Maritime anti-terrorism at the crossroads of national security and homeland defense.
A Los Angeles-class attack submarine gets tinder way on a crisp winter morning from Naval Submarine Base New London Naval Submarine Base New London is the United States Navy's first Submarine Base, the "Home of the Submarine Force", and "the Submarine Capital of the World". In 1868, the State of Connecticut gave the Navy 112 acres (0.5 km²) of land along the Thames River to build a Naval Station. , Conn., It is heading to sea for a deployment that will eventually take the boat into the Northern Atlantic.
As the vessel clears the Gold Star Bridge The Gold Star Bridge is a pair of steel truss bridges, each composed of eleven spans, located in New London, Connecticut, USA. The bridge carries both Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1 across the Thames River to Groton, Connecticut. , it is met by two Coast Guard vessels, a patrol boat and a small boat, which assume escort duties that are aimed at enforcing the naval vessel protective zone around the submarine.
When the submarine approaches Race Rock, the vessels are alerted by the Naval Criminal Investigative Service This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now. Multi-Threat Analysis Center and Coast Guard Maritime Intelligence Fusion Center In intelligence usage, a physical location to accomplish fusion. It normally has sufficient intelligence automated data processing capability to assist in the process. of a potential threat. Terrorists, who have access to small boats, may be in the vicinity.
Both the submarine's commanding officer and the Coast Guard patrol commander will be faced with questions should the terrorists mount an attack on the sub.
On the surface, the roles in this scenario are clear-cut. They are based on a series of messages between commander Fleet Forces Command, and Coast Guard Atlantic and Pacific Areas since September of 2001. The Coast Guard, as the patrol commander, would engage and neutralize an attempted attack. The submarine commander, as tradition and regulations have dictated since the days of sail, would exercise a right of self-defense and respond accordingly to protect his boat.
Yet, this simple scenario illustrates an issue that has been studied and discussed extensively for the past two years, noted officials. Discussion has ranged from the highest levels of both the Defense and Homeland Security Departments There were gaps in the U.S. system for detecting and deterring terrorist acts in the homeland. That became clear September 11, 2001. The Department of Homeland Security is the george w. bush administration's plug for those gaps. , to the offices of the National Security Council, to the halls of Congress, and within the U.S. Northern Command's headquarters. At issue is how do the homeland defense and homeland security Noun 1. Homeland Security - the federal department that administers all matters relating to homeland security
Department of Homeland Security
executive department - a federal department in the executive branch of the government of the United States duties contribute to enhanced protection of national assets in the territorial seas of the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. .
The lack of an official joint homeland defense vs. homeland security interoperability definition has added to the debate.
Homeland security, for example, is addressed in the National Strategy for Homeland Security, as "a concentrated national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur," while homeland defense is defined on the Northern Command's website as the "protection of U.S. territory, domestic population and critical infrastructure against military attacks emanating from outside the United States."
From training and conducting preparations for deployments, to operations, to developing common doctrine and tactics, techniques and procedures, anti-terrorism is a focus of synergy. It is an area where the Sea Services--Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard--are joined at the hip on any given day It is an area that stands to provide a workable foundation to start the facilitation of a resolution of homeland defense vs. homeland security.
A September 17, 2001, message that was written by the four primary operational commanders in this scenario--Coast Guard Atlantic Area, Commander Atlantic Fleet A number of countries currently have or previously had an Atlantic Fleet in their navies.
The Coast Guard and Navy have jointly defined high value units as "USN/NATO Aircraft Carriers, submarines and Military Sealift Command A major command of the US Navy, and the US Transportation Command's component command responsible for designated common-user sealift transportation services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy US forces on a global basis. Also called MSC. See also transportation component command. (MSC (1) (MSC.Software Corporation, Santa Ana, CA, www.mscsoftware.com) Founded in 1963 by Richard H. MacNeal and Robert G. Schwendler, MSC is the world's largest provider of mechanical computer aided engineering (MCAE) strategies, simulation software and services. ) Sealift/Pre-Positioned vessels carrying ammunition or other critical cargo."
This definition along with standing joint processes puts in motion the first of several critical homeland defense/homeland security links.
