Marine and atmospheric sciences.Chair: Stephen Howden, University of Southern Mississippi
Vice-chair: Zikri Arslan, Jackson State University Jackson State University, often abridged as Jackson State or by its initials JSU is a historically black university located in Jackson, Mississippi founded in 1877.
Bost Auditorium North
10:30 Poster Session
MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR IRRADIANCE ir·ra·di·ant
Sending forth radiant light.
[Latin irradi WITH A MULTIFILTER ROTATING SHADOWBAND RADIOMETER radiometer (rā'dēŏm`ətər), instrument for detection or measurement of electromagnetic radiation; the term is applied in particular to devices used to measure infrared radiation. (MFRSR)
R.Suseela Reddy, Sridhar Kota*, Umesh Remata, Rush Lockhart, Harene Natarajan, and R.Karim, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217
The Jackson State University Meteorology Program (JSUMP) recently installed a Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) through a collaborative effort with the NOAA NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Noun 1. NOAA - an agency in the Department of Commerce that maps the oceans and conserves their living resources; predicts changes to the earth's environment; Center for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS NCAS National Capital Area Skeptics
NCAS National Consortium for Academics and Sports (Orlando, FL)
NCAS Non-Call Associated Signaling (Telcordia)
NCAS National Cyber Alert System ) at Howard University. The MFRSR is currently in operation and measures global, diffuse and direct normal components of Spectral Solar Irradiance, in six narrow bands approximately 10 nm wide. The data resulted from the measurements were used in the computations of aerosol, water vapor, and ozone optical depths. The data for Solar Irradiance were considered for clear day (Oct. 9th, 2006) as well as cloudy day (Oct. 2nd, 2006) skies to study the effect of clouds on Radiation. The results indicated that no atmospheric effects were observed in the variation of total solar irradiance during clear skies. During cloudy skies the atmospheric effects were observed due to clouds. Validation of data with satellite measurements will be discussed. JSU will continue measurements of solar and atmospheric radiation and aerosols for climate studies and for long-range monitoring of Aerosol Radiation Network (AERADNET).
CHRONIC ACCUMULATION PROFILE OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND MERCURY IN GOLDFISH
Cristina Nica (1*) 1, Zikri Arslan (1), Anthony J. Bednar (2), (1) Jackson State University, Jackson MS 39217 and (2) US Army Engineer Research and Development Center The Engineer Research and Development Center or ERDC is a United States government funded military base located at Vicksburg, Mississippi. The base was set up after the 1927 flood disaster of the Mississippi River. The base is staffed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. (ERDC ERDC Engineer Research and Development Center
ERDC Economic Research and Development Center
ERDC Eleanor Roosevelt Democratic Club (Orange County, California)
ERDC Exploratory Research and Development Center
ERDC Extended Response Data Call ), Vicksburg, MS 39180
Mercury, lead and cadmium are among the most toxic heavy metals. Under chronic exposure, fish accumulate these metals to higher levels in the internal organs. The magnitude of stress induced by each individual metal is not only dependent on the relative toxicity of the metal ion, but also the target organ impacted. In this study, the uptake profile and relative toxicity of Cd, Pb and Hg were studied using goldfish. Goldfish were exposed to individual metals for ten days in glass tanks. Two different concentrations of the metals were administered individually: low level (20 [micro]g/L for Hg and 100 [micro]g/L for Cd and Pb) and high level (50 [micro]g/L for Hg and 250 [micro]g/L for Cd and Pb). Lethal effects were observed for fish exposed to Cd and Hg within the first two days. Toxicity of Pb was less pronounced compared to that of Cd and Hg. Internal organs, including the liver, gill, kidney, and muscle tissue were removed from exposed fish and digested in teflon vessels by nitric acid. Two different Certified Reference Materials Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are ‘controls’ used to check the quality and traceability of products. The demand for reference materials is growing rapidly. , dog fish liver (DOLT-1) and lobster hepatopancreas The hepatopancreas is an organ of the digestive tract of arthropods, gastropods and fish. It provides the functions which in mammals are provided separately by the liver and pancreas. (TORT-2) were digested using the same procedure for quality control. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) is a type of mass spectrometry that is highly sensitive and capable of the determination of a range of metals and several non-metals at concentrations below one part in 1012. (ICP-MS ICP-MS Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy ). The magnitude of accumulation was higher in fish exposed low levels of metals. Levels of Cd were consistently high in the kidney, while mercury accumulated in the gills, and lead in gills and muscles to higher levels.
