creativity as expressive, imaginative, humorous, open-minded o·pen-mind·ed
Having or showing receptiveness to new and different ideas or the opinions of others. See Synonyms at broad-minded.
o , unique, emotional, and exciting, while they described scientific creativity as perfectionistic, intelligent, curious, patient, and thorough (Runco & Bahleda, 1986). Beyond this, the artists defined everyday creativity using adjectives such as active, helpful, humorous, resourceful re·source·ful
Able to act effectively or imaginatively, especially in difficult situations.
re·sourceful·ly adv. , open-minded, and exciting. The laypeople described artistic creativity with characteristics such as imagination, expressiveness ex·pres·sive
1. Of, relating to, or characterized by expression.
2. Serving to express or indicate: actions expressive of frustration.
3. , intelligence, originality, perceptiveness, and superior drawing ability while they described scientific creativity using terms such as intelligent, logical, experimenting, curious, intuitive, and problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. . Once again the laypersons used a different set of attributes to describe everyday creativity, describing the everyday creative person as imaginative, having common sense, being organized, active, and able to cook well (Runco & Bahleda).
Implicit theories are of interest not only for their structure but also for the role that they play in our assessment of the behavior of ourselves and others. Sternberg (1985) examined how individuals use those theories by asking people to rate a person described via letters as creative or not. What he found was that respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were more likely to define persons as creative when they were described as having more of the attributes related to our implicit theories, such as impulsivity, flexibility, and motivation. Further evidence of our reliance on our conceptions of creativity in making judgments about the creativity of a given idea is the finding that individuals judge items differently when asked to rate the originality or popularity of an idea (Runco, 1990). Terms like originality or popularity tap into different mental events and thus different theories. This difference in implicit theories, as represented by differing endorsements of behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. and personality adjectives, should explain the differences in evaluation of creativity described previously (Henessey & Amabile Amabile may refer to:
Additional evidence for the idea that differences in implicit theories can explain differences in the conception of and evaluation of creativity can be found in research on cultural differences in implicit theories of creativity. Lim and Plucker (2001), in their research on cultural differences in implicit theories of creativity, found that Koreans The Korean people are an East Asian ethnic group . Most Koreans live in the Korean Peninsula, and speak the Korean language. Names
South Koreans call Koreans Hangukin held implicit theories that were similar to their Western counterparts but with more of an emphasis on deviance Conspicuous dissimilarity with, or variation from, customarily acceptable behavior.
Deviance implies a lack of compliance to societal norms, such as by engaging in activities that are frowned upon by society and frequently have legal sanctions as well, for example, the or unorthodoxy as a part of the behaviors of a creative person. Despite these differences in the structure of their implicit theories of creativity, the Korean Korean, language of uncertain ancestry. It is thought by some scholars to be akin to Japanese, by others to be a member of the Altaic subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languages), and by still others to be unrelated to any known sample, like their Western counterparts, relied on these theories when making judgments about the creativity of individuals described in letters that varied in the number of creative attributes they contained (Lim & Plucker).
Given the scope of implicit theories to define how we think and behave with regard to creativity, the nature of these theories in creative individuals is of particular interest. While the goal of this particular study is not comparison of the gifted with nongifted populations, prior research has portrayed por·tray
tr.v. por·trayed, por·tray·ing, por·trays
1. To depict or represent pictorially; make a picture of.
2. To depict or describe in words.
3. To represent dramatically, as on the stage. the gifted as a population that exhibits greater creativity as compared to their nongifted peers, and as a group that is endowed with cognitive and motivational skills that should account for this creative ability (Mumford et al., 1993; Runco, 1987; Winner, 2000). Another possible difference between the gifted and nongifted that could account for differences in creative performance is that the gifted hold implicit theories that are different from those previously found in the lay population.
The purpose of these studies, then, was to examine the implicit theories of the gifted. To do this, a series of attribute checklists was designed that contained adjectives previously thought to be personality and behavioral characteristics of creative individuals. These checklists allowed participants to endorse To sign a paper or document, thereby making it possible for the rights represented therein to pass to another individual. Also spelled indorse.
endorse (indorse) v. those attributes that they felt best expressed their own creative traits. Because prior research had not looked at the implicit theories of the gifted, this study was particularly aimed at which attributes the gifted endorsed most frequently for their own creativity and which attributes they endorsed as characteristic of a creative other. Additionally, these studies examined how implicit theories relate to both performance on creativity measures and participation in creative hobbies It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome. This is a list of hobbies. , if the gifted do hold theories of creativity that are different from those found in prior research, are those theories more predictive of their participation in creative hobbies outside of the classroom than their performance on creativity measures'? It is clear that implicit theories of creativity guide the presentation and evaluation of creativity by the parents and teachers of the gifted (Fryer & Collings, 1991; Lesser, 1995; Runco, 1990; Runco, Johnson, & Baer, 1993). It is not clear what type of theories are imparted to the gifted themselves and how that affects their creative behavior.
