Managing danger in the home environment, 1900-1940."Since the dawn of history, woman has been in charge of the home and has been responsible for it. This work of home safety is peculiarly woman's work."
Arvilla Miller, General Federation of Women's Clubs The General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC), founded in 1890, is one of the world's largest and oldest nonpartisan, nondenominational, women's volunteer service organizations. , 1929
Where does environmental risk reside? Obviously danger is found not only in our ambient surroundings but also within the home itself. Anthropologist Mary Douglas Dame Mary Douglas, DBE FBA, (March 25 1921 – 16 May 2007) was a British anthropologist, known for her writings on human culture and symbolism.
Her area was social anthropology; she was considered a follower of Durkheim and a proponent of structuralist analysis, with a has written about how environmental risk perceptions reflect a set of deeper concerns about social dangers, and can provide insights into contemporary social values and structures. Degrees of risk and frequency of accident occurrence are intimately intertwined, but both the perception of danger and its causes, as well as the responsibility for controlling or reducing it, have shifted over time. Increasingly, in the twentieth century, as the home was viewed less as a "haven" and more as a place where danger might reside, society held women most responsible for guaranteeing its safety. The examination of home accidents and of the movement for home safety, therefore, can help enlighten en·light·en
tr.v. en·light·ened, en·light·en·ing, en·light·ens
1. To give spiritual or intellectual insight to: our understanding of social change, including our perception of the redefinition of the home and gender roles within it.(1)
In a recent and challenging article, Maureen Flanagan has showed how Chicago women extrapolated lessons about improving the larger urban environment from their attempts to make their home environments more livable liv·a·ble also live·a·ble
1. Suitable to live in; habitable: a livable dwelling.
2. Possible to bear; endurable: livable trials and tribulations. . They utilized an image, she writes, of the city as a "shared home." Their larger goal was to produce the "city livable" - a city that emphasized "cleanliness Cleanliness
See also Orderliness.
Cleverness (See CUNNING.)
unkempt herself, demands cleanliness from others, especially children. [Ger. Folklore: Leach, 137]
continually “washes” itself. , health, safety, and protecting and preserving the environment for common use and common good." Achievement of the "city livable," she adds, was a sharply different goal from that of male reformers, who saw the city primarily as a business to be improved by "technology, efficiency, and professional expertise."(2)
In this article we invert in·vert
1. To turn inside out or upside down.
2. To reverse the position, order, or condition of.
3. To subject to inversion.
Something inverted. Flanagan's thesis and discuss how gender and risk perceptions helped structure considerations of accidents within the home environment rather than without. We explore how the larger safety organizations, as well as women themselves in the home economics movement, adopted what Flanagan calls the male values of "technology, efficiency, and professional expertise in an attempt to control home accidents and create a culture of safety.(3) In the process of exploring these American patterns, we will examine the transition from home-as-haven to home-as-dangerous-place and the attempt to formulate a culture of home safety. In particular, we focus on the development of the home safety movement centering around the notion of women as home safety managers.
The Home as Haven
Since the Victorian period See
See also: Victorian , society has identified the home as a "haven" from a ruthless and chaotic world, and women as the home-makers and keepers of the haven, ruling over the domestic environment.(4) Linked in with the concept of the home as haven was the idea of the home as women's "sphere." Men might go off to labor in office and industry, but women would remain behind to raise families and to provide the emotional and physical support enabling men to operate in the ruthless and materialistic world of work. Women, it was argued, were "best suited, both biologically and emotionally" to provide stability against the shocks of the marketplace and the world of business, remaining in charge of family and of home.(5)
If the home was to furnish an ideal and peaceful environment, however, it had to be made safe - carefully organized, with dangerous materials and tools out of the reach of children and family members protected from hazards such as open fires and hot stoves. In order to prevent accidents, women had, as Catharine Beecher Catharine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878) was a noted educator, renowned for her forthright opinions on women’s education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of a kindergarten into children’s education. observed, to become "home managers," making housework into a "scientific study" and utilizing the newest technology.(6) Advice books about home sanitation, published in the late nineteenth century, also reflected women's responsibility to keep the home sanctuary free from threats to health. "The men of the house come and go," observed one sanitarian sanitarian /san·i·tar·i·an/ (san?i-tar´e-an) one skilled in sanitation and public health science.
A public health or sanitation expert. , while "the women are conversant CONVERSANT. One who is in the habit of being in a particular place, is said to be conversant there. Barnes, 162. with every nook of the dwelling, from basement to roof, and on their knowledge, wisdom, and skill the physician rests his hopes." Sanitarians, health reformers, and sanitary "scientists" attempted to alert housewives to new dangers lurking See lurk.
(messaging, jargon) lurking - The activity of one of the "silent majority" in a electronic forum such as Usenet; posting occasionally or not at all but reading the group's postings regularly. in the home from faulty domestic plumbing - plumbing that could lead to the formation of "sewer gas Noun 1. sewer gas - foul-smelling gas that forms in sewers
gas - a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand indefinitely " and "germs," and the consequent outbreak of "house diseases."(7)
Organized concern over home accidents, however, began as an offshoot of the push for industrial accident reduction rather than as an independent movement. At the turn of the century America had the highest work-related death rate of any industrialized in·dus·tri·al·ize
v. in·dus·tri·al·ized, in·dus·tri·al·iz·ing, in·dus·tri·al·iz·es
1. To develop industry in (a country or society, for example).
2. nation.(8) Several different factors drove the movement for improvement, including concern over the effect of accidents on industrial efficiency and state passage of workmen's compensation Workmen's Compensation n. a former name for Workers' Compensation before the unisex title of the acts was adopted. laws that altered liability for workplace accidents. In addition, society was undergoing a change that made individuals increasingly intolerant in·tol·er·ant
Not tolerant, especially:
a. Unwilling to tolerate differences in opinions, practices, or beliefs, especially religious beliefs.
b. of accepting injuries that they did not believe were their responsibility.(9) Reflecting these developments, the National Safety Council (NSC NSC
National Security Council
Noun 1. NSC - a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security; supervises the Central Intelligence Agency ) was organized in 1914 primarily to address the issue of industrial accidents; by 1917, it had 3,300 members.(10)
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Arwen Mohun, the National Safety Council "was out to effect a cultural shift; to teach not only workers and employers but also the American public new ways of thinking about danger, risk, and safety."(11) The NSC recognized home safety as an issue of concern at its first National Congress, as did its biweekly bi·week·ly
1. Happening every two weeks.
2. Happening twice a week; semiweekly.
n. pl. bi·week·lies
A publication issued every two weeks.
1. Every two weeks. magazine, National Safety News (NSN NSN National Stock Number
NSN Nokia Siemens Networks
NSN National Storytelling Network
NSN NATO Stock Number
NSN New Substances Notification (CEPA)
NSN National Student Number (NZ)
NSN Never Say Never ). Home safety, however, held a much lower priority within the organization than did industrial safety. In fact, the initial focus of the NSC and its publications, as well as of the journal Safety Engineering (an insurance industry publication first issued in 1913), was for mothers to train their children to preach "accident prevention in the business and industrial world ... [when they became] the workmen and the executives of the future."(12) By emphasizing the special responsibility of women to develop a safety consciousness in the family's males as preparation for encountering workplace risk, the NSC and Safety Engineering minimized the extent to which risk was also present in the home, especially for women and children.(13)
The safety movement redefined the perception of home safety and of women's role as it matured. The movement's directors were ambivalent concerning the place of women in a field primarily oriented toward male-dominated industry, but they gradually accepted the idea that the home was also a place of risk in which women had special responsibilities.(14) In 1917, for instance, Safety Engineering ran two editorials entitled, "Housewives and Home Hazards." Focusing on the danger of fires, the writers bemoaned the fact that fire fighting fire fighting, the use of strategy, personnel, and apparatus to extinguish, to confine, or to escape from fire. Fire-Fighting Strategy
Fire fighting strategy involves the following basic procedures: arriving at the scene of the fire as rapidly as was seen as a man's job and noted that the "housewife's responsibility should be considered ... [since] housewives are the ones to prevent fires in the homes." In 1918 the NSC organized a "Women's Session" at its annual Safety Congress dealing with women's industrial and home safety experiences alike. One male speaker noted the contradiction between the common view of the home as a "haven of safety" and its high accident rate. He emphasized women's special responsibility to remove hazards and to prevent family members from taking risks. Even though "Women in War Industries" was a major session theme, NSC male spokesmen carefully emphasized that "safety in the home and safety instruction" were women's special province.(15) Women may have played a valuable wartime role, but their peacetime place was in the home.