FALL POST-LARVAL PENAEID SHRIMP IMMIGRATION immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. INTO A MISSISSIPPI ESTUARY
Ryan Knobf (1*), Ricky Greer (1), John Anderson (2), and Harriet Perry (2), (1) Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College consists of four campuses and four centers: the main campus, located in Perkinston, Mississippi; the Jackson County Campus, in Gautier; the Jefferson Davis Campus, in Gulfport; the Community Campus, a , Gautier, MS 39553, National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), civilian agency of the U.S. federal government with the mission of conducting research and developing operational programs in the areas of space exploration, artificial satellites (see satellite, artificial), , Stennis Space Center, MS 39522, (2) Gulf Coast Research Laboratory's J.L. Scott Marine Education Center (MEC), and Center for Fisheries Research and Development, Ocean Springs, MS 39564
The purpose of this project is to monitor the migration of postlarval penaeid shrimp into a Mississippi estuary during the fall season. Samples were taken with a beam plankton trawl at a single station along the marsh edge in Davis Bayou, Jackson County. Weekly sampling was conducted from mid-October through January. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, depth, and weather conditions were recorded at the time of each sample. Penaeid shrimp were sorted, identified to species, and the length, weight, total number, and total biomass of each shrimp species recorded. While extensive research has been conducted on the spring immigration of brown postlarval shrimp into estuaries, little research has been done on postlarval recruitment into estuaries during the fall. Brown postlarval shrimp migration into estuaries peaks in the spring, but the postlarvae continue to recruit to the estuary until winter. White postlarval shrimp usually peak in the summer, but also continue to immigrate until winter. Pink postlarval shrimp recruit to the estuary in fall until the winter. Abundance of postlarvae is sometimes used to estimate predictions of commercial landings.
THE POTENTIAL OF MISSISSIPPI MESONET DATA TO DETECT CERTAIN TYPES OF FOG BASED ON MULTIPARAMETER PROXIES
Loren White* and Brandon DeShields, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217
Synoptic reports of fog or mist are routinely reported primarily for FAA flight rules determination, by ASOS ASOS Automated Surface Observing System
ASOS As Seen on Screen (fashion clothing site)
ASOS Air Support Operations Squadron (USAF)
ASOS A Saucerful of Secrets (Pink Floyd album) and AWOS AWOS Automated Weather Observation System
AWOS Automated Weather Observing Station
AWOS Air War Over Serbia stations sited at medium to large sized airports. The primary criterion for definition of fog or mist is according to the horizontal visibility range (0.5 statute mile or less for fog; 7 statute miles or less for mist). Since fog or mist is normally associated in Mississippi with relative humidity very near 100% and specific conditions of surface layer static stability and wind, it is hypothesized that sufficient relation to these ancillary parameters will enable the creation of a usefully robust proxy for fog/mist based on Mesonet-observed data. In order to develop such a proxy, we have identified events in which a sufficient number of ASOS/AWOS stations near a Mesonet station have reported fog/mist that a widespread fog event can be assumed (thus including the Mesonet site). By compositing and correlating Mesonet parameters for such cases at the five currently operating Mesonet stations, we can determine the feasibility and potential value of such a proxy fog product. For daytime cases, the probable existence of fog at the site can further be confirmed by visible satellite imagery.
MAPPING A NEW ENERGY SOURCE
Leigh Ann Eddins (1), Jason King (1), Hunter Lightsey (1*), Jeff Rotman (1), Mississippi State University Mississippi State University, at Mississippi State, near Starkville; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1878 as an agricultural and mechanical college, opened 1880. From 1932 to 1958 it was known as Mississippi State College. , Starkville, MS 39762
Over the past two decades, researchers have studied gas hydrates extensively because of the energy potential of the gases occluded. Gas hydrates are present everywhere in the world, and a large amount of gas hydrates are present in the Gulf of Mexico Noun 1. Gulf of Mexico - an arm of the Atlantic to the south of the United States and to the east of Mexico
Golfo de Mexico
Atlantic, Atlantic Ocean - the 2nd largest ocean; separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east . The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that gas hydrates possess more carbon than oil reserves. If a safe and an economical process is developed to aquire the energy of gas hydrates, the United States could obtain more fossil fuels locally. Due to the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (S.3711), states such as Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana will receive royalties from any harvesting of natural gas or oil up to one hundred miles off their respective shores. This recently passed bill has hefty financial implications for these three southern states which depend especially on a method for finding and harvesting gas hydrates. However, locating gas hydrates is a difficult task, so this project explores a unique probability technique for locating gas hydrates. In this project, documented discovery of gas hydrates, documented bottom simulating reflections of gas hydrates, and documented oil reserves are combined with Google Earth [c] software in order to locate areas of gas hydrate concentration.