Gifted adolescents were chosen as the participants for this study because adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. is a time of development during which both implicit theories of mental events are beginning to resemble their adult forms and creativity is on the rise (Barden, 1980; Little & Lopez, 1997; Rothenberg, 1990; Zelko, Barden, Garber, & Masters, 1986). Therefore, understanding the implicit theories of creativity in adolescence should allow researchers a glimpse into the implicit theories of gifted adults.
Participants in the study were 123, 61 males and 62 females, enrolled in a camp for gifted and talented adolescents at Texas A&M University. They ranged from grade 7 to grade 12 (mean age = 14 years). The majority of participants learned about the camp through their participation in the Duke Talent Identification Program, and they were considered gifted based on their participation in that program. Students who participate in the Duke Talent Identification program are selected by their school using grades, test scores, or teacher recommendations to take college entrance exams Noun 1. entrance exam - examination to determine a candidate's preparation for a course of studies
exam, examination, test - a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; "when the test was stolen the professor had to in the 7th grade. Those students who score well are then given access to information about extracurricular programs, such as the camp our participants were enrolled in, which offer additional educational and enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains. opportunities for the gifted.
Upon entrance to the camp, the participants and their parents were given a brief form describing the study and were asked to participate. All participants had received parental consent Parental consent laws (also known as parental involvement or parental notification laws) in some countries require that one or more parents consent to or be notified before their minor child can legally engage in certain activities. before agreeing to participate. Participants were given approximately 90 minutes to complete the task. At the completion of the task, each participant received a pen as compensation for participation.
There were two packets of tasks for each participant to complete. The first packet contained a self-report measure of their involvement in art, crafts, music, writing, math and science, performance, and other miscellaneous creative activities, called the Creative Behaviors Inventory (CBI CBI
cumulative book index
CBI Confederation of British Industry
CBI n abbr (= Confederation of British Industry) → C.E.O.E. ), taken from Runco (1987) and Hocevar (1979). While many of the original items from the CBI were used, some modifications were made for the adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. population, such as changing the item "How o/ten have you cut a record?" to "How o/ten have you recorded you own musical compositions?" to reflect current musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English), in accordance with the Italian origins of many European musical conventions. . This questionnaire measured total involvement in activities capturing both the number of activities the adolescent was involved in as well as the degree of involvement, with higher scores being given/for more frequent participation in each type of activity. Summary scores were then created for participation in each of the types of real-world activities (art, crafts, music, writing, math and science, performance, and miscellaneous activities), as well as a score for total activity participation.
The next part of the first packet, called the Creative Self Checklist (CSC (Card Security Code) A three- or four-digit number printed on the back of credit cards for security purposes. Called "Card Verification Value" (CVV) by Visa, "Card Validation Code" (CVC) by MasterCard and "Card Identification (CID) by American Express and Discover, ), asked participants to rate themselves using a 9-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc on a set of 40 positive and negative attributes taken from self-report measures of implicit theories of creativity (Runco & Bahleda, 1986; Sternberg, 1985). Looking at the CSC in Figure 1, the adjectives listed were picked based on their prior inclusion in the implicit theories of creativity of adults. There were 2 types of creative attributes that were included in the CSC. Positive creative attributes, such as imaginative or unorthodox, were those that participants in prior studies of implicit theories of creativity had listed as being important to creativity (Runco & Bahleda; Sternberg). Negative creative attributes, such as bookish book·ish
1. Of, relating to, or resembling a book.
2. Fond of books; studious.
3. Relying chiefly on book learning: and popular, were ones that participants endorsed as being less related to creativity. A mean positive and negative creative beliefs score was generated for each participant based on their endorsement of attributes, such as imaginative or bookish, previously found to be more or less reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD. of creativity. It was predicted that participants' positive and negative creative belief scores would also relate to their performance on later tests of creative skill. Finally, participants were given 5 minutes to complete a revised 12-item version of the Remote Associates Test (RAT) to measure associative as·so·ci·a·tive
1. Of, characterized by, resulting from, or causing association.
2. Mathematics Independent of the grouping of elements. thought ability (Allen Al·len , Edgar 1892-1943.
American anatomist who is noted for his studies of hormones and for the discovery (1923) of estrogen. , Sifonis, & Smith, 1998). After completing these measures, participants were given a second packet to complete.
In the second packet, which was completed in the remaining time, participants were asked to draw a fruit that might exist on another planet (the Design-a-Fruit task) and, after completing the drawings, were instructed to describe any factors that they could think of that influenced their creations. Participants were randomly assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. to one of two conditions. Those in the Specific Fruit group (N = 51) were given instructions to think of a specific Earth fruit while completing the task, whereas those in the Properties condition (N = 50) were instructed to think of properties that fruit need to survive while completing the task.