This anti-terrorism team effort, which provides protection to Navy, happens anywhere from 30 to 40 times a month, from Naval Station Bangor in the Pacific northwest to Naval Station Norfolk Coordinates: Naval Station Norfolk, in Norfolk, Virginia, is a base of the United States Navy, supporting naval forces operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean. on the East Coast. Both services are operating on agreed upon Adj. 1. agreed upon - constituted or contracted by stipulation or agreement; "stipulatory obligations"
noncontroversial, uncontroversial - not likely to arouse controversy operational orders.
The number of activities that are contributing to the synergy of anti-terrorism efforts seems is growing. One of the biggest, and most visible areas is training.
Perhaps the best example is the U.S. Coast Guard Special Mission Training Center, located along the North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. coast, at Camp Lejeune Camp LeJeune (ləzhn`), U.S. marine corps base, 82,969 acres (33,576 hectares), SE N.C., SE of Jacksonville; est. 1941. . Hosted by the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard runs this center, and has several special warfare combatant craft qualified Navy expert instructors on staff. Focused on maritime security operations Maritime Security Operations (MSO) is a term for the actions of modern naval forces to "combat sea–based terrorism and other illegal activities, such as hijacking, piracy, and slavery, also known as human trafficking. , Coast Guard personnel instruct not only members of their own service, but also Navy personnel, preparing them for possible real-world deployments in the United States and overseas. The courses taught at the center have crossover benefits. The over-the-horizon rigid hull inflatable boat An inflatable boat is a lightweight boat constructed with its sides and bow made of flexible tubes containing pressurised gas. For smaller boats, the floor and hull beneath it is often flexible. and transportable port security boat courses are equally important to all services. The inflatable boat, for example, is a significant "power projector" for the Coast Guard, especially in law enforcement.
The Center for Anti-Terrorism and Navy Security Forces is another example of homeland defense/homeland security anti-terrorism intersection. Designated as one of the Naval Personnel Development Command's new learning centers, the command has the responsibility to develop and deliver individual learning solutions to meet fleet forces command and type commander anti-terrorism mission requirements. The new command's mission includes development and maintenance of the new five-vector model for the master-at-arms rating to chart career milestones, growth opportunities and the skills required for professional development. The center is also developing individual skills learning solutions to supporting the merger of the afloat and ashore anti-terrorism training continuum.
Besides training, cooperation was evident in the realm of force protection. For example, USCGC USCGC United States Coast Guard Cutter Dallas, a 378-foot high endurance cutter, home ported in Charlestown, S.C., and eight island-class patrol boats were identified for deployment and began a very short-fused process to prepare using guidelines from commanders of the Fifth and Sixth Fleets.
Dallas, and the cutter's operational commander--Coast Guard Atlantic Area--knew that training was needed immediately to meet the Sixth Fleet commander's requirements. This training would need to be executed as quickly as possible, since current Coast Guard onboard anti-terrorism requirements are not quite as robust as the Navy's.
The center for anti-terrorism and Navy security forces understood the training issues and worked with Coast Guard Atlantic Area and the cutter's senior leadership to help fill the gaps, which in retrospect could be considered a proof of concept for future interoperability.
Feedback from both the Dallas and the patrol boat crews was that the training support provided by the center helped to prepare the cutter to meet all fleet requirements. This is proving to be a step forward in the synergy that occurs daily in the execution of the anti-terrorism mission.
Coast Guard officers are now routinely invited to Navy courses to discuss such topics as service capabilities, the naval vessel protection zone, maritime safety and security teams, and Navy/Coast Guard use of force policies.
More efforts are under way which will bridge homeland defense and homeland security. Both Navy and Coast Guard leaders are addressing this critical challenge. This coordination proved to be valuable guidance during the strategic on-load phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom in which more than one piece of intelligence was briefed between the homeland defense and homeland security providers, which ensured both forces had the best possible maritime domain awareness Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) is an initiative by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to create a national Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (C4ISR or C4ISTAR) capability monitoring all . The common objective of anti-terrorism can help serve as a bridge without blurring operational, tactical or legal issues.
Capt. Bill Daniels, a 1977 graduate of the United States Naval Academy United States Naval Academy, at Annapolis, Md.; for training young men and women to be officers of the U.S. navy or marine corps. George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy, founded and opened (1845) it as the Naval School at Annapolis. , is the commanding officer of the Center for Anti-Terrorism and Naval Security Forces. Joe DiRenzo, a 1982 Naval Academy graduate, is a Coast Guard Atlantic area anti-terrorism coordinator.