In an attempt to expand women's role in the safety movement, in 1919 Tracy Copp, chairperson of the NSC "Women in Industry Section," led a move to have eighteen national women's organizations This is a list of women's organisations. International
Now that women have finished the war work in which they displayed such constant courage and skill, they are seeking some social task which is worthy of their ability and which will grip their interest as the war work did. We believe accident prevention offers this field of activity, and the toll of deaths among children alone should arouse every public spirited woman to action.(16)
An editorial accompanying the article commented that while "the women of the country ... have played almost no part in this movement [the safety movement]," the time had come for it to spread from industry into the community and to enlist the "two great groups heretofore left untouched - the women in the homes and the children in the schools."(17)
Home Economics and Home Safety
One route to involve women in the safety movement was through the profession of home economics. Developed during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (although it had earlier roots), home economics was intended to be a women's domain that would provide co-equal professional status with men. The thrust of home economics was to train women to emphasize planning, system, and order in the home.(18) Although the movement's leaders differed on some elements of strategy, they agreed that the home and the larger society were intertwined. That is, the rhetoric of home economics moved away from the separate sphere argument without relinquishing the concept that the home was women's domain. And, argued the movement's founders, in this domain women trained in the "science" of home economics would bring its principles to home management. Or, as Ellen H. Richards, the movement's pre-eminent leader noted, "HOME ECONOMICS STANDS FOR: The ideal home life for today unhampered Adj. 1. unhampered - not slowed or blocked or interfered with; "an outlet for healthy and unhampered action"; "a priest unhampered by scruple"; "the new stock market was unhampered by tradition"
unhindered by the traditions of the past. The utilization of all the resources of modem science to improve the home life."(19) Thus, home economics, like other new professions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, relied upon scientific rationalism rationalism [Lat.,=belonging to reason], in philosophy, a theory that holds that reason alone, unaided by experience, can arrive at basic truth regarding the world. and the doctrine of efficiency to establish its authority.(20)
As the home economics movement grew, a national structure evolved, beginning with the holding of the first Lake Placid, New York For other places with the same name, see Lake Placid (disambiguation).
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 2,638. , Conference on Home Economics in 1899, and by the formation of the American Home For the American mortgage lender, see .
The American Home is a center of intercultural exchange located in Vladimir, Russia. The home is designed to model a typical American suburban home and its main focus is the ESL school that provides lessons for Russian students. Economics Association in 1908. With a largely female constituency that included high school teachers, journalists, and academics, the home economics movement spread rapidly throughout American society. By 1916, 17,778 students were enrolled in home economics courses at 195 colleges and universities; in addition, in 1917, another 27,000 students attended 450 home economics extension courses.(21)
The concept of "efficiency" strongly influenced the home economy movement during the century's first decades. The progressive era experienced an efficiency craze likened by historian Samuel Haber to a "secular Great Awakening Great Awakening, series of religious revivals that swept over the American colonies about the middle of the 18th cent. It resulted in doctrinal changes and influenced social and political thought. ."(22) Many women believed that efficiency would emancipate e·man·ci·pate
tr.v. e·man·ci·pat·ed, e·man·ci·pat·ing, e·man·ci·pates
1. To free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate.
2. them from the home's burdens and elevate them to a status of home scientific managers, putting home work on a par with men's work outside the home.(23) By the 1910s, Taylorist efficiency zeal and the nineteenth-century gender ideology of "separate spheres" had coalesced co·a·lesce
intr.v. co·a·lesced, co·a·lesc·ing, co·a·lesc·es
1. To grow together; fuse.
2. To come together so as to form one whole; unite: in the home economics movement to form a reform agenda that fitted with progressive efforts to create a more orderly society.(24)
Given its emphasis on management and efficiency, the involvement of home economics in the home safety movement was natural. David E. Nye observes that home economics spokeswomen "sought to emulate in the home the work of engineers in the factory," reconceptualizing the home as a "management site controlled by women ... a domestic factory that produced healthy and happy citizens."(25) Like any up-to-date factory, the modern home needed to be equipped with the latest in production technology: running water and sewerage sewerage, system for the removal and disposal of chiefly liquid wastes and of rainwater, which are collectively called sewage. The average person in the industrialized world produces between 60 and 140 gallons of sewage per day. , central heating central heating
a system for heating a building by means of radiators or air vents connected to a central source of heat
centrally heated adj
Noun 1. , telephone service, and, most of all, electricity, to provide both light and power for various appliances such as vacuum cleaners vacuum cleaner, mechanical device using a draft of air to remove dust, loose dirt, or other particulate matter from dry surfaces. It is especially useful on highly textured surfaces, such as carpets and upholstery, that are difficult to clean by wiping or brushing. , dish washing machines (storage) washing machine - An old-style 14-inch hard disk in a floor-standing cabinet. So called because of the size of the cabinet and the "top-loading" access to the media packs - and, of course, they were always set on "spin cycle". , washing machines, electric stoves In cooking, an electric stove is a cooker which uses electricity as a source of energy. History
Lloyd Groff Copeman invented the first electric stove in 1896 while working for the Washington Power Company. , refrigerators, and toasters.
In order to publicize pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
publicize or -cise
[-cizing, -cized] the link between home safety and home management, in 1929 the National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters offered a graduate fellowship of $1,000 for a "study of home safety as an index of good home management."(26) The announcement noted that just as "efficiency" was linked to industrial and traffic safety, so would home safety prove to be a vital aspect of "a well-managed home." The fellowship could be used in a Ph.D. program in a university with a "properly qualified home economics department;" an advisory committee containing representatives of the American Home Economics Association, the NSC, and the National Organization for Public Health Nursing would furnish direction.(27)
The first winner of the safety fellowship was Gertrude Zurrer of Chicago, who chose to study at the University of Chicago under the direction of Edith Abbot, a former Hull House Hull House: see Addams, Jane. resident who had become a professor of social economy and dean at the university's School of Social Service Administration.(28) At the Nineteenth NSC Safety Congress, Zurrer discussed the rationale and plan for her study. She noted that the field lacked both statistics and research, but suggested a strong link between home accidents and social problems. "But we all know where perhaps most accidents happen. (That is just it-perhaps; we have no figures to show.)," she said. "It is where the woman must leave her children and go to the factory, or where she has a very large family, or where she is a foreigner Foreigner
All institutions and individuals living outside the United States, including US citizens living abroad, and branches, subsidiaries, and other affiliates abroad of US banks and business concerns; also central governments, central banks, and other official institutions of . These women do not go to the clubs."(29) (Unfortunately, the printed record does not indicate whether Zurrer's last comment was intended as a slap at the women's club Women’s clubs first arose in the United States during the post-civil war period. As a result of increased leisure time due to modern household advances, middle class women had more time to engage in intellectual pursuits. members who played a role in the home safety movement or was merely a factual observation.)
By the 1920s, however, home economics had diverged considerably from a social welfare orientation and had forged strong links with the new consumer-oriented economy.(30) Many home economists found corporate employment a natural step for women who described their profession as the "business of housekeeping" or the "profession of housework."(31) Corporations, however, did not typically hire women as efficiency experts, but rather to help sell consumer goods consumer goods
Any tangible commodity purchased by households to satisfy their wants and needs. Consumer goods may be durable or nondurable. Durable goods (e.g., autos, furniture, and appliances) have a significant life span, often defined as three years or more, and and to assuage as·suage
tr.v. as·suaged, as·suag·ing, as·suag·es
1. To make (something burdensome or painful) less intense or severe: assuage her grief. See Synonyms at relieve.
2. societal fears about new electrically-powered technologies. Women's business roles, therefore, usually related to the home and not to the factory. Home economists encouraged this division of labor, reconceptualizing the home in terms of Taylorism and as a center of consumption over which women had power.(32)
Advocating that women exercise discretion and care in their household consumption, home economists allied with the rapidly developing consumer society. They broke with past traditions of household architecture that prized individual taste and style and suggested an alternative vision for middle-class homelife which emphasized planning, efficiency, and safety. Christine Frederick, whose books included The New Housekeeping and Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home, summed up the multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious role of the modem mother: "Today the woman in the home is called upon to be an executive as well as a manual laborer. Just to be a good worker and keep on working until you drop is not sufficient - or efficient either. The more planning, the more brains, the more management a woman puts into her housework, the less friction and the less nervous energy she will have to expend ex·pend
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.
2. ."(33) Heroic mother Lillian Gilbreth provided the model, advocating a home designed in a minimalist min·i·mal·ist
1. One who advocates a moderate or conservative approach, action, or policy, as in a political or governmental organization.
2. A practitioner of minimalism.
1. style and free of clutter to aid with mother's efficiency.(34) Thus, despite the belief that women could be professionals and scientific managers, the message of home economists was similar to that found in the writings of nineteenth-century pioneers like Catharine Beecher, oriented around the notion of the home as a place of perfectibility and social salvation.(35)
The language of both the home economics movement and the home safety movement resides within debates about feminism in the early twentieth century. The two sides of the janus-face of feminism discovered by Nancy Cott appear strongly within both movements.(36) In the realm of home economics, spokespersons like Charlotte Perkins Gilman Charlotte Perkins Gilman (July 3 1860 – August 17 1935) was a prominent American poet, non-fiction writer, short story writer, novelist, lecturer, and social reformer. envisioned that women's housework would become an upgraded type of work done professionally in the home. She argued that the rationalization and removal of many domestic chores from the home would free women from the burdens of domesticity Domesticity
See also Wifeliness.
leading brand of baking products; byword for one expert in homemaking skills. [Trademarks: Crowley Trade, 56]
Dick Van Dyke Show, The and allow the home to be run more efficiently.(37) The dominant strand of home economics therefore retained the conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of the home as woman's domain, even if professionally managed. The rhetoric of the home safety movement resembles this strain most closely. Safety experts argued that women should manage the home from their position within it. They did not discard the notion of domesticity; rather, they supplemented it with the professional ethos of the newly emerging and consumer-oriented middle class.