Two independent judges coded the Design-a-Fruit drawings and responses for properties that people typically listed as being characteristic of Earth fruit (e.g., Tversky & Hemenway, 1984). Judges were college students untrained in art who were instructed in coding of creative products for originality and use of attributes or exemplars of Earth fruit. They also assigned each drawing a rating of originality using a 7-point scale on which low numbers indicated less originality. Additionally, the descriptions were coded for any mention of the use of an Earth fruit as the source of the novel product. Ratings of the fruit originality for both judges were significantly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. : r(97) = .882, p < .001; and were averaged for additional analyses.
Participants' responses to the Creative Self Checklist were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. in several ways. Mean endorsements of attributes thought to be either positively related to creativity (such as intelligent, unorthodox, or can write, draw, or compose music) or negatively related to creativity (such as bookish, boring, lazy, and wealthy) were computed across the sample to allow for examination of the role of such perceived creative competencies in actual creative behaviors. Based on prior research studies, it was expected that these adolescents would have higher scores for attributes that reflected positive aspects of creativity, such as originality or artistic, literary, or musical skill (Runco & Bahleda, 1986; Sternberg, 1985). Additionally, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the CSC to examine the structure of the adolescents' implicit theories.
The Structure of Implicit Theories of Creativity
Factor analysis of the 40 items in the CSC was conducted using principal components analysis. Although items on the CSC should have some relationship to one another, a promax rotation was used in generating the PCA (tool, programming) PCA - A dynamic analyser from DEC giving information on run-time performance and code use. solution to force items into the most distinctive solution possible. This analysis resulted in a six-factor solution which accounted for 49.91% of overall variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality . The six lectors were labeled as risk-taking, likableness, inquisitiveness, productivity, dullness, and nonconformity, and had eigenvalues eigenvalues
statistical term meaning latent root. of 7.241, 3.976, 2.865, 2.134, 2.003, and 1.745 respectively. Items and factor loadings corresponding to each of the above factors are listed in Table 1.
Relationship Between Implicit Theories and Creativity Task Performance.
To examine the relationship between these implicit theories of creativity and actual creative task performance, composite scores of the average endorsement of positive and negative creative attributes were used to assess the relationship between the originality of participants' imaginary Imaginary can refer to:
1. Of, relating to, or resembling a book.
2. Fond of books; studious.
3. Relying chiefly on book learning: and skillfulness skill·ful
1. Possessing or exercising skill; expert. See Synonyms at proficient.
2. Characterized by, exhibiting, or requiring skill. at speaking, by this population may account for some of this relationship since they would be useful elements of academic giftedness. No significant relationship was found between performance on the RAT and endorsement of positive or negative creative attributes. While there was no expected difference between this sample and those of Sternberg (1985) and Runco and Bahleda (1986) in terms of the positive or negative valence Valence, city, France
Valence (väläNs`), city (1990 pop. 65,026), capital of Drôme dept., SE France, in Dauphiné, on the Rhône River. of traits, further research may need to examine if the pattern of endorsements of attributes listed in the CSC matches the type of positive and negative creative attributes adolescents self-report.
Role of Instructions
Prior research with college students has indicated instructions that direct participants to locus on concrete features of an object inhibits creative performance; however, past studies using leading instructions with the gifted have failed to find such an effect (Ward, Patterson, & Sifonis, 2004, Ward et al., 1999). To examine the effect of instructions on creativity in the gifted, an ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there was performed on the fruit tasks to determine if there were differences in originality between the participants asked to focus on specific earth fruit as compared to those asked to focus on more general properties of fruit. However, as in previous research, we failed to find a significant effect of instruction on performance on the fruit task, F (1,94) = .995, MSE MSE Mouse (computer)
MSE Materials Science & Engineering
MSE Mean Squared Error
MSE Mean Square Error
MSE Master of Science in Engineering
MSE Manufacturing Systems Engineering
MSE Mechanically Stabilized Earth = 3.120, p = n.s..
Predicting Real-World Creative Participation
One of the key facets of an implicit theory is its role in influencing behavior. To examine the role of implicit theories of creativity in predicting creative behavior, a stepwise regression In statistics, stepwise regression includes regression models in which the choice of predictive variables is carried out by an automatic procedure. was conducted with total creative real-world activity participation as the criterion variable and fruit originality, total RAT score, and positive and negative creative beliefs as predictors. As can be seen in Table 2, this regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. produced a model with RAT score, endorsement of positive creative attributes, and originality of fruit as significant predictors of creative behaviors, F (3,97) = 9.011, p < .05.
An additional relationship was found between gender and creative behaviors. Females participated in more creative activities than males in general: r(123) = -.241, p < .05. Looking at this relationship, females participated in literature, craft, performance, and miscellaneous activities more than males, r (123) = -.271, -.377, -.390, and -. 190 respectively, p < .05. However, in accord with other research indicating a greater prevalence of males in math and science programs (Feldhusen & Willard-Holt, 1993; Lubinski & Benbow, 1992; Olszewski-Kubilius & Yasumoto, 1995), males did participate in more math and science activities than females, r (123) = .239, p < .05.