AGE AND GROWTH OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) IN MISSISSIPPI AND ADJACENT GULF OF MEXICO WATERS
Kenneth Brookins (1*), Maria Begonia begonia (bĭgōn`yə), any plant of the large genus Begonia and common name for the family Begoniaceae, mostly succulent perennial herbs of the American tropics cultivated elsewhere as bedding or pot plants and easily propagated by (1), Delphine Vanderpool (2), Keith Mullin (3) and Moby Solangi (2), (1) Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, (2) Institute for Marine Mammal Studies The Institute for Marine Mammal Studies ("IMMS") is a major non-profit organization established in 1984 for the education, conservation, and research on marine mammals in the wild and in captivity. , Gulfport, MS 39502, and (3) National Marine Fisheries Service The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is a United States federal agency. A division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Commerce, NMFS is responsible for the stewardship and management of the nation's living marine , NOAA, Pascagoula, MS 39567
The bottlenose dolphin is one of the most well known cetaceans, because of its widespread use in marine parks and research facilities. However, there is still a strong need for information on growth rates of the species in order to better understand its ecology and population status. The objective of this study is to obtain biological data to elucidate the growth patterns of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in the Mississippi Sound and adjacent waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Teeth were collected from bottlenose dolphins stranded on the mainland coast of Mississippi and the adjacent barrier islands. The midsection mid·sec·tion
A middle section, especially the midriff of the body. of each tooth was cut into a 2-mm section using an isomer isomer (ī`səmər), in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. saw with a diamond-embedded blade. The section was then fixed in formalin overnight, rinsed with tap water and decalcified in a decalcifying acid mixture. Once decalcified, the sections were cut into thin, 25 um sections using a sliding microtome microtome /mi·cro·tome/ (mi´krah-tom) an instrument for cutting thin sections for microscopic study.
n. equipped with a freezing stage. These sections were then stained in Mayer's hematoxylin hematoxylin /he·ma·tox·y·lin/ (he?mah-tok´si-lin) an acid coloring matter from the heartwood of Haematoxylon campechianum; used as a histologic stain and also as an indicator. stain, rinsed in water before and after a weak ammonia rinse, and mounted on slides in glycerin glycerin /glyc·er·in/ (-in) a clear, colorless, syrupy liquid used as a laxative, an osmotic diuretic to reduce intraocular pressure, a demulcent in cough preparations, and a humectant and solvent for drugs. Cf. glycerol. . The number of growth layer groups (GLG) was read at least 3 times under a stereo microscope. Results revealed that the dolphins varied in ages based on the number of the GLG layers counted. The collection of information such as age and growth structure and other parameters are crucial to understanding the population dynamics and hence to successful management and conservation of the bottlenose dolphin.
COMPARISON OF SAMPLE DISSOLUTON METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND SEDIMENTS FOR HEAVY METALS
Domingos D. A fonso (1*), Zikri Arslan (1*), and Anthony J. Bednar (2), (1) Jackson State University, Jackson MS 39217 and (2) US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Vicksburg, MS 39180
Accurate information of the heavy metals in soil and sediments is critical for better understanding the health issues of heavy metal contamination. Determination of the metals from soil and sediments is, however, a challenging task due to difficulties associated with sample dissolution and instrumental analysis. While complete dissolution of silicate may cause matrix interferences, incomplete dissolution and/or extraction of the metals may yield lower values. Volatility differences may also cause inaccuracies if the elements of interest are lost during high-temperature digestion/extraction. It is therefore essential to develop an analytical procedure to achieve complete extraction of the trace metals into solution by minimizing the analyte loss and dissolution of matrix elements. In this study, we investigated the analytical performance of four different sample dissolution procedures for analysis of soil and sediment samples for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb. The methods were (a) open-vessel digestion by HN[O.sub.3]+HF, (b) closed-vessel microwave-assisted digestion by HN[O.sub.3]+HF, (c) closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction by HN[O.sub.3], and (d) ultrasonic extraction in 5% HN[O.sub.3]. The first two methods resulted in complete dissolution of the soil and sediment samples. However, Hg was completely lost in Method (a). Matrix interferences were highest in Method (b) due to the silicate matrix. The heavy metals were extracted by Method (c) without significant dissolution of the silicate matrix. Method (d) was also an effective means of extracting the metals to solution. This method also affords preparation of samples at room temperature rapidly that virtually eliminates analyte loss and minimizes contamination.