Home Accidents and Technology: the Case of Electricity
As consciousness of home hazards penetrated the safety community in the 1920s, various "experts" and spokespeople attempted to specify the risks and to explore how they might be mitigated. Fires and falls were always matters of concern, with speakers at NSC Safety Congresses and safety articles assigning housewives the primary responsibility for reducing their occurrence. In regard to fire, for instance, it was the housewives' task to prevent carelessness with matches, to avoid the use of inflammable in·flam·ma·ble
1. Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly; flammable. See Usage Note at flammable.
2. Quickly or easily aroused to strong emotion; excitable. cleaning fluids, to stop the misuse of kerosene kerosene or kerosine, colorless, thin mineral oil whose density is between 0.75 and 0.85 grams per cubic centimeter. A mixture of hydrocarbons, it is commonly obtained in the fractional distillation of petroleum as the portion boiling off lamps, gas stoves and flatirons, to avoid the piling up of oily rags and clothing, and to be vigilant for excessive wear of electrical wires.(38) Similarly, housewives were responsible for preventing home falls. Most speakers who discussed falls at NSC Congresses were not "experts" in either human behavior
Having or exhibiting native good judgment: "commonsense scholarship on the foibles and oversights of a genius" Times Literary Supplement. principles. Women were advised to adopt good managerial practices, keeping rugs from slippery surfaces, removing toys from walkways, and providing for good lighting. Speakers frequently recommended that a good small stepladder be available in the home.
Fire and falls were familiar dangers, but in the teens and 1920s the increasing utilization of electrical and gas appliances by middle-class homes presented new dangers and aroused new fears.(39) Electricity and gas, similar to systems like water works and sewerage, were linked to networks outside the home. Such connections were often thought to be hazardous or a "source of danger." Americans feared gas and electric lines not only because of their fire potential but also because "they suspected that they emitted noxious noxious adj. harmful to health, often referring to nuisances. fumes fumes
odorous gases and other volatile materials; inhalation of irritating fumes causes coughing and, if sufficiently severe, irreversible pulmonary edema. or rays."(40) Initially, many housewives viewed electricity and gas with "fear and trembling
Fear and Trembling (original Danish title: Frygt og Bæven ," and worried about electrocution electrocution
Method of execution in which the condemned person is subjected to a heavy charge of electric current. The prisoner is shackled into a wired chair, and electrodes are fastened to the head and one leg so that the current will flow through the body. .(41)
Technologists and engineers in the first decades of the century doubted female technical capacity, believing that women needed to undergo a series of learning stages before they could comprehend the new systems and their hazards. Electrical journals pictured women as incapable of comprehending or appreciating the new energy source. "Endless stories of women's unpreparedness and incapacity The absence of legal ability, competence, or qualifications.
An individual incapacitated by infancy, for example, does not have the legal ability to enter into certain types of agreements, such as marriage or contracts. in a world of technical expertise," writes Carolyn Martin Carolyn Martin, born Carolyn Biddy, is the current Provost of Cornell University. She received her Ph.D. in German literature in 1985 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and has served on the faculty at Cornell since 1984. , "time and again demonstrated the reassuring conclusion that women would always depend on male prowess to conquer the world for them." Women who had attained technological knowledge and power were held to have gone astray a·stray
1. Away from the correct path or direction. See Synonyms at amiss.
2. Away from the right or good, as in thought or behavior; straying to or into wrong or evil ways. . Schools, as Mark Rose shows, reinforced gender boundaries by teaching men the techniques of appliance repair while women learned gas cooking and electric sewing. Women might use the new technological devices, but only men could be relied upon to contain their potential hazards.(42)
As electricity and appliances cheapened in price and became more commonplace, the desire of manufacturers to develop mass markets forced a reconceptualization of women's technological skills. Housewives had to become knowledgeable about electricity if they were to avoid shocks and other electrical accidents. It was incumbent on the housewife to become an "amateur electrician," with an understanding of "the proper care of electrical household appliances," and not be dependent on the "experts" for all contingencies.(43) Education was one way to acquire such knowledge. Good Housekeeping Good Housekeeping is a women's magazine owned by the Hearst Corporation, featuring articles about women's interests, product testing by The Good Housekeeping Institute, recipes, diet, health as well as literary articles. Magazine, for instance, published a number of articles on the "ABC ABC
in full American Broadcasting Co.
Major U.S. television network. It began when the expanding national radio network NBC split into the separate Red and Blue networks in 1928. of electricity for housekeepers," as well as furnishing bulletins and sponsoring courses in the schools to instruct "women in the proper and the safe use and care of appliances and equipment in their home."(44) In addition, the magazine established the Good Housekeeping Institute to test and approve electrical appliances. Schools at the secondary level in cities such as Denver and Kansas City Kansas City, two adjacent cities of the same name, one (1990 pop. 149,767), seat of Wyandotte co., NE Kansas (inc. 1859), the other (1990 pop. 435,146), Clay, Jackson, and Platte counties, NW Mo. (inc. 1850). also began to include instruction in the use and even repair of electrical and gas appliances in their curriculum.(45)
But would education alone be sufficient to reduce home accidents involving electricity? Public utilities were anxious to emphasize electricity's inherent safety in order to increase its use and to stimulate the purchase of appliances.(46) As early as 1905, Henry L. Doherty of Denver Gas & Electric was recruiting and training women as "home service agents" to demonstrate appliance operation to housewives and to assuage their fears.(47) In the 1920s, the National Electric Light Association, the public utility industry's trade association, created a "Women's Committee" and an "Accident Prevention Committee" to forward "Safety work for women in the electrical industry." The so-called "utility women" were expected to "inform themselves on the use of electricity in the home, the best methods of rendering service and courtesy to the customer, and ... [to train] themselves in safety practice." By 1930, the nation's utilities operated 400 "home service departments."(48)
Throughout the 1920s, electrical utilities touted the safety of electrical appliances, especially as compared with past energy and lighting technologies. They especially emphasized the manner in which they would end the drudgery of housework and provide increased standards of cleanliness and health in the home.(49) In the 1920s, electrification e·lec·tri·fy
tr.v. e·lec·tri·fied, e·lec·tri·fy·ing, e·lec·tri·fies
1. To produce electric charge on or in (a conductor).
a. of the domestic market accelerated, as electrical utilities and corporations such as General Electric and Westinghouse developed their appliance lines.(50) Devices such as electric ranges, refrigerators, and radios now joined the irons, fans and vacuum cleaners that had been available before World War I. Electricity, promised the industry's admen, was safe and liberating, fitting in well with modem society.(51)
Institutionalizing Household Risk
Society lavished much attention on promoting the adoption and safe use of electrical appliances compared to other important household dangers. The lead, of course, was taken by the utilities themselves, anxious to sell electrical power and appliances, as well as their trade associations. No comparable set of businesses existed with a vested interest Vested Interest
A financial or personal stake one entity has in an asset, security, or transaction.
For example, if you have a mortgage, your bank has a vested interest on the sale of your house.
See also: Right in advocating safety in regard to other household dangers such as falls, poisons, or deaths from firearms This is an extensive list of small arms — pistol, machine gun, grenade launcher, anti-tank rifle — that includes variants.