The results of the first study indicated that there was a significant relationship between participation in creative activities and implicit theories of creativity. The more positive creative attributes that the gifted adolescents endorsed, the more creative activities that they were likely to be involved in. The role of the positive attributes in the structure of the implicit theories of the gifted was further evidenced in the factor structure that the Creative Self Checklist generated. While performance on creativity measures, such as the RAT and generative thinking fruit task, significantly predicted participation in creative hobbies, the relationship between creativity measures and implicit theories found in this study was not clear. A second study was designed to measure the relationship between implicit theories of the gifted and performance on two verbal measures of generative thinking as opposed to using both a verbal associative task such as the RAT and a figural fig·ur·al
Of, consisting of, or forming a pictorial composition of human or animal figures.
Adj. generative task such as the fruit drawing task. Using the Just Suppose task from the verbal form of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking and a sport generation task as measures of creativity enables the examination of the relationship between both assessment tools as well as their individual relationship to the implicit theories of creativity. This study also sought to clarify the structure of the gifted adolescents' theories of creativity by examining their implicit theories of their own creativity as well as their theories of the creativity of others and how those theories relate to other measures of creativity.
One hundred fifty-seven adolescents, 86 males and 72 females, enrolled in a camp for gifted adolescents at Texas A&M University participated in this study. Participants ranged in age between 10 and 17 with a mean age of 12 years 9 months. Participants were considered gifted on the basis that most participants were recruited for participation in this camp through the Duke Talent Identification Program. A further questionnaire given to the parents of the participants indicated that 144 of the 157 participants were identified as gifted by their school at the time of their participation in camp. Additionally, several of the participants were home-schooled and were therefore not in school-based programs for the gifted but had been referred to the Duke program or the camp on the basis of achievement tests and grades.
As in Study 1, participants were given two packets. The first packet contained a measure of adolescents' involvement in "real-world" creativity identical to the one used in Study 1: the Creative Behaviors Inventory. As in the last study, subjects were coded for participation in each of the types of real-world activities (art, crafts, music, writing, math and science, performance, and miscellaneous activities), as well as total activity participation. In the second part of the first packet, participants were given two questionnaires, the Creative Self Checklist (CSC) and the Creative Individual Checklist (CIC CIC
circulating immune complexes.
CIC Circulating immune complexes. See Immune complexes. ), which included identical sets of adjectives derived from lists of implicit theories of creativity found in Sternberg (1985) and Runco & Bahleda (1986). Questionnaire items for the CSC and CIC corresponded to key attributes related to the factors extracted in Study l and were representative of the original attributes identified in prior studies as either positively or negatively related to creativity (Runco & Bahleda; Saunders, Dodds, & Ward, 2000; Sternberg). However, the CIC asked each participant to rate how well each of the adjectives previously used in the CSC related to the behaviors and characteristics of the ideal creative person. Each of the questionnaires asked the participants to rate either themselves (CSC) or an ideal creative person (CIC) on a 9-point Likert scale, ranging from extremely uncharacteristic un·char·ac·ter·is·tic
Unusual or atypical: an uncharacteristic display of anger.
un to extremely characteristic, for each of the 22 adjectives given. Examples of both of the revised questionnaires are included in Figure 2. Participants' responses were then coded for mean positive and negative creative beliefs (such as unorthodox versus bookish) about themselves and an ideal creative other.
In this first packet, participants were also asked to complete the Just Suppose task from the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking-Verbal Form: a measure of divergent thinking ability (Torrance, 1972, 1974). Two independent judges coded responses to the Just Suppose task for fluency flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. , flexibility, and originality. Judges had access to TTCT TTCT Tactical Team Coordination Training scoring instruction manuals and several practice trials using previously codes responses. Judges' ratings were then correlated to assess reliability, fluency r(154) = .977, p < .001; flexibility r (154) = .978, p < .001; originality r(154) = .958, p < .001. Both judges ratings for fluency, flexibility, and originality were averaged for further analyses.
In the second packet, participants were asked to complete a generative thinking task similar to the task in Study 1. In this task, participants were to design a novel sport and describe both the rules and structure of this sport. After completing the design of their sport, participants were then asked to discuss what sports or games influenced their design. A pair of independent judges assigned each drawing a rating of originality using a 9-point scale on which low numbers indicated less originality. Judges again were college students who were not sport or art experts. Coders were given instructions on coding for originality and responses resembling Earth sports, such as basketball or football. Originality ratings for both judges were significantly correlated, r(92) = .909, p < .001, and were averaged for additional analyses. Additionally, the descriptions were coded for any mention of the use of an Earth sport in the design of the novel product.