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN VARIOUS PONDS IN MISSISSIPPI
Sunil Manohar Katta (*1), Zikri Arslan (1), Maria Begonia (1), Pao-Chiang Yuan (1), Anthony J. Bednar (2), (1) Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 and (2) US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Vicksburg MS 39180
The metal concentrations in various ponds in Mississippi were measured to understand if the levels pose any health and environmental risks. The ponds studied include Lake Hico, Crossgates Lake, Stonegates Lake, Lake Catherine, Lakeland, Windsor Hill, Northlake Avenue, Belhaven Lake, Grand Tunica, Swan Lake, and Shadow Lake. These are ponds are actively used for fishing and watering crops, therefore, it is important that possible metal contamination by toxic metal is monitored regularly to avoid adverse health problems and for sustainability of aquatic life. For this purpose, water samples were collected in two sites of each individual pond. Samples were acidified acidified /acid·i·fied/ (ah-sid´i-fid) having been made acid. to 0.1% nitric acid (pH~1.8) immediately, and filtered in the laboratory by 0.45-[micro]m membrane filters. Determinations were made by ICP-MS. The accuracy of the elemental results from pond waters was validated by simultaneously running standard water reference sample (SRM 1643e). The results produced with YSI instrument showed pH was neutral between 7.5-8.5, temperature was moderate (30-32 [degrees]C), salinity was low (0.1-0.3%), and dissolved [O.sub.2] (DO) was at 7-8.5 mg/l. Results from elemental analysis of SRM by ICP-MS analysis showed agreement with the certified values. Most of theses ponds showed low levels of metal concentrations (compared to safe drinking water standards EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, eicosapentaenoic.
n. ) except with some metals (e.g., lead, chromium nickel, cadmium). Crossgates, Grand Tunica, Swan Lake, North Lake Avenue, Windsor Hill, Lake Catherine, Shadow Lake, Stonegates showed high concentrations of iron, manganese, and arsenic.
Hunter Henry Executive Room 12
1:00 TRACE ELEMENT BEHAVIOR IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER PLUME AFTER HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA RITA Cardiology A clinical trial–Randomized Intervention Treatment of Angina–comparing the outcome of PCTA vs CABG in Pts with angina. See Angina, Angioplasty, CABG, Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.
MooJoon Shim (1*), Lyndsie Gross (2), Peter Swarzenski (3), and Alan M. Shiller (2), (1) University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, (2) University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, and (3) US Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL 33701
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused substantial mixing of waters along the Louisiana Shelf as well as remobilization of shelf sediments. These physical disturbances could have resulted in a significant change in trace element fluxes through this coastal mixing zone. Therefore, samples of Mississippi River delta For other uses, see Mississippi Delta (disambiguation)
The Mississippi River Delta is the modern area of land (the river delta) built up by alluvium deposited by the Mississippi River as it slows down and enters the Gulf of Mexico. outflow waters were collected during October 2006 and we report the results of trace element analyses of these samples here. River endmember concentrations for a suit of dissolved trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V) were similar to previous reports for Mississippi River water. Dissolved Ni and Cu showed largely conservative mixing in the plume, also consistent with previous observations. Dissolved Co, Cr, and Mn all showed maximum concentrations at mid-salinities, though the salinity of maximum concentration varied among these elements. These distributions are indicative of input from reducing bottom sediments. There is little previous data for these elements in this region, however, this behavior is not out of line with other estuarine observations.
