Market profile: multispectral imaging.When a team of Brigham Young University Brigham Young University, at Provo, Utah; Latter-Day Saints; coeducational; opened as an academy in 1875 and became a university in 1903. It is noted for its law and business schools. researchers was invited to Herculaneum to resurrect writing from excavated scrolls, many' of the participants were skeptical. Not only were the papyrus fragments 2,000 years old, but they had been cooked and pressed into solid black discs when the city was overrun by ash and lava in 79 A.D. In spite of the dismal condition of the texts, scientists using multispectral imagers outfitted with special filters were able to decipher the words buried under layers of seemingly impenetrable carbon.
The dramatic results produced by multispectral imaging are based on a fundamental scientific principle--different biological substances will reflect light at different wavelengths. The human eye is capable of detecting light only in a short wavelength range, from about 400 to 700 nm. A light-sensitive instrument implanted in an imager called a charge coupled device, or CCD CCD
in full charge-coupled device
Semiconductor device in which the individual semiconductor components are connected so that the electrical charge at the output of one device provides the input to the next device. , can extend the range of detectable wavelengths into the near infrared, to about 1,100 nm. By pairing a CCD with filters that limit the captured light to a band as narrow as 10 nm, scientists can observe even minute compositional anomalies, such as the residue of ink embedded deep within old rolls of paper.
Originally created by NASA NASA: see National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
in full National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Independent U.S. for analyzing planetary surfaces, multispectral imaging has in the years since found its way into a myriad of research and industrial roles. While imagers are still installed in satellites to bore down through fog and cloud cover and to identify variations in the Earth's topography, they have proven equally useful in more commonplace tasks like inspecting truck brakes at weigh stations; pinpointing weed-laden sections of fields for spraying; grading meat and produce; identifying sources of radiant heat heat proceeding in right lines, or directly from the heated body, after the manner of light, in distinction from heat conducted or carried by intervening media.
See also: Radiant ; and ensuring product size consistency In quantum chemistry, size consistency (or strict separability) is a property that guarantees the consistency of the energy behavior when interaction between the involved molecular system is nullified (for example, by distance). quickly and accurately, regardless of differences in color.
Over the last few years, the Years, The
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See : Time imaging industry has undergone consolidation, in particular under the aegis of Roper Industries. In November 1999, Roper acquired Redlake, a prominent digital motion analysis and imaging company, $9 million. Last year, in an effort to further increase its color and multispectral product lines, Redlake bought DuncanTech, a leading camera producer.
To collect data, most cameras use one of two methods: a single sensor and multiple receptors to detect red, green and blue color bands; or a spinning filter wheel to capture the colors sequentially. While a filter wheel can produce better resolution, it can create blurry images if the target is moving.
DuncanTech's MS4100 camera--its top-of-the-line model--includes three separate CCD sensors and boasts a resolution of 6.2 million pixels. It can be configured for RGB (Red Green Blue) The computer's native color space, which is the color system for capturing and displaying images. RGB was derived from our own perception of color because human eyes are sensitive to red, green and blue (see trichromaticity). imaging, which allows for high-quality color pictures, or color-infrared (CIR (Committed Information Rate) In a frame relay network, the average transmission rate in bits per second (typically Kbps) for a virtual circuit. It defines the maximum rate that the network can handle under normal conditions. ), which is suitable for multispectral uses.
In many ways, though, multi-spectral imaging remains a niche market A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector.
By definition, then, a business that focuses on a niche market is addressing a need for a product or service that is not being addressed by mainstream providers. and a significant number of companies producing cameras and accessories are very small. The Los Angeles-based Tetracam, for instance, builds low-cost multispectral cameras for agriculture. Its Tetracam ADC (1) See A/D converter.
(2) (Apple Display Connector) A peripheral connector from Apple that combines digital video display, USB and power in one cable. enables users to take either red/green or near infrared photographs. While manufacturers like Tetracam tend to design cameras for specific fields, many are also willing to construct custom models for customers. Other manufacturers include FLIR Systems and the French company CEDIP Infrared Systems.