The Structure of Implicit Theories of Creativity of the Self and Another
To explore the structure of the gifted adolescents' implicit theories of creativity, participant responses for each questionnaire were analyzed using principal components analysis with a varimax rotation. For the adolescents' ratings of their own creativity, a four-factor solution was chosen, which accounted for 47.859% of the variance. These four factors found were called risk-taking, awkwardness, intellect A natural language query program for IBM mainframes developed by Artificial Intelligence Corporation. The company was later acquired by Trinzic Corporation, which was acquired by Platinum, which was acquired by Computer Associates. , and impulsiveness im·pul·sive
1. Inclined to act on impulse rather than thought.
2. Motivated by or resulting from impulse: such impulsive acts as hugging strangers; impulsive generosity. and had eigenvalues of 4.954, 2.065, 1.949, and 1.560 respectively. For the adolescents' ratings of creativity in others, a tour-factor solution was also chosen, accounting for 52.094% of the variance. The four factors found were artistic individualism individualism
Political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom. Modern individualism emerged in Britain with the ideas of Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham, and the concept was described by Alexis de Tocqueville as fundamental to the American temper. , activity level, popularity, and questioning, and they had eigenvalues of 3.509, 2.929, 2.752, and 2.271 respectively. Items and loadings corresponding to each of these factors can be found in Tables 3 and 4.
As in Study l, composite scores were created to measure the average endorsement of attributes thought to be positively related to creativity (i.e., original, productive, and willing to take risks) and those thought to be negatively related to creativity (i.e., dull, commonplace, awkward, and wealthy). An initial examination of the relationship between the positive and negative attributes of creativity in the self and other can be seen in Table 5. As would be expected, there was a significant negative relationship between endorsement of positive attributes of creativity and negative attributes of creativity in the self, but this relationship was not found for beliefs about the creativity of others. There was however a relationship between the adolescents' endorsement of both positive and negative beliefs about themselves and others as seen in Table 5. Adolescents' ratings of both the positive and negative aspects of their own creativity were significantly related to their endorsement of those attributes as being representative of the ideal creative other.
Age and gender were also related to the adolescents' beliefs about their own creative nature. Younger students generated higher ratings of their own positive creative attributes than the older students did; but no such relationship was found for their ratings of their own negative creative attributes, r(118) = -.218, p < .05. Interestingly, as can be seen in Table 5, there was a significant relationship between gender and negative creative beliefs about the ideal creative individual. Males were much more likely to express beliefs about the attributes of an ideal creative other that included negative attributes, such as being bookish or commonplace. However, these gender differences may also be due to the greater number of males found in this study.
Relationship Between Implicit Theories and Creative Task Performance
Once again analyses were conducted to examine the role of beliefs about creativity in predicting creative task performance. While there was no relationship between endorsement of positive creative attributes in the self and performance on either the sport generation or TTCT Just Suppose tasks, there was a significant relationship between low scores for endorsement of negative creative attributes (such as bookishness) and higher originality, fluency, and flexibility scores on the TTCT Just Suppose task, r(155) = -. 189, p < .05; r(155) = -. 181, p < .05, and r(155) = -. 174, p < .05 respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between ratings for positive and negative creative attributes in others and better performance on creative tasks. For the sport task, high scores for the positive attributes and low scores for the negative attributes in the CIC were both significantly related to higher originality, r(92) = .294, p < .01 and r(92) = -.222, p < .05. For the TTCT task, originality was also related to greater endorsement of positive attributes and lower endorsement of negative ones, r(153) =. 191, p < .05 and r(153) = -.271, p < .01. Likewise, fluency and flexibility were significantly related to higher positive and lower negative attribute endorsements for the creativity of another, r(153) = .185, p < .05 and r(153) = -.237, p < .01 for fluency, r(153) = .180, p < .05 and r(153) = -.246, p < .01 for flexibility. Thus, the adolescents who endorsed the same attributes that prior research on implicit theories of creativity described as related to creativity also seemed to be the ones who performed well on various measures of creative skill.
Predicting Real-World Creative Performance
As in Study 1, one of the goals of this study was to determine if implicit theories of creativity in the self, as measured by the revised CSC, or theories about the creativity of an ideal creative other, as measured by the CIC, were uniquely predictive of involvement in creative hobbies. To examine this, a stepwise regression analysis was conducted with total creative hobby A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. Origin of term
A hobby-horse was a wooden or wickerwork toy made to be ridden just like the real hobby. From this came the expression "to ride one's hobby-horse", meaning "to follow a favourite pastime", and in turn, participation as the criterion variable, as indicated by a summarized total score on the Creative Behavior Inventory, and positive creative beliefs about the self and others, negative creative beliefs about the self and others, sport originality, and the originality of the TTCT Just Suppose task as predictor variables Noun 1. predictor variable - a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
variable quantity, variable - a quantity that can assume any of a set of values . This regression produced an overall model with three significant predictors: F(3, 91) = 14.695, MSE = 185.099, p < .001, R = .311. Once again, endorsement of positive creative attributes in the self proved to be a significant predictor of participation in creative activities, as seen in Table 6. The originality of the TTCT Just Suppose task and greater endorsement of positive attributes as characteristic of a creative other were also significant predictors of hobby participation.
For this study, there was no significant relationship between gender and participation in creative hobbies. However, for the specific subscales of the CBI, females were significantly more involved in literary, musical, and performance hobbies, r(157) = .185, p < .05; r(157) = .173, p < .05; and r (157) = .334, p < .05, respectively. Furthermore, males were more likely to participate in math and science creative hobbies than females, r(157) = -.222, p < .05. Such findings lend further credibility to the claims of gender differences in the domains chosen for creative expression (Feldhusen & Willard-Holt, 1993; Lubinski & Benbow, 1992; Olszewski-Kubilius & Yasumoto, 1995).