: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A lack of sources for funding research into the causes of home accidents and their amelioration a·me·lio·ra·tion
1. The act or an instance of ameliorating.
2. The state of being ameliorated; improvement.
Noun 1. , aside from those involving technologies such as electrical and gas appliances, was therefore a major problem. In the NSC, for instance, funding for accident prevention in various domains came from "section" membership. (A "section" represented a particular type of industry.) A few representatives of insurance companies and local and governmental safety groups that were concerned with home safety also held NSC membership, but they had limited influence. As Lew Palmer of the New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of Equitable Life Equitable Life may refer to:
In the late 1920s and the 1930s, however, the sheer numbers of home accidents, as well as automobile accidents Ask a Lawyer
Country: United States of America
Say you're at a red light in a left hand turning lane and the light turns green so you let up slightly on the break antedating moving forward and the vehicle , began to attract more attention. The statistical work conducted by the NSC and by various insurance companies played an important role in this development.(54) Beginning in 1921, because of the unreliability of public health accident statistics, the NSC began collecting its own numbers on public safety, such as automobile accidents, and on home accidents. It prepared a standard accident report form using data supplied by its local councils (there were chapters in about forty cities by 1921), and by local governments, especially from municipal and county coroners.(55) The local councils gathered daily statistics on all accidents, analyzed them to reveal causation causation
Relation that holds between two temporally simultaneous or successive events when the first event (the cause) brings about the other (the effect). According to David Hume, when we say of two types of object or event that “X causes Y” (e.g. , if possible, and then used the results for publicity purposes.(56) Beginning in 1927, the reporting of home accident statistics became a regular feature of the National Safety News. In 1929, when the NSC began publishing Accident Facts, home accident statistics received their own section.(57)
Insurance companies also contributed to the improvement of the home accident statistical record. Before state and public health officials began to identify distinct home accidents, insurance companies had marked the home as a perilous place. By the late nineteenth century, insurance underwriting focused on three distinct areas: life contracts, fire contracts, and liability contracts. Generally, life insurance companies offered policies which insured individuals; fire underwriters insured property from fire losses (perhaps the most common of all accidents and among the most severe); and liability contracts developed in the late nineteenth century for use in industries, to protect employers and property owners from suits brought by injured in·jure
tr.v. in·jured, in·jur·ing, in·jures
1. To cause physical harm to; hurt.
2. To cause damage to; impair.
3. workers and people injured on their premises.(58)
Beginning about 1890, the Aetna Insurance Company began to undertake the underwriting of accident insurance. First it concentrated on industrial accidents, but in 1913 the Company began offering a policy that diverged dramatically from the traditional accident policies offered by life insurance companies. Rather than targeting individuals who might have an accident, this broad-based liability policy - "combined residence insurance" - protected policy holders from calamities of all sorts related to the home, be it water damage, explosion, glass breakage, or burglary.(59) The new policy reflected the company's belief that home accidents represented a growth area. As the company's in-house publication, the Aetna Agency Edition, noted in 1913, "We only wish [the business man] were as safe as he feels [at home]. Not a day passes but we have it most unpleasantly brought to our attention that the home is no sure isle of Isle of
For names of actual isles, see the specific element of the name; for example, Wight, Isle of. safety."(60) In 1921, following Aetna's lead, New York's Metropolitan Life began offering an accident policy.
Insurance company campaigns in the 1920s clearly identified the home as a hazardous place, but aimed at middle-class men, especially businessmen and professionals, as likely sales targets for policies to protect themselves from risk. Often they specifically identified merchants, manufacturers, bankers, lawyers, and doctors as those most susceptible to "loss of income" from accidents and therefore in need of insurance. Metropolitan Life even discouraged agents from offering such policies to women or to members of the working class.(61)
Class and Ethnic Dimensions
Comments in the home safety literature suggest that many of those involved in the safety movement believed, as Zurrer had observed in 1930, that there was a class and ethnic basis to home accidents. That is, while accidents did occur in middle- and upper-class homes, their frequency was greater in working-class and immigrant homes. In explaining this phenomenon, home safety specialists sometimes maintained that it was more difficult to advance their message among immigrants and the working class. They often argued that the schools should be used to spread their safety message, giving students instruction in proper attitudes to bring home to inculcate in·cul·cate
tr.v. in·cul·cat·ed, in·cul·cat·ing, in·cul·cates
1. To impress (something) upon the mind of another by frequent instruction or repetition; instill: inculcating sound principles. their recalcitrant recalcitrant adjective Poorly responsive to therapy parents. In addition, students were often equipped with safety check lists, a ubiquitous feature of home safety campaigns. The NSC considered school safety instruction an important activity.(62)
Speakers at the home safety sessions of the Safety Congresses, some representing middle-class women's clubs women's clubs, groups that offer social, recreational, and cultural activities for adult females. Particularly strong in the United States, they became an important part of American town and village life in the latter part of the 19th cent. , often mentioned the poor and immigrants as responsible for a large number of accidents and also for maintaining secrecy about them.(63) Katherine Fisher, the Director of the Good Housekeeping Institute, expressed the belief that poor women were less receptive to the safety messages than were middle-class women:(64)
Homes in which hazardous conditions are most frequently found are usually homes on "the other side of the tracks." These are the kind of homes in which it is most difficult to offset ignorance of hazardous conditions by teaching women through our safety educational work. Women in such homes ... are not "exposed" to safety education ... They are seldom members of women's clubs, parent-teachers' associations, or other community organizations, because they have little time and less inclination for the serious activities of such groups.
Other speakers, not necessarily all women, expressed similar sentiments, noting that most accidents occurred in the homes of immigrants or of the "poorly housed ... people who are not easily reached in group life and [who] do not have ... organizations that can be easily made accessible."(65)
Speaking in 1929 at the Eighteenth National Safety Congress, Jane Addams Laura Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement and the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. of Hull House agreed that the poor and recent immigrants were most likely to be accident victims: "I am sure if you will make an investigation," she commented, "the children of working mothers will be found to head the list of those maimed maim
tr.v. maimed, maim·ing, maims
1. To disable or disfigure, usually by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. See Synonyms at batter1.
2. and injured and killed." Addams argued, however, in contrast to many safety experts at the time, that poor housing conditions housing conditions npl → condiciones fpl de habitabilidad
housing conditions npl → conditions fpl de logement
, not poor management, produced home accidents factors such as inadequate lighting, the lack of roof guards, and the absence of playgrounds, as well as the fact that women were required to work rather than care for their families. She called on the NSC to lead the drive to improve home safety in the same manner that it had reformed industrial safety, making three specific recommendations as a way to reach that goal: that corporations provide mothers' pensions so they could stay at home to guard their children; that construction companies build improved housing, with children's safety in mind; and that schools add safety education to domestic science classes.(66) On the eve On the Eve (Накануне in Russian) is the third novel by famous Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, best known for his short stories and the novel Fathers and Sons. of the Great Depression, only the last of these recommendations was taken seriously by the NSC membership.
Addams suggestions, however, especially the first two, made clear the difference between an approach to home safety that focused on changing housewife behavior and one that emphasized structural and social change. Few in the organized safety movement understood, however, as Gertrude Zurrer commented at the depths of the Great Depression, that safety and health went hand in hand, and were vital parts of any public welfare work. "I don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)
"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party. how we have been able to go so long without realizing this ...," she lamented.(67)
New Organizations Confront the Problem
Until approximately 1930, women's clubs on the local level were sporadically involved in the home safety movement. Considering their reform activities during the Progressive Period, their lack of a sustained involvement is surprising, especially in light of the emphasis on women's responsibility in the home.(68) The General Federation of Women's Clubs, formed in 1890, and with a membership of over a million members in affiliated clubs, was also uninvolved un·in·volved
Feeling or showing no interest or involvement; unconcerned: an uninvolved bystander.
Adj. 1. , even though it had standing committees on issues such as Home Economics and Public Health.(69) In 1929, however, speaking before the annual conference of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, Arvilla Miller issued a clarion call clarion call
strong encouragement to do something for the Federation to join the safety campaign. Miller warned that home accident statistics demonstrated clearly that "the home as the haven of rest, security and protection against the stresses of the world outside" was fast disappearing. She maintained that study and organization were necessary to cope with the problem. Holding up the NSC, founded by "far-seeing men" to combat industrial accidents, as a model, she called upon the "women of America" to take similar action through their clubs against home accidents. Under Federation leadership, she maintained, a nationwide movement could begin, leading to the day "when every woman may rightfully lay claim to the title, safety director in the home."(70)
In 1930, the Federation Board of Directors accepted the charge and proposed a home safety campaign that would use the state federations as the "medium" for action. The Federation president, Bettie M. Sippel, observed at the Federation's first Home Safety session in 1930 that the home accident problem was relevant to the organization because we are home-makers who have a great responsibility in making homes accident-proof ... [not because we are] citizens."(71) In 1930, the Federation launched a program in coordination with the U.S. Bureau of Standards Bureau of Standards
since 1988 U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce responsible for the standardization of weights and measures, timekeeping, and navigation. and the NSC primarily aimed at "control of existing hazards." In order to determine correctly these dangers, state branches of the federation were to conduct surveys of home accidents in their states. The North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. survey, for instance, according to the president of that state's Federation chapter, Marie Land, brought sharply to their attention "the responsibility that rests on the shoulders of women for the elimination of home accidents."(72) In 1933, "Safety in the Home" became a special committee of the Federation's Home Department, with Land as the first chairperson. No other surveys, however, appear to have been completed, and while Federation chapters launched home safety programs in several states and cities, the coordinated national program originally envisaged did not materialize. The Federation never became a major actor in the home accident field, as its attention was drawn off by the area of traffic safety.(73)
The mid-1930s saw deaths from home accidents rise to unprecedented heights: in 1935 there were approximately 32,000; in 1936, 38,500 (the NSC calculated that about 4,000 deaths were due to extreme heat); and 32,000 in 1937. Numbers of deaths from home accidents were usually very close to those from automobile accidents. Yet, little concerted national attention was paid to home safety. Perceiving the vacuum, and seeing an opportunity to advance its organizational interests, in 1935 leaders of the Red Cross created a Home and Farm Accident Prevention Program. The program was to be based in the Red Cross's extensive network of local chapters and run by committees with wide community representation. The chapters were to focus on community education, home inspection and home service, and first aid instruction. Red Cross Vice Chairman James L. Fieser confidently predicted that by "attaining these objectives, the ultimate goal - the reduction of accidents - will be realized."(74)
The Red Cross strategy to combat home accidents involved great amounts of publicity and education, but little research.(75) A "nation-wide Home Inspection Campaign" launched the program, and over 26 million home inspection forms, as well as window cards, were distributed in the schools. Within several months after the program had begun, 2,500 of the 3,710 Red Cross chapters had appointed a Home and Farm Accident Prevention Chairmen. Radio programs and newspaper articles on safety were sponsored, and "action pictures," showing home accident injuries, were published in the newspapers.(76) In 1935, Red Cross officials persuaded President Franklin D. Roosevelt to call a National Accident Conference, directed by Secretary of Commerce Daniel C. Roper, with Red Cross Director Admiral Cary T. Grayson as the presiding officer Noun 1. presiding officer - the leader of a group meeting
leader - a person who rules or guides or inspires others
moderator - someone who presides over a forum or debate and first speaker.(77)
Underlying the Red Cross strategy was a belief that people needed to be educated about risk in order to reduce accidents.(78) In his keynote address keynote address
An opening address, as at a political convention, that outlines the issues to be considered. Also called keynote speech.
