Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten. (Connecting Classroom Practice and Research).Longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. Effects of Kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be --Prince, Hare hare, name for certain herbivorous mammals of the family Leporidae, which also includes the rabbit and pika. The name is applied especially to species of the genus Lepus, sometimes called the true hares. , & Howard Howard, English noble family. Landowners in Norfolk from the 13th cent., the Howards obtained the duchy of Norfolk through the marriage of Sir Robert Howard to Margaret Mowbray, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of Norfolk.
This study determined that the differences in achievement existing at the end of the 3rd grade among 367 students who attended public kindergarten, non-public kindergarten, or no kindergarten continued to exist throughout their school years. The independent variable (public kindergarten, non-public kindergarten, no kindergarten) was determined from 20-year-old school records. In an attempt to identify a cause-and-effect relationship, a causal-comparative design was used. Eight dependent variables compared indicators of achievement for the three groups, including: number of students taking ACT, composite ACT scores, math ACT scores, English ACT scores, science ACT scores, number of special education placements, cumulative grade point average, and number of high school graduates. Data were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. using both descriptive and inferential statistics inferential statistics
see inferential statistics. . The results indicate that students with kindergarten experience, either public or non-public, scored significantly higher than students without kindergarten experience on composite ACT scores, math-science-English ACT scores, and cumulative grade point averages. There were no statistically significant differences between the public and non-public kindergarten groups. There were also no statistically significant differences among the three groups in the number of students taking the ACT in high school, number of students with special education placements in high school, or number of students graduating from high school.