The goal of these studies was to examine the structure of implicit theories of creativity in the gifted using the CSC and CIC and the relationship of these theories to the exceptional creative abilities of the gifted. The first study found that gifted adolescents hold implicit theories, as assessed by the Creative Self Checklist, in which they define their creativity along many facets including impulsive im·pul·sive
1. Inclined or tending to act on impulse rather than thought.
2. Motivated by or resulting from impulse.
im·pul and adventurous ad·ven·tur·ous
1. Inclined to undertake new and daring enterprises.
2. Hazardous; risky.
ad·ven , skilled at speaking and popular, inquisitive in·quis·i·tive
1. Inclined to investigate; eager for knowledge.
2. Unduly curious and inquiring. See Synonyms at curious. and questioning, productive and intrinsically in·trin·sic
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent.
2. Anatomy Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. Used of certain nerves and muscles. motivated, somewhat awkward or boring, and nonconformist Nonconformist
Any English Protestant who does not conform to the doctrines or practices of the established Church of England. The term was first used after the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 to describe congregations that had separated from the national church. and imaginative.
In the second study, a revised form of the Creative Self Checklist was used to assess the structure of implicit theories of creativity in the gifted through endorsements of attributes. This study, like the previous study, found that the gifted held implicit theories of themselves as risk-taking, adventurous, intelligent, intrinsically motivated, impulsive, and unorthodox. However, this sample held a belief that they were awkward and boring, in direct opposition to the prior study, in which participants viewed themselves as popular and skilled at speaking. One possible explanation for this difference may be that the two groups of adolescents differed with regard to their self-concepts of their own giftedness, which clouded the reporting of their self-perceptions with regard to creativity. One way to examine this issue would be to administer the CSC to additional gifted and nongifted populations. Another source of variance may be the gender and age differences between the adolescents in Study 1 and Study 2. Participants in Study 2 were younger and there were a greater number of males in that sample. Such differences may be why there were differences in the types of hobbies that were most frequently endorsed as well as the differences in attributes listed as part of their theory of creativity. While both samples rated themselves as dull or boring to some extent, these attributes were more central to the views of creativity for the participants in Study 2.
The second study also sought to assess the adolescents' implicit theories of creativity in others. Results from the Creative Individual Checklist indicated that the gifted adolescents believed that creative others were artistic and inquisitive, energetic, popular, and questioning of assumptions and conventions. Comparisons of the two surveys indicated that this group of gifted adolescents endorsed many of the same attributes for themselves as they did for an ideal creative other, believing both to be inquisitive, adventurous, and impulsive. This dual endorsement of creative attributes can be seen as a self-view of creative competence in the gifted. Based on prior research, then it is probable that the relationship between creative performance and giftedness is impacted by their beliefs in their own creative competence.
Another issue from these findings concerns the similarities and differences from the implicit theories of creativity described in prior research. As in prior studies, both groups of adolescents held implicit theories of creativity that contained aspects of adventurousness Adventurousness
See also Journey, Quest, Wandering.
Adversity (See FAILURE.)
Advice (See COUNSEL.)
Affectation (See PRETENSION.)
Affliction (See SUFFERING. , intelligence, impulsivity, and inquisitiveness (Runco & Bahleda, 1986; Sternberg, 1985). However, compared to prior research, these adolescents' theories lacked mention of artistic or musical creativity and consistently contained references to self-concept self-concept
An individual's assessment of his or her status on a single trait or on many human dimensions using societal or personal norms as criteria. , such as popular or boring. This focus on internal states of creativity, particularly with regard to the elements of creativity as a reflection of popularity and awkwardness found in each of the studies, may be the result of adolescent egocentric egocentric /ego·cen·tric/ (-sen´trik) self-centered; preoccupied with one's own interests and needs; lacking concern for others.
adj. thought patterns as a part of identity formation. Further studies on the implicit theories of children as well as those of adolescents would help clarify the developmental changes in such personal theories of creativity.
These studies also examined the relationships among variables such as creativity measures, participation in creative hobbies, and implicit theories of creativity. The first study found that implicit theories were related to creative behaviors such that greater endorsement of positive attributes, or a belief in one's creative competence, predicted increased participation in creative hobbies better than performance on these pen-and-paper measures of creativity alone. Furthermore, this relationship occurred despite the fact that there was a limited relationship between creative beliefs and performance on pen-and-paper creativity measures. A positive implicit theory of creativity appears to be one reason that some individuals, gifted or not, may choose to engage in creative activities regardless of their creative processing abilities.