Noun 1. at the National Accident Conference in 1935, Grayson repeated the old behavioral argument - that the accident toll "was created and caused by people themselves, and the solution lay in self-education and self-discipline."(79) This strategy, as in earlier diagnoses of the home accident problem, of necessity involved the "homemaker" or the woman in the home. As Irma Gene Nevins, National Director of the Red Cross Accident Prevention Service wrote in 1947, "Prevention of accidents in the home is largely the responsibility of the homemaker - and much depends up-on [sic] her ability to keep the house in order and in good repair," as well as properly supervising children.(80) Thus, traditional ideas about home accident prevention involving changing people's behavior and women as home safety managers dominated the Red Cross strategy.
Through its widespread network of local chapters, the Red Cross distributed great quantities of accident prevention materials and sponsored many safety lectures and classes. But reports from the local chapters to the central headquarters indicated a widespread sense of frustration over lack of impact.(81) By the late 1930s, the Red Cross was faced with the decision either to get out of the home accident field or alter its basic strategy. The option chosen was to modify the accident program and to combine it with the organization's successful First Aid and Water Safety Program, an action taken on July 1, 1939. In 1941, the Red Cross began offering formal classes in accident prevention, awarding certificates upon completion in a manner similar to those provided in first aid and water safety.(82) This strategy appeared more satisfactory than the previous less structured approach, but Red Cross officials had been forced to realize that a victory over home accidents was, at best, slow and uncertain. Although it maintained its involvement in the home accident field, the Red Cross never dominated it in the manner that the leadership had originally expected.(83)
Yet another organization, the American Public Health Association The American Public Health Association (APHA) is Washington, D.C.-based professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. Founded in 1872 by Dr. Stephen Smith, APHA has more than 30,000 members worldwide. , also tentatively entered the home accident field in the late 1930s. Public health authorities played an increasing role in redefining the home accident field, moving from theories of "accident proneness" in the 1940s and 50s to concepts of "injury control" in the 1960s. Essentially, the latter (actually developed by William Haddon Jr., a physician who was first trained as an engineer and who became the first director of the National Highway Safety Bureau) focused on adjusting the environment to prevent injury rather than attempting to change behavior. It had its greatest effects in regard to automobile safety “Passive safety” redirects here. For nuclear safety, see Passive nuclear safety.
Automobile safety is the avoidance of automobile accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. but also entered into the consumer realm in the 1950s. In 1940, however, only the glimmerings of the shift toward a public health perspective were visible.(84)
As the nineteenth-century concept of the "home-as-haven" was replaced by the twentieth-century concept of "home-as-dangerous-place," society increasingly delegated responsibility for restoring the earlier state to the housewife. In doing so, however, it also had increasingly to grant housewives authority over their separate sphere. Such authority was reflected in the growth of the profession of home economics and the application of the concepts of efficiency and planning to the home. Although home economics was often linked to the dictates of the new consumer society that was attempting to sell products such as appliances to the housewife, it also contained the potential for empowerment by offering women both knowledge and increased control over their space and their time.
As noted earlier in the paper, Maureen Flanagan has argued that women in the Progressive Period extrapolated lessons about improving the larger urban environment from their attempts to make their home environments more livable. In the case of home accidents, however, society, as personified by organizations such as the NSC and the Red Cross, and even, perhaps, the General Federation of Women's Clubs, attempted to train women to restore and to protect the "livable" home rather than to crusade for the livable city The Livable City is a normative idea that has been developed to help guide thinking about the way our cities function and develop. Some good definitions of a livable city can be found in Vukan Vuchic's work:
Livability. Thus, gender and risk perceptions helped structure considerations of accidents within the home environment, possibly limiting consideration of social dangers without. The home safety movement appears to reflect an inward extension of Robert H. Wiebe's "Search for Order." It also, however, delegated to women a responsible role in the home environment that was denied them in the outside urban world. In order to achieve such outside leadership positions, women had to grasp for them, only occasionally experiencing success.
Elite women involved in the General Federation of Women's Clubs understood the delegation, and previously quoted statements assume an added dimension when interpreted in this context. For instance, the statement of Federation President Bettie M. Sipple in 1930 that the organization took on the home accident problem "because we are home-makers who have a great responsibility in making homes accident-proof ... [not because we are] citizens," made clear the separation of domains. Marie L. Land's admission in the same year that she felt shame at acknowledging that "we [women] have violated our intelligence ... by a flagrant fla·grant
1. Conspicuously bad, offensive, or reprehensible: a flagrant miscarriage of justice; flagrant cases of wrongdoing at the highest levels of government. See Usage Note at blatant.
2. disregard of the rules of prudence ... that we have been thoughtless and careless of those whom we are most anxious to guard and protect ...," reflected her belief that home accidents represented a failure of responsibility by housewives - a responsibility they would have to accept to absolve ab·solve
tr.v. ab·solved, ab·solv·ing, ab·solves
1. To pronounce clear of guilt or blame.
2. To relieve of a requirement or obligation.
a. To grant a remission of sin to. themselves of blame.(85)
Reducing home accidents, however, proved far more difficult to accomplish than safety experts expected. While industrial accidents sharply declined from the early century levels, home accidents remained high, averaging, as was pointed out above, about 30,000 per year from 1928-1940.(86) By 1940, safety experts recognized that the home was, in reality, still a "separate sphere," and that tactics that had successfully reduced industrial accidents would be less effective there.(87) While the home accident movement lacked adequate financing and a body of research, the problem was additionally complicated by the difficulty in breaching the home's sanctity and privacy and the sense of comfort and familiarity that people experienced there.(88) As one NSC safety congress speaker observed, "It is not the unusual condition or the new implement that brings about accidental injuries in or about ... homes. It is the condition people have gotten accustomed to that causes the majority of accidents...."(89) In short, society still regarded the home as a haven where the safeguards that they erected in the outside world of the street and the factory could be disregarded.(90) And, society still designated women as the responsible managers for controlling danger in the haven.
Department of History Pittsburgh, PA 15213
This paper originated as part of a larger project on safety undertaken for Bill Luckin and Roger Cooter coot·er
n. Lower Southern U.S.
1. An edible freshwater turtle of the genus Chrysemys.
2. Any of various turtles or tortoises. See Regional Note at goober. . A more extensive and detailed article will be published as "Women as Home Safety Managers: The Discovery of the Home as a Place of Risk and Danger, 18501940," in Roger Cooter and Bill Luckin (eds.), Accidents, Fatalities and Social Relations:
Historical Orientations in History, Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine (Amsterdam: Rodopi), in press. The authors would like to thank Leslie Fisher, formerly of the New York State Department of Health, for sharing with us his manuscript, "Public Health Protection - Then and Now: Contributions of New York State Institutions to National Preventive Research, Service and Education for the Safety of Children." We would also like to thank John C. Burnham for his great helpfulness in sharing his ideas about accidents and accident prevention as well as providing many suggestions about sources. Baruch Fischhoff made helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. Priscilla Massmann shared her knowledge of the archives of the General Federation of Women's Clubs with the authors, while archivists at the Federation, the Red Cross, and the National Archives National Archives, official depository for records of the U.S. federal government, established in 1934 by an act of Congress. Although displeasure concerning the method of keeping national records was voiced in Congress as early as 1810, the United States continued have been most helpful in regard to sources.
1. See, Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger, An Analysis of Conceptions of Pollution and Taboo (London, 1966); Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky Aaron Wildavsky (31 May1930 - 4 September1993) was an American political scientist known for his pioneering work in public policy, government budgeting, and risk management.