1:20 SUDDEN NOCTURNAL WARMING EVENTS AS OBSERVED BY THE MISSISSIPPI MESONET
Loren White*, Shari Dixon, and Brandon DeShields, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217
A previously undocumented atmospheric phenomenon of "nocturnal warming events" has been discovered in data from the Mississippi Mesonet meteorological observing network. The phenomenon may be broadly defined as a sudden rise in air temperature during the nighttime hours, without any likely connection with frontal or convective activity. As Mesonet stations have been installed in various parts of Mississippi, variations in frequency and intensity of such events have been noted. A rough attempt has been made to classify the events according to: 1) intensity of temperature increase; 2) existence of a correlated decrease in dewpoint; 3) existence of a later sudden cooling that follows a period of quasi-isothermal temperature; and 4) existence of a significant increase in wind speed. In the most notable events: 1) temperature is strongly anticorrelated with dewpoint; 2) temperature levels off for an hour or two before dropping fairly rapidly; 3) antecedent calm or very weak winds are replaced by wind speeds exceeding 2 m/s; and 4) the near-surface temperature inversion is reduced by 50%. Although nocturnal warming events could plausibly be explained by a variety of interacting mechanisms, most commonly it is believed that suddenly intensified winds mix down warm, dry air from a strong nocturnal radiation inversion. The trigger for reinvigorating the surface winds is unclear, though gravity waves from geostrophic ge·o·stroph·ic
Of or relating to the pseudo force caused by the earth's rotation.
[geo- + Greek stroph adjustment or distant convection may play a role.
1:40 PERFORMANCE OF COLLISION CELL ICP-MS FOR DETERMINATION OF IRON FROM FISH OTOLITHS
Zikri Arslan* and Stephanie Daniels, Jackson State University, Jackson MS 39217
Iron is an important trace element in otolith otolith /oto·lith/ (o´to-lith) statolith.
1. Any of numerous minute calcareous particles found in the inner ear of certain lower vertebrates and in the statocysts of many microchemistry microchemistry /mi·cro·chem·is·try/ (-kem´is-tre) chemistry concerned with exceedingly small quantities of chemical substances.
n. to gather information about the life histories of fish groups. However, iron occurs at very low concentrations in oceanic and estuarine waters. As a result, the iron concentration in the otoliths of fish is also very low that makes the determination of iron problematic by ICP-MS due to interferences of otolith matrix and spectral overlaps of polyatomic ions on isotopes of iron Naturally occurring Iron (Fe) consists of four isotopes: 5.845% of radioactive 54Fe (half-life: >3.1×1022 years), 91.754% of stable 56Fe, 2.119% of stable 57Fe and 0.282% of stable 58Fe. . Even in most cases the results for iron are not reliable to include in statistical evaluations. In this study, we have investigated the performance of collision cell ICP-MS in simulated otolith solutions. A method was developed to reduce the interferences of calcium on iron. The method is based on the coprecipitation of iron with sodium hydroxide to separate it from the interfering otolith calcium. Because otoliths are predominantly (e.g., 96% CaC[O.sub.3]), optimization of the precipitation conditions were carried out with CaC[O.sub.3] (99.999%). Iron is quantitatively precipitated as hydroxides at pH above 11.8. The precipitation of the calcium was controlled by optimizing the volume of sodium hydroxide solution used. The procedure was validated by analysis of fish otolith reference material by ICP-MS.
2:00 DIEL DIEL Dipartimento Di Ingegneria Elettrica (Italy) CYCLING IN IRON SPECIATION speciation
Formation of new and distinct species, whereby a single evolutionary line splits into two or more genetically independent ones. One of the fundamental processes of evolution, speciation may occur in many ways. IN THE PEARL RIVER, MISSISSIPPI Pearl River is a census-designated place (CDP) in Neshoba County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 3,156 at the 2000 census. Geography
Pearl River is located at (32.785315, -89.
Peter van Erp* and Alan M. Shiller, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 and University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39522
Investigations in the cycling between oxidized oxidized
having been modified by the process of oxidation.
see absorbable cellulose. and reduced forms of iron in freshwater has mainly been carried out in streams affected by acid mine drainage Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. However, other areas where the earth has been disturbed (e.g. . This study looks at the existance of an iron diel cycle in the Pearl River, Mississippi. Speciation of iron plays a significant role in the transport of trace metals and/or organic matter. Using filtered (0.2 [micro]m) surface water collected from the Pearl River near Stennis Space Center, Mississippi a series of incubation experiments has been conducted. Initial incubations showed that an iron diel cycle was not significant with [Fe(II)] between 30-80 nM. A subsequent incubation where samples were treated with the Fe(II) chelator chelator A chemical–eg, EDTA that binds metal ions from solutions. See Chelation therapy. bathophenanthrolinedisulphonate (BPDS BPDS Biological Point Detection System ) showed significant production of Fe(II) up to 2.6 [micro]M. Apparently a diurnal peak of Fe(II) was being prevented due to rapid oxidation of the Fe(II). Further incubations will be conducted to ascertain the mechanism behind this rapid oxidation.