The second study also found a relationship among performance on creativity measures, participation in creative hobbies, and implicit theories of creativity. With regard to performance on creativity measures, an implicit theory that contained fewer negative creative attributes was related to better performance on the TTCT and, for adolescents' theories of others, the sport generation task. Implicit theories that do not contain attributes such as boring or awkward may be ones that reflect a greater sense of creative competence. Likewise, an implicit theory of another that contained more positive attribute endorsements was significantly related to greater performance on the TTCT and sport generation task. From these results, it appears that both a sense of personal creative competence and a well-defined general implicit theory of creativity are related to more creative output on standard creativity tasks.
As in the first study, there was a significant relationship among creativity measures, implicit theories of creativity and participation in creative hobbies. Again, a positive theory of creative competence was the most predictive of adolescents' participation in creative hobbies. Additionally, originality on the TTCT and a positive implicit theory of creativity in others also were related to hobby participation. Taken with the findings of the first study, it appears that implicit theories of creativity are a more consistent predictor of participation in later creative activities than performance on pen-and-paper tasks.
An additional finding of these studies indicated that what activities the gifted chose to engage in may in part be driven by gender, with males in this study much more likely to participate in math and science hobbies than females who typically chose literary, performance, or crafting hobbies. Due to both the small size of our study and the gender bias of the sample in Study 2, an accurate assessment of gender differences in the implicit theories of creativity was not feasible. Further research into gender differences in theories of creativity, particularly with adults and younger children, is needed to examine if differences in activity preferences by gender alters our implicit theories of creativity in any way.
One major drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. of this study in understanding the role that implicit theories play in the creativity of the gifted is the lack of a nongifted comparison sample. Further study of implicit theories of creativity with a gifted and nongifted sample would allow for better understanding of the implicit theories of creativity in the self and others for a normative nor·ma·tive
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.
nor adolescent population as well as their similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. to those theories held by the gifted. Although the attributes endorsed by the gifted adolescents as representative of creativity in this study were similar to those found in prior research with adults, there were some notable differences. Therefore, it may be possible that nongifted adolescents hold implicit theories that are different from both groups.
In conclusion, these studies found that gifted adolescents hold implicit theories of creativity that are similar to those found in prior research with adults. Furthermore, these implicit theories are more consistent predictors of their participation in "real-world" creative activities than performance on generative and divergent thinking tasks. This finding that adolescents' implicit theories influence their creative task performance and creative hobby participation conforms to prior findings of the impact of implicit theories on creative behavior (Lim & Plucker, 2001; Sternberg, 1985). It appears then, that implicit theories of creativity, with their power to shape an individual's concept of creativity, are indeed a major component of what differentiates those who display creativity from those who do not. As such, it may be the key component explaining the consistent link that has been made between creativity and giftedness.
Manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. submitted March 15, 2004.
Revision accepted April 12, 2005.
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Of or involving both social and cultural factors.
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n. pl. gen·er·al·i·ties
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Katherine N. Saunders Wickes is an Instructor of Psychology in the Social Sciences Division of Blinn College Blinn College is a two-year academic institution based in Brenham, Texas with campuses in Brenham, Bryan, Schulenburg, and Sealy. While the Brenham campus is Blinn's main campus, over 70% of students attend the Bryan campus. . Her research interests include creativity in the gifted, enrichment programs for the gifted and teaching in the community college setting. Research for this article was conducted to fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. requirements for a Ph.D. in psychology from Texas A&M University and with cooperation from staff at the Institute for the Gifted and Talented located there. E-mail: email@example.com
Thomas B. Ward Thomas Bayless Ward (April 27, 1835 - January 1, 1892) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.