A native of Brooklyn in New York, Wildavsky was the son of two Ukrainian immigrants. , Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers (Berkeley, CA., 1982); and Mary Douglas, Risk and Blame: Essays in Cultural Theory (London, 1992), pp. 3-82. For a pioneering article on home safety see John C. Burnham, "How the Discovery of Accidental Childhood Poisoning Contributed to the Development of Environmentalism environmentalism, movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. ," Environmental History Review (Fall, 1995) 19:57-82.
2. Maureen A. Flanagan, "The City Profitable, The City Livable: Environmental Policy, Gender, and Power in Chicago in the 1910s," Journal of Urban History (January, 1996) 22:163-90; Marsha Wedell, Elite Women and the Reform Impulse in Memphis, 1875-1915 (Knoxville, 1991), p. 96; and, Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies: Women s Associations in American History (Urbana, 1991), p. 141.
3. Flanagan, "The City Profitable, The City Livable," pp. 164-5, 181. For the idea of the "culture of safety," see, Arwen P. Mohun, "Creating a Culture of Safety," paper delivered at the Hagley Museum and Library The Hagley Museum and Library is a nonprofit educational institution located in Wilmington, Delaware. The library houses a collection of manuscripts, photographs, books, and pamphlets documenting the history of U.S. business and technology. Conference on "Danger, Risk, and Safety: Ideas and Practices," Oct. 13, 1993. Professor Mohun, in her most suggestive paper, is looking at safety organizations and industrial safety.
4. Clifford Edward Clark Edward Clark may refer to:
1. A conventional moral maxim or attitude.
2. The act or practice of moralizing.
3. Often undue concern for morality. and the Model Home: Domestic Architecture and Cultural Conflict in Chicago 1873-1913 (Chicago, 1980); and, Wright, Building The Dream: A Social History of Housing in America (Cambridge, 1981).
5. Charles R. King, Children's Health Children's Health Definition
Children's health encompasses the physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being of children from infancy through adolescence. in America: A History (New York, 1993), p. 47.
6. Susan Strasser, Never Done: A History of American Housework (New York, 1982), p. 185.
7. Nancy Tomes, "The Private Side of Public Health: Sanitary Science sanitary science, principles of health preservation, embracing hygiene, on an individual level, and public health, on a communal level. Those who specialize in sanitary science are sanitary engineers. , Domestic Hygiene, and the Germ Theory germ theory
Theory that certain diseases are caused by invasion of the body by microorganisms. Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister, and Robert Koch are given much of the credit for its acceptance in the later 19th century. , 1870-1900," Bulletin of the History of Medicine Bulletin of the History of Medicine is an academic journal founded in 1925. Since 1939, it has served as the official publication of the American Association for the History of Medicine. (Winter, 1990) 64:509-539. The quotation is on 528.
8. Harold U. Faulkner, The Decline of Laissez Faire Laissez Faire
An economic theory from the 18th century that is strongly opposed to any government intervention in business affairs. Sometimes referred to as "Let it be economics. 1897-1917 (New York, 1951), p. 277. See, also, Arthur F. McEvoy, "Working Environments: Prospectus For An Ecological Study of Industrial Health and Safety," unpublished paper delivered at the 1991 Critical Problems Conference of the Society for the History of Technology The Society for the History of Technology, or SHOT, is the primary professional society for historians of technology. Founded in 1958, its flagship publication is the journal Technology and Culture. , Madison, Wisconsin Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of Dane County. It is also home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The 2006 population estimate of Madison was 223,389, making it the second largest city in Wisconsin, after Milwaukee, and , Nov. 1, 1991, and the forthcoming book by Mark Aldrich Mark Aldrich (January 22, 1802–1874) was a founder of Warsaw, Illinois, an Illinois state senator for the Whig Party, the first American mayor of Tucson, Arizona, and one of five defendants tried and acquitted of the murder of Joseph Smith, Jr. , SAFETY FIRST: Technology, Labor, and Business in the Building of Work Safety, 1870-1939 (Baltimore, 1996).
9. Randolph E. Bergstrom, Courting Danger: Injury and Law in New York City New York City: see New York, city.
New York City
City (pop., 2000: 8,008,278), southeastern New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. The largest city in the U.S. , 18701910 (Ithaca, 1992), pp. 21-3, 158, 167-96.
10. The National Safety Council [hereafter In the future.
The term hereafter is always used to indicate a future time—to the exclusion of both the past and present—in legal documents, statutes, and other similar papers. NSC] was organized into sections, each representing a particular type of industry, and industry members funded that section's activities. Few industries represented the domestic sector, while insurance companies had limited influence within the NSC Executive Committee. NSC Transactions, Nineteenth Safety Congress (1930) 246-7.
11. Mohun, "Creating a Culture of Safety," p. 4.
12. "Report of the Home Safety Committee," Proceedings of the National Safety Council [henceforth, Proceedings], Detroit, 1916, pp. 30-32; "Universal Suffrage Noun 1. universal suffrage - suffrage for all adults who are not disqualified by the laws of the country
right to vote, suffrage, vote - a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment; "American and Universal Safety," Safety Engineering (henceforth SE) (Mar., 1915) 29:222; and, "For 'The Man on the Job' At Home-Cause and Prevention of Household Accidents," SE (Feb., 1917) 33:103.
13. In 1914, at the NSC Third Safety Congress, Ida M. Tarbell Noun 1. Ida M. Tarbell - United States writer remembered for her muckraking investigations into industries in the early 20th century (1857-1944)
Ida Minerva Tarbell, Ida Tarbell, Tarbell addressed the "Economic Session" of the conference on safety, but paid attention almost entirely to men in industry. See, "Economics Session," Proceedings, Third Safety Congress (1914) 3:119-25.
14. See, "Housewives and Home Hazards," SE (May, 1917) 33:303-3.
15. H. S. Forster, "Safety in the Home," Proceedings, Seventh Safety Congress (1918) 7:447-52.
16. "Women in Industry Section Invites National Women's Organizations to Cooperate in Public Safety," National Safety News [henceforth cited as NSN] (Dec. 1, 1919) No. 312, 1-2.
17. C. W. Price, "Safety a Part of Community Life," NSN (Dec. 1, 1919) No. 312, 3.
18. These ideas can be traced to the writings of Catharine Beecher. See, Kathryn Kish Sklar, Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity (New York, 1973); Strasser, Never Done, pp. 188-9.
19. Quoted in Ibid., p. 210.
20. On this point see Glenna Matthews, "Just a Housewife" The Rise & Fall of Domesticity in America (New York, 1987), and Margaret W. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (Baltimore, 1982).
21. Matthews, "Just a Housewife," Chapter 6, "The Housewife and the Home Economist," pp. 145 ff., especially pp. 152-8; Strasser, Never Done, p. 206; and Rossiter, Women Scientists, pp. 276-7.
22. Samuel Haber, Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890-1920 (Chicago, 1964), p. ix. See also, Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877-1920 (New York, 1967).
23. On how technological change held out the promise of emancipation for women, see Ruth Schwartz Cowan, More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth (Metal.) the shallow hearth of a reverberatory furnace.
See also: Open to the Microwave (New York, 1983).
24. Although few monographs have focused directly on the home economics movement, many excellent discussions of the movement exist. See, for instance, Matthews, "Just a Housewife;" Rossiter, Women Scientists in America; and, Strasser, Never Done.
25. David E. Nye, Electrifying e·lec·tri·fy
tr.v. e·lec·tri·fied, e·lec·tri·fy·ing, e·lec·tri·fies
1. To produce electric charge on or in (a conductor).
a. America: Social Meanings of a New Technology (Cambridge, MA, 1992), p. 252.
26. This was the seventh graduate fellowship in the field of safety education offered by the National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters. See announcement, "A Fellowship in Home Safety," in Papers of the Children's Bureau The Children's Bureau may refer to:
27. The fellowship was first announced in 1929 but there were few applicants.
28. For a discussion of Edith Abbot's career as an academic and a social reformer, see Robyn Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform 1890-1935 (New York, 1991), pp. 69-92.
29. See, Gertrude Zurrer, "The National Bureau's Study of Home Accidents," Proceedings, Nineteenth Safety Congress (1930) 19:232-7; see, also, Frances L. Swain, "Teaching Home Safety Through Good Home Management," Proceedings, Twentieth Safety Congress (1931) 20:182-6
30. Daniel J. Walkowitz, "The Making of a Feminine Professional Identity: Social Workers in the 1920s," American Historical Review The American Historical Review (AHR) is the official publication of the American Historical Association (AHA), a body of academics, professors, teachers, students, historians, curators and others, founded in 1884 "for the promotion of historical studies, the (Oct., 1990) 95:1051-75.
31. Strasser, Never Done, p. 212.
32. Bertha ber·tha
A wide deep collar, often of lace, that covers the shoulders of a dress.