2:40 DETECTION OF HYPOXIC CONDITIONS IN THE MISSISSIPPI BIGHT bight, broad bend or curve in a coastline, forming a large open bay. The New York bight, for example, is the curve in the coast described by the southern shore of Long Island and the eastern shore of New Jersey. The term bight may also refer to the bay so formed. IN THE SUMMER OF 2006
Stephan Howden, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406
Monitoring of coastal waters for hypoxic conditions on the continental shelves of the U.S. has revealed that the development of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen concentrations < 2.0 mg/L) in the summer months is more common that once thought. In the Mississippi Bight, anecdotal evidence for the sporadic recurrence of hypoxia in Mississippi Bight had been recently augmented by summer time measurements conducted by the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources in 2004 at Fish Haven 2 (FH-2) south of Horn Island, and analysis of foraminifer assemblages in surface sediment samples taken in the 1950's near FH-2. Based upon a detection of near-hypoxic waters near FH-2 in late July 2006, two cruises on the R/V Tom Mellwain were conducted in August 2006 to sample a grid of 22 sites south of the barrier islands of Mississippi. The prime objectives were to map the extent of the hypoxic region along with the physical environment (temperature, salinity, and currents). With some exceptions, at each site profiles were measured of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pressure, conductivity, turbidity turbidity /tur·bid·i·ty/ (ter-bid´i-te) cloudiness; disturbance of solids (sediment) in a solution, so that it is not clear.tur´bid
The cloudiness or lack of transparency of a solution. , and currents. Oxygen was measured using a YSI 6030 probe and a Sea-Bird SBE SBE - Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 43 probe. Salinity and dissolved oxygen values were compared and verified with analysis of discrete water samples using a Guildline Autosalinometer and Winkler analysis, respectively. A hypoxic bottom water region of 7 sites extending seaward to ~20 m water depth near FH-2 and extending along the 10 m isobath from Ship Island to Petit Bois Pass was detected. Winkler analyses confirmed four of these sites, with the other three having values <2.8 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen profiles exhibited large gradients near the seafloor making difficult the match-up between the profile data and the water samples. Eleven of the sites had values <3.0 mg/L. The water column was highly stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. throughout the region, in some cases with several pronounced pycnoclines, consistent with isolation of deep waters from atmospheric refreshment.
3:00 EFFECTS OF SITE, SEASON, AND DEPTH IN SEDIMENT ON THE ABUNDANCE OF LIVE FORAMINIFERA IN TWO NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO MARSHES
Sondra Simpson, Charlotte Brunner*, and Patricia M. Biesiot, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 and University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406
The abundance of living foraminifera was documented over one year for two northern Gulf of Mexico salt marshes: one in a high-marsh setting of the Pearl River, and one in a low-marsh setting of the Jourdan River. This study tested the effects of site and season on the distribution of live foraminifera with depth in the sediment. Three sediment cores were taken and combined at each site in each of four seasons. The foraminifera were stained with rose Bengal, sieved at 45 [micro]m, and counted. Statistical analysis consisted of two-way ANOV As and a series of pair-wise comparisons. During the study, 14 taxa were recorded as living. Of these, 11 taxa were found in the low-salinity, high marsh, which was dominated by Trochammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata and Tiphotrocha comprimata, and 13 in the higher-salinity, low marsh, which was dominated by Miliammina fusca. Both site and depth in sediment had significant effects. However, the interaction effect was not significant. Surprisingly, season did not have a significant effect nor was there a significant interaction between site and season. The fauna had a statistically significant preference for depths <5 cm, and several species, including Polysaccammina ipohalina and Trochammina macrescens, had significant abundance peaks in the subsurface from 2.5-5 cm.