Born in Marysville, Ohio, Ward moved with his parents to La Fayette, Indiana, in May 1836. is Professor of Psychology at the University of Alabama The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as 'Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship campus of the University of Alabama System. . His research focuses on the nature of concepts, including how they are acquired, structured, combined, and used in creative and noncreative endeavors. He has served as Associate Editor of Memory & Cognition and currently serves as Executive Officer of the Cognitive Science Society and Editor of the Journal of Creative Behavior. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1 Factor Loadings for Key Items from the Creative Self Checklist Variance Component explained Factors Items loadings (%) Factor 1: Risk-taking 18.101 Impulsive .503 Willing to take risks .889 Adventurous .850 Factor 2: Likeableness 9.939 Skilled at speaking .579 Wealthy .682 Popular .707 Factor 3: Inquisitiveness 7.163 Questions conventions .742 Inquisitive .621 Questions assumptions .746 Alert to gaps in knowledge .636 Factor 4: Productivity 5.335 Productive .760 Intrinsically motivated .502 Capable .637 Factor 5: Dullness 5.008 Boring .764 Awkward .805 Dull .667 Factor 6: Nonconformity 4.363 Nonconformist .717 Unorthodox .559 Imaginative .515 Original .592 Table 2 Predictors of Creative Hobby Participation Model [beta] t p Intercept -13.14 -1.196 .235 RAT score 2.561 3.293 .001 Positive creative beliefs 3.943 2.443 .016 Novel fruit originality 1.676 2.058 .042 Note. Predictors also entered: Negative creative beliefs Table 3 Factor Structure for the Creative Self Checklist (Revised) Variance Component explained Factors Items loadings (%) Factor 1: Risk-taking 14.536 Energetic or active .638 Has a sense of humor .630 Willing to take risks .674 Unorthodox .819 Skilled at speaking .529 Physically attractive .521 Factor 2: Awkwardness 11.417 Dull .795 Boring .683 Awkward .656 Popular -.606 Factor 3: Intellect 8.944 Intelligent .771 Alert to gaps in knowledge .694 Intrinsically motivated .514 Factor 4: Impulsiveness 8.396 Impulsive .843 Unorthodox .615 Table 4 Factor Structure of the Creative Individual Checklist Variance Component explained Factors Items loadings (%) Factor 1: Artistic 15.949 individualism Can write, draw, or compose .746 music Alert to gaps in knowledge .741 Individualistic .671 Inquisitive or curious .589 Intrinsically motivated .566 Factor 2: Activity level 13.315 Energetic or active .609 Boring -.779 Dull -.756 Adventurous .532 Factor 3: Popularity 12.507 Wealthy .837 Popular .864 Physically attractive .818 Factor 4: Questioning 10.323 Questions assumptions .600 Commonplace -.619 Unorthodox .537 Questions conventions .571 Table 5 Correlations Between Creativity Beliefs of the Self and Other PCS NCS PCO Positive creative self beliefs (PCS) 1.000 Negative creative self beliefs (NCS) .166 * 1.000 (156) Positive creative other beliefs (PCO) .327 ** .126 1.000 (154) (154) Negative creative other beliefs (NCO) .043 .438 ** .035 (154) (154) (154) Gender -.094 -.035 -.046 (156) (156) (154) Age -.218 * -.005 .084 (118) (118) (118) NCO Gender Age Positive creative self beliefs (PCS) Negative creative self beliefs (NCS) Positive creative other beliefs (PCO) Negative creative other beliefs (NCO) 1.000 Gender -.203 * 1.000 (154) Age -.118 -.272 ** 1.000 (118) (119) Note. * p < .05, ** p < .01 Table 6 Beliefs and Creativity Tasks Predictive of Creative Activity Participation Model [beta] t p Intercept -12.365 -1.133 .260 Positive creative beliefs-self 9.492 6.181 .001 TTCT originality .829 3.025 .003 Positive creative beliefs-other -3.641 -2.490 .015 Note. Predictors also entered: Sport originality, negative creative belief-self, negative creative belief-other Figure 1 Creative Self Checklist (CSC)--Long Form The following is a list of terms sometimes used to describe people. Please rate each item with regards to how it describes you as an individual using the following scale of 1 to 9 on the sheet marked "Creative Self Checklist". 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 extremely extremely uncharacteristic characteristic 1. impulsive 2. emotional 3. nonconformist 4. unorthodox 5. productive 6. intelligent 7. possesses ability for high achievement 8. can write, draw, or compose music 9. imaginative 10. questions conventions 11. perceptive 12. energetic or active 13. has a sense of humor 14. inquisitive or curious 15. intuitive 16. intrinsically motivated 17. can sustain effort over long tasks 18. questions assumptions 19. original 20. willing to take risks 21. adventurous 22. has a wide knowledge base 23. alert to gaps in knowledge 24. inventive 25. has problem solving skills 26. capable 27. individualistic 28. bookish 29. boring 30. lazy 31. conforming 32. skilled at speaking 33. awkward 34. commonplace 35. wealthy 36. popular 37. apathetic 38. dull 39. physically attractive 40. tall Figure 2 Revised Creative Self and Individual Checklists Creative Self Checklist The following is a list of terms sometimes used to describe people. Please rate each item with regards to how it describes you as an individual using the following scale of 1 (extremely uncharacteristic) to 9 (extremely characteristic) on the sheet marked "Creative Self Checklist". 1. impulsive 2. unorthodox 3. intelligent 4. can write, draw, or compose music 5. questions conventions 6. energetic or active 7. has a sense of humor 8. inquisitive or curious 9. intrinsically motivated 10. questions assumptions 11. willing to take risks 12. adventurous 13. alert to gaps in knowledge 14. individualistic 15. boring 16. skilled at speaking 17. awkward 18. commonplace 19. wealthy 20. popular 21. dull 22. physically attractive Creative Individual Checklist The following is a list of terms sometimes used to describe people. Please rate each item with regards to how it describes the ideal creative individual using the following scale of 1 (extremely uncharacteristic) to 9 (extremely characteristic) on the sheet marked "Creative Individual Checklist". 1. impulsive 2. unorthodox 3. intelligent 4. can write, draw, or compose music 5. questions conventions 6. energetic or active 7. has a sense of humor 8. inquisitive or curious 9. intrinsically motivated 10. questions assumptions 11. willing to take risks 12. adventurous 13. alert to gaps in knowledge 14. individualistic 15. boring 16. skilled at speaking 17. awkward 18. commonplace 19. wealthy 20. popular 21. dull 22. physically attractive