[French berthe, after Bertha (died 783), Carolingian queen as the wife of Pepin the Short.] June Richardson, The Woman Who Spends: A Study of Her Economic Function (Boston, 1904). See also, Nye, Electrifying America, chapter 6.
33. Christine Frederick, Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home (Chicago, 1920), p. 69; quoted from Strasser, Never Done, p. 214. See also, Christine Frederick, The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home Management (Garden City, N.Y., 1913); and Suellen Hoy Hoy, island, 13 mi (21 km) long and 6 mi (9.7 km) wide, off N Scotland, second largest of the Orkney Islands. It is located at the southwestern side of the Scapa Flow anchorage. , Chasing Dirt: The American Pursuit of Cleanliness (New York, 1995), p. 155.
34. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America, p. 259.
35. Matthews, "Just a Housewife," p. 153.
36. Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven New Haven, city (1990 pop. 130,474), New Haven co., S Conn., a port of entry where the Quinnipiac and other small rivers enter Long Island Sound; inc. 1784. Firearms and ammunition, clocks and watches, tools, rubber and paper products, and textiles are among the many , CT, 1987).
37. Hayden, Grand Domestic Revolutions, pp. 194-5.
38. Experts from the fire underwriters seldom spoke at National Safety Congresses and speakers there discussing fire appeared to be unaware of their research.
39. Cowan, More Work For Mother, pp. 66-70.
40. Handlin, American Home, p. 455.
41. C. H. Claudy, "Electrical Invasion of the Home," Scientific American Scientific American
U.S. monthly magazine interpreting scientific developments to lay readers. It was founded in 1845 as a newspaper describing new inventions. By 1853 its circulation had reached 30,000 and it was reporting on various sciences, such as astronomy and (Dec. 2, 1916) 115:502-3; Mark H. Rose, Cities of Light and Heat: Domesticating Gas and Electricity in Urban America (University Park, PA, 1995), pp. 77, 86.
42. Carolyn Marvin, When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York, 1988), pp. 22-31; Rose, Cities of Light and Heat, pp. 94-8; and, Strasser, Never Done, pp. 73-6.
43. Bertha Winter Mahoney, "As The Home Keeper Sees It," Proceedings, Sixteenth Safety Congress (1927) 16:138-40.
44. Katherine A. Fisher, "Making Household Equipment Safe to Use," Proceedings, Eighteenth Safety Congress (1929) 18:300-6. Katherine Fisher was Director of the Good Housekeeping Institute and a frequent participant in NSC affairs.
45. Rose, Cities of Light and Heat, pp. 91-109.
46. Nye, Electrifying America, pp. 259-80; Rose, Cities of Light and Heat, pp. 107-9, 139-46; and, James A. Ryan, "Efficient Slaves of Intelligent Masters," NSN (Oct., 1929) 20:116, 126. If the hazards of electricity were to be controlled, performance standards would also have to be established. The Bureau of Standards, created by Congress in 1901 to systematize sys·tem·a·tize
tr.v. sys·tem·a·tized, sys·tem·a·tiz·ing, sys·tem·a·tiz·es
To formulate into or reduce to a system: "The aim of science is surely to amass and systematize knowledge" and regularize reg·u·lar·ize
tr.v. reg·u·lar·ized, reg·u·lar·iz·ing, reg·u·lar·iz·es
To make regular; cause to conform.
reg national standards for use in science, engineering, manufacturing, commerce, and education, took the lead in this matter. Much of the Bureau's work related to electricity and gas provision. In 1918, the Bureau issued Circular 75 - "Safety in the Household" - prepared, according to the introduction, because of the increase in hazards "in modern times from the service of gas and electricity and the use of such dangerous articles as matches, volatile oils (Chem.) See
See also: Volatile , poisons, and the like."
47. Rose, Cities of Light and Heat, pp. 74-89.
48. Esther Rockey, "First Aid to Home Accidents," Proceedings, Twentieth Safety Congress (1932) 20:186-90; Hoy, Chasing Dirt, p. 154.
49. Katherine Fisher, "Safety Begins at Home," Proceedings, Twenty-Fourth Safety Congress (1935) 24:113; Zella Patterson, "The Safe Use and Care of Household Appliances," Proceedings, Twenty-Seventh Safety Congress (1938) 27:145-47.
50. Nye, Electrifying America, pp. 266-77; Platt, Electric City, pp. 236-44.
51. See, Cowan, More Work for Mother, and Strasser, Never Done, pp. 78-84.
52. Concern over lead paint poisoning was just beginning. See Elizabeth Fee, "Public Health in Baltimore: Childhood Lead Poisoning lead poisoning or plumbism (plŭm`bĭz'əm), intoxication of the system by organic compounds containing lead. , 1930-70," Maryland Historical Magazine (1992) 87: 267-93; Jane S. Lin-Fu, "Lead Poisoning in Children," Children Health Service Publication No. 2108 (1970).
53. NSC, Transactions, Nineteenth Safety Congress (1930) 246-7; see, also, Palmer's comments in "Report on the National Safety Council's Special Committee on Home Safety," in Transactions, Twenty-Eighth Safety Congress (1939) 133-5. The NSC came to be funded not only by member dues, but by contributions and the sale of materials. Today it also consults on safety matters.
54. For the NSC and statistics, see Frederick S. Crum, "Now We Die from Accidents in Careless America," NSN (Oct., 1912) 4: 17-8. See, also, Lucian W. Chaney, "The Need for More Definite Analysis of Accident Causes," Annals of the American Academy The American Academy in Berlin is a non-partisan academic institution in Berlin. It was founded in September 1994 by a group of prominent Americans and Germans, among them Richard Holbrooke, Henry Kissinger, Richard von Weizsäcker, Fritz Stern and Otto Graf Lambsdorff and opened in , CCIII:40-5. See, also, John C. Burnham, "How the Discovery of Accidental Childhood Poisoning."
55. "Report of the Statistical Committee," Proceedings, Eighth Safety Congress (1919) 8:1004-7; Frederick S. Crum, "Report of Committee on Statistics, Proceedings, Ninth Safety Congress (1920) 9:321-7; and, "To the Stranger in Our Midst," NSN (Oct., 1921) 4:3.
56. "Outline of a Public Safety Plan," NSN (Dec. 15, 1919) no. 314: 2,4; "What the Local Councils Did in 1921," NSN (Oct., 1921) 4:25; and, Julian H. Harvey, "Organizing a Local Safety Council," Annals of the American Academy, CXXIII:32-3. See also, Palmer, "Report of the NSC's Special Committee on Home Safety, Transactions, Twenty-Eighth Safety Congress (1939) 133-4.
57. Metropolitan Life Insurance and Travelers Life Insurance were the only two insurance companies to publish statistics on home accidents. See, Proceeding of the First Conference on Home Accident Prevention (Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, city (1990 pop. 109,592), seat of Washtenaw co., S Mich., on the Huron River; inc. 1851. It is a research and educational center, with a large number of government and industrial research and development firms, many in high-technology fields such as , MI, 1953), pp. 27, 58-60.
58. Life insurance companies sometimes offered liability coverage through specific divisions to comply with state laws which demanded that the capital of life and fire insurance policies be invested separately.
59. "Combination Residence Insurance," The Aetna-Agency Edition (June 1913) 2: 296. This policy did not cover loss by fire since there had long been a separation of business between fire and life insurance companies.
60. "Safe at Home," The Aetna-Agency Edition (February 1913) 5:231. By the 1910s, Aetna had paid over $10 million in claims on its "Accident and Health Policy," "Aetnaized," The Aetna-Agency Edition (April 1913) 2:265.
61. See, for instance, The Accident and Health Monitor, Number 14, March 11, 1922; Number 17, April 1, 1922; and, Number 68, July 21, 1923. Metropolitan Life and its social welfare programs are discussed in Marquis James Marquis James (b. 1891, Springfield, Missouri; d. 1955) was an American journalist and author. He served in the First World War, in France, 1917-1919. He worked on the staff at the American Legion Monthly from 1923 to 1932. Works
62. "Children's Safety Saturday - A New Way to Reach A Community," NSN (Feb. 23, 1920) No. 324:1; "Home, Factory, Streets All Are Safer If Children Are Trained in Accident Prevention," ibid. (Nov. 8, 1920) 2:1; "How Cincinnati School Children Are Trained in Safety," ibid. (June, 1921) 3:21; William C. Knoelk, "The School's Responsibility for Home Safety," Proceedings, Twenty-Fifth Safety Congress (1936) 25:131-5; and, William Ralph Laporte, Charles Hewnry Hunt, and Floyd R. Eastwood, Teaching Safety Education in Secondary Schools (New York, 1942).
63. Karen J. Blair observes that "Clubs had always had limited sympathy for black and working-class women.... Club work often reflected nativist na·tiv·ism
1. A sociopolitical policy, especially in the United States in the 19th century, favoring the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrants.
