Literacy in its broadest definition: The Australian South Sea Islander literacy research project.Introduction
How one defines literacy has a significant effect on the way literacy experiences are designed to take place in school. This article explores definitions of literacy held by the key stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. in the literacy education of one group of students and, further to this, goes on to argue that the need for teachers to know about these definitions is central in providing for the diverse literacy needs of students. In pursuing this argument, reference will be made to a research project conducted in a state school in Queensland.
The project investigated one community's definitions of literacy and explored ways of building bridges between the school and that community. The school population is made up of a diversity of minority groups, and one such group, the Australian South Sea Islander
ASSI Ab Statens Skogsindustrier
ASSI Additional Special Skill Indicator
ASSI Aerial Scout Sensors Integration
ASSI Arvin Suspension Systems Italy ) students, was the focus of the research.
Australian South Sea Islanders
South Sea Islanders in Central Queensland Central Queensland is an ambiguous geographical division of Queensland (a state in Australia) that centers on the eastern coast, around the Tropic of Capricorn. Its major regional center is Rockhampton and the Capricorn Coast and the area extends west to the Central Highlands at are a black ethnic minority, descended from immigrants from the islands of the Pacific who arrived in the region after 1867 ... South Sea Islanders are in a unique position in Australia as
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.
2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.
Migratory. community reaching back five or six generations. Descended from those who were brought to Queensland to work in the pastoral industry and tropical agriculture Worldwide more human beings gain their livelihood from agriculture than any other endeavor; the majority are self-employed subsistence farmers living in the tropics. While growing food for local consumption is the core of tropical agriculture , they have been considered by some to be the descendants DESCENDANTS. Those who have issued from an individual, and include his children, grandchildren, and their children to the remotest degree. Ambl. 327 2 Bro. C. C. 30; Id. 230 3 Bro. C. C. 367; 1 Rop. Leg. 115; 2 Bouv. n. 1956.
2. of slaves, a view which is still favoured among themselves.
(Gistitin, 1995: p. 1)
Over the last twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. , a number of detailed histories of Australian South Sea Islanders in Queensland have been written (Corris, 1973; Huth, 1976; Moore, 1985; Gistitin, 1995), all providing insightful reading. Following community political agitation agitation /ag·i·ta·tion/ (aj?i-ta´shun) excessive, purposeless cognitive and motor activity or restlessness, usually associated with a state of tension or anxiety. Called also psychomotor a. over many years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) is a national independent statutory body of the Australian Government. It has the responsibility for investigating alleged infringements under Australia’s anti-discrimination legislation. (HREOC HREOC Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Australia) ) document, The Call for Recognition (HREOC, 1992), was tabled in Federal Parliament in May 1993, calling on the Federal Government to recognise Australian South Sea Islanders as one of the most disadvantaged minority groups in Australia. This formal recognition took place in 1994. The Call for Recognition states that:
All the stakeholders in the formal education of South Sea Islander children need to be responsive to the communities' values and beliefs, and provide educational services in a consultative, equitable and culturally relevant manner.
(HROEC, 1992: p. 48)
The specific needs of Australian South Sea Islander learners lack any detailed research base or theorising in the education literature. For some time this group has been thought of as having similar educational needs to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Torres Strait (tŏr`ĭz, –rĭs), channel, c.95 mi (153 km) wide, between New Guinea and Cape York Peninsula of Australia. It connects the Arafura and Coral seas. Islander people but it is clear from this simple introduction that such a view is misguided. The only research available beyond school retention figures is a study conducted by Bliss (1992) which examined the education of ASSI students in schools by taking a sample of schools and identifying ASSI students in remedial programs. This study found that ASSI students were over-represented in remedial classrooms, a finding which `provided an important benchmark when discussing the education of ASSI students' (Mullins, Cox et al., 1995: p. 13). The HREOC (1992) report also acknowledged that the educational needs of the ASSI community are under-addressed in the literature.
Recently, Lo Bianco (1996) in the policy document, Australian Literacies, made the first statement which differentiates the literacy needs of ASSI students from those of indigenous groups.
Australian South Sea Islanders represent a category of Australians who share many of the characteristics of indigenous peoples The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. but also of immigrant, or forcibly forc·i·ble
1. Effected against resistance through the use of force: The police used forcible restraint in order to subdue the assailant.
2. Characterized by force; powerful. recruited populations, and for whom literacy in English is an enduring issue interwoven in·ter·weave
v. in·ter·wove , in·ter·wo·ven , inter·weav·ing, inter·weaves
1. To weave together.
2. To blend together; intermix.
v.intr. with identity, home language and wider social aspiration.
(Lo Bianco, 1996: p. 52)
Definitions of literacy
Much has been written about just what the term `literacy' constitutes (Barton, 1994; Cazden, 1988; Gee, 1992; 1996; Luke, 1994; Street, 1993) since Cook-Gumperz's (1986) definition.
Literacy is not just the simple ability to read and write: but by possessing and performing these skills we exercise socially approved and approvable talents; in other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently literacy is a socially constructed phenomenon.
(