Lost in transition: the costs of tighter borders.FEW CONTEST THE need to secure American borders against terrorists. But if immigration policy An immigration policy is any policy of a state that affects the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. can't offer such security without unduly burdening commerce and education, the cost may come not merely in the form of a delay here or there but as a broader shift of brains and business overseas.
A study by the Santangelo Group, commissioned by a coalition of eight trade associations, estimates that U.S. companies have lost more than $30 billion as a result of the new rules on entering the country. The Transit Without Visa and International-to-International programs, which had allowed some travelers to bypass visa requirements, were suspended in August 2003.
Background checks and interviews are now required for younger male visa applicants from 26 countries with Muslim majorities and for travelers from "technology alert" countries, such as China, who are visiting high-tech businesses. Just securing all interview call take more than a month. Of the companies surveyed in the trade association study, 73 percent said they had experienced problems processing visas, and 60 percent reported a "material impact" in some cases requiring relocation of personnel or business functions offshore.
There are also signs of a longer-term brain drain brain drain
The loss of skilled intellectual and technical labor through the movement of such labor to more favorable geographic, economic, or professional environments. . The Government Accountability Office The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress, and thus an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. estimates that "Visa Mantis" security checks for foreign science students take more than two months on average, sometimes far longer. A poll of top chemistry departments by Chemical & Engineering News showed that 71 percent had foreign students who had encountered difficulty returning to the U.S. after leaving the country, and 74 percent had accepted students who were unable to begin their studies because of visa problems.
These problems are beginning to show up in higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. application patterns: A study by the Council of Graduate Schools and several other U.S. educational associations found that 60 percent of the graduate schools they surveyed reported declines in applications from foreign students. Overseas graduate applications declined 32 percent between 2003 and 2004, and foreign students are taking graduate entrance exams such as the GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) A tunneling protocol developed by Cisco that allows network layer packets to contain packets from a different protocol. It is widely used to tunnel protocols inside IP packets for virtual private networks (VPNs). and the GMAT GMAT
1. Graduate Management Admission Test
2. Greenwich Mean Astronomical Time
GMAT n abbr (US) (= Graduate Management Admissions Test) → in rapidly dwindling dwin·dle
v. dwin·dled, dwin·dling, dwin·dles
To become gradually less until little remains.
To cause to dwindle. See Synonyms at decrease. numbers.