2. attitudes towards immigrants." See, The Clubwoman club·wom·an
A woman who is a member of a club or clubs, especially one who is active in club life. as Feminist: True Womanhood wom·an·hood
1. The state or time of being a woman.
2. The composite of qualities thought to be appropriate to or representative of women.
3. Redefined, 1868-1914 (New York, 1980), pp. 108-11.
64. Katherine Fisher, "A Man's Job," NSN (1937) 36:40. Fisher also argued that men should get involved in home safety because "safety in the factory begins at home."
65. Fred Rosseland, "Getting the Women to Help in Better Home Safety," Transactions, Fifteenth Safety Congress (1926) 183-184, and E. Williams Corn, "Most Accidents Occur in Homes of Poorly Housed," Ibid., p. 189; Bernice Neuberger, "Developing a Community Program for Home Safety," Transactions, Sixteenth Safety Council (1927) 131-2.
66. Jane Addams, "What Accidents Mean to the Community," Transactions, Eighteenth Safety Congress (1929) 295-8. Addams expressed surprise at the number of home accidents. For a discussion of the relationship between crowding and accidents see Molly Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890-1930 (Urbana, 1994), pp. 28-9.
67. Gertrude Zurrer, "The Welfare Agencies and Home Safety," Transactions, Twentieth Safety Congress (1931) 192-4. Health Agencies did occasionally take safety into account. See, "Home Is a Dangerous Place," Ohio Health News (Jan. 15, 1931), 2. I am indepted to John Burnham John Burnham (June 6, 1839 — April 20, 1914) was an English cricketer. He was a right-handed batsman who played for Derbyshire between 1871 and 1876. Burnham took part in Derbyshire's first-ever match as a county side, an innings victory over Lancashire, and four further for providing me with a copy of this article.
68. For the emergence of woman's clubs and their public roles, see Blair, The Clubwoman as Feminist; Scott, Natural Allies; and, Theda Skocpol Theda Skocpol (born May 4 1947) is an American sociologist and political scientist at Harvard University, presently serving as Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. , Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 321-72.
69. The Federation had developed an interest in industrial safety in 1910, but did not focus on home safety until 1929. See, Mildred White Wells, Unity and Diversity: The History of the General Federation of Women's Clubs (Washington, 1953), p. 216.
70. Mrs. D. Edwin [Arvilla] Miller, "Home Safety in the Community," NSN (Oct., 1929) 20:93-4, 134. Italics added.
71. Mrs. Edward M. [Marie L.] Land, "Safety Program of the General Federation of Women's Clubs," Transactions, Nineteenth Safety Congress (1930) 237-40; "Club Women in Convention Study Home Safety;" NSN (Aug., 1930) 22:50.
72. Land, "Safety Program," 238-9.
73. Mrs. Edward M. Land [Marie L.], "Report of Sub-Committee on Safety in the Home and School," General Federation of Women's Clubs, Official Report, Fourteenth Biennial biennial, plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter. Council (1931): 193-4. The Federation "was instrumental" in making available insurance policies to cover housewives. See, White, Unity and Diversity, p. 216.
74. Vice Chairman [James L. Fieser] to Staff members, "Status and Fall Plans of the Home and Farm Accident Prevention Program," G.I. Letter #12, Aug. 20, 1935, Red Cross Archives, Washington, D.C.
75. James L. Fieser to Staff Members, July 21, 1936, Red Cross Archives.
76. The Chairman [Cary T. Grayson] to Chapter Chairmen, Sept. 7, 1935, C.S. 625-H.H.-1, Red Cross Archives; American National Red Cross, "Home and Farm Accident Prevention,"' in Annual Report (1936): 103-4; and, Rosemary L. Lilie, "Home and Farm Accident Prevention in the Midwest," Red Cross Courier (April, 1936): 10, 27.
77. James L. Fieser to Daniel C. Roper, Nov. 26, 1935, Fieser to The President [FDR], Nov. 26, 1935, and Franklin D. Roosevelt to Fieser, Dec. 3, 1935, Red Cross Archives. In 1930, a White House Conference on Child Health and Protection was held, but home safety, as opposed to the safety movement, was not specifically mentioned. See, White House Conference on Child Health and Protection (New York, 1930), pp. 138, 254-5,332.
78. "Home and Farm Accident Prevention: A New Nation-Wide Program Initiated by the Red Cross," The Red Cross Courier (Oct., 1935): 9.
79. Estelle Rebec rebec (rē`bĕk), one of the earliest forms of the violin. It was pear-shaped, had from three to five strings, and possessed a strident tone. Its use, which began in the 13th cent. and Gustave R. Gaedderet, "The History of the American National Red Cross, Vol. VII: The Development of First Aid, Life Saving, Water Safety and Accident Prevention" (Washington, D.C.: The American National Red Cross, 1950, unpublished), p. 97. In an internal memo to Chapter Chairman, Grayson noted that "hazards and bad habits bad habit Unhealthy habit Clinical medicine A patterned behavior regarded as detrimental to physical or mental health, which is often linked to a lack of self-control. Cf Good habit. " caused accidents. See, The Chairman [Cary T. Grayson] to Chapter Chairmen, Sept. 7, 1935, C.S. 625-H.H.-1, Red Cross Archives.
80. Irma Gene Nevins, "Is Your Home Free of Hazards," Red Cross Courier (May, 1947): 8.
81. The NSC had supposedly taken some satisfaction at the Red Cross' inability to mount an effective campaign against home accidents. John Melpolder, the Red Cross "Consultant" to the Program, reported that the NSC's attitude was, "There are a lot of agencies that dabble dab·ble
v. dab·bled, dab·bling, dab·bles
To splash or spatter with or as if with a liquid: "The moon hung over the harbor dabbling the waves with gold" in this field, but they get out of it as soon as they've gotten some publicity out of it, and have done more harm than good." Melpolder to James L. Fieser, Sept. 11, 1937, Red Cross Archives.
82. John Melpolder, as head of the program in 1937, wrote to Fieser, "the Red Cross, by common consent, has preempted the home and farm accident prevention field. Now what are we going to do with it or, rather, in it?" However, he "retired" in 1939. See, John Melpolder to Fieser, Nov. 18, 1937, and Norman H. Davis to Chapter Chairmen, Sept. 30, 1941, Red Cross Archives; "Accident Prevention and First Aid Consolidated,' The Red Cross Courier, June, 1939.
83. Perhaps because of the Red Cross activity, the NSC created a special committee on Home Safety in 1937. However, the committee did little but review past actions and suggest extension of publicity, education, and cooperation with other organizations. See, Palmer, "Report of the NSC's Special Committee on Home Safety, Transactions, Twenty-Eighth Safety Congress (1939) 133-4.
84. See, John C. Burnham, "Why Did the Infants and Toddlers Die? Shifts in Americans' Ideas of Responsibility for Accidents - From Blaming More to Engineering," Journal of Social History (1996) 29:817-837; Julian A. Waller, "Reflections on a Half Century of Injury Control," American Journal of Public Health The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA). The Journal also regularly publishes authoritative editorials and commentaries and serves as a forum for the analysis of health policy. (April 1994) 84:664-70; Waller, "Injury Control in Perspective," ibid. (Mar., 1989) 79:272-3; and, Leslie Fisher, Childhood Injuries - Causes, Preventive Theories and Case Studies: An Overview on the Role for Sanitarians and Other Health Professionals," Journal of Environmental Health (May/June, 1988) 50:355-360. The first conference on Home Accident Prevention was held in 1953. See, Proceedings of The First Conference on Home Accident Prevention.
85. Land, "Safety Program," 238.
86. The decline in industrial accidents was largely attributed to intensive safety campaigns, improvements in work conditions and medical care, adoption of protective devices for machinery, and a shorter work week, cutting the fatigue that was often a factor in industrial accidents. See, "Accident Deaths and Death Rates by Principal Types, 1913 to 1937," Accident Facts, 1938, p. 57; William Haddon, Jr., Edward A. Suchman, and David Klein David Klein may refer to:
87. Richard W. Thrush, "Home Safety Activities of Selected National Groups: The American Red Cross American Red Cross: see Red Cross. ," Proceedings, Twenty-Ninth Safety Congress (1940) 29:183.
88. Here the comment of Admiral Cary T. Grayson, Red Cross National Chairman, to Mabel T. Boardman, the previous long-time Red Cross Chair, about the Red Cross Home and Highway Accident Program is of particular interest. Grayson approvingly reported that the new program would provide an "entree to the American home that has not otherwise been possible." See, Cary T. Grayson to Mabel T. Boardman, Sept. 14, 1935, Red Cross Archives.
89. Land, "Safety Program," 242; Knoelk, "The School's Responsibility," 131.
90. See, for instance, Paul Slovic Paul Slovic (b. 1938) is a professor of psychology at the University of Oregon and the president of the Decision Research group. He earned his Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Michigan in 1964. , Baruch Fischhoff and Sarah Lichtenstein, "Facts and Fears: Understanding Perceived Risk," in R. C. Schwing and W. A. Albers, Jr. (eds.), Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe is Safe Enough? (New York, 1980), pp. 181-214.