3:20 DEPTH-INDUCED VARIATION IN HYPERSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE SIGNALS OF AQUATIC VEGETATION
Melissa A. Larmer (1*), Jonathan R. Jones (1*), Christopher A. May (2), Hyun J. Cho (1), (1) Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 and (2) Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve The National Estuarine Research Reserve program of the United States government under the auspices of the National Marine Protected Areas Initiative. The program establishes federal-state partnerships under the Coastal Zone Management Act to create a system of estuarine research , Moss Point, MS 39561
Remote sensing of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is often limited due to the water absorption of near infrared radiation. We studied depth-induced variations in the reflectance patterns of common SAV using a GER spectroradiometer to provide a scientific understanding of the effects of depth and turbidity on remote sensing of SAV. Spectral measurements of upwelling energy were taken over Ruppia maritima beds at Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR NERR National Estuarine Research Reserves
NERR Network Error
NERR New Error Type ) and over outdoor tanks containing Myriophyllum aquaticum. Water level above the plant canopy was controlled by siphoning. Plants were scanned three times at a each depth at the intervals of 5-10 cm. The upwelling energy was converted to reflectance (%). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a simple numerical indicator that can be used to analyze remote sensing measurements, typically but not necessarily from a space platform, and assess whether the target being observed contains live green vegetation or not. (NDVI NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ) values were then calculated for each set of measurements. Due to water absorption, the high plateau that appears in near-infrared regions of terrestrial plants became two individual peaks in submerged plants at approximately 719 and 810nm. NDVI values were approximately 0.3 for emergent SAV; these values decreased as water depth increased. Remote detection of SAV in shallow, coastal and inland waters will be improved if our results are integrated into the current vegetation index. We will apply our results to AISA images of Grand Bay NERR to assess the capability of this technique in identifying SAV beds. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by grants from NOAA-ECSC (No. NA17AE1626, Subcontract # 27-0629-017 to Jackson State University), National Science Foundation-UBM (No. DMS-0531927), MS-AL Sea Grant Consortium, and The Center for University Scholars of Jackson State University.
3:40 GUT MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN THE ESTUARINE BIVALVES GEUKENSIA DEMISSA AND CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA
Dawn Loggans*, Patricia M. Biesiot, and Shiao Y. Wang, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406
The ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa is a dominant intertidal in·ter·tid·al
Of or being the region between the high tide mark and the low tide mark.
in bivalve bivalve, aquatic mollusk of the class Pelecypoda ("hatchet-foot") or Bivalvia, with a laterally compressed body and a shell consisting of two valves, or movable pieces, hinged by an elastic ligament. commonly found in salt marshes along the east coast of the United States The "Eastern Seaboard," or "Atlantic Seaboard" are terms referring to the easternmost coastal states in the United States. They touch the Atlantic Ocean and stretch up to Canada. and the Gulf of Mexico; the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is subtidal in the same regions. Previous studies have shown that detrital lignocellulose lig·no·cel·lu·lose
A combination of lignin and cellulose that strengthens woody plant cells. derived from Spartina alterniflora is utilized by G. demissa to meet 26-80% of its carbon requirements whereas C. virginica assimilates < 3%. We hypothesize that differences in the gut microflora microflora /mi·cro·flo·ra/ (-flor´ah) the microscopic vegetable organisms of a special region.
The bacterial population in the intestine. of these two bivalves may contribute to the observed variation in digestion of refractory organic detritus. To characterize the gut microbial community in these bivalves, universal primers specific for bacteria were used to PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction.
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, which was then cloned. Sequence results from the clone libraries indicate that the two bivalve species do have different gut bacterial communities. Mycoplasma mycoplasma
Any of the bacteria that make up the genus Mycoplasma. They are among the smallest of bacterial organisms. The cell varies from a spherical or pear shape to that of a slender branched filament. spp. dominate in the gut of G. demissa. Other gut bacteria included Enterococcus faecium, Epulopiscium sp., Streptacidiphilus, Lactobacillus lactobacillus
Any of the rod-shaped, gram-positive (see gram stain) bacteria that make up the genus Lactobacillus. They are widely distributed in animal feeds, manure, and milk and milk products. zeae and Synechococcus sp. In contrast, Mycoplasma was not found in C. virginica, although Massilia sp., Salmonella sp., Desemzia incerta, Gaetbulimicrobium brevivitae, Acinetobacter sp., Anaplasma sp., and several uncultured proteobacteria were isolated. Current efforts are focused on determining whether the gut isolates are cellulolytic cel·lu·lo·lyt·ic
Of, relating to, or causing the hydrolysis of cellulose: cellulolytic organisms.
[cellulo(se) + -lytic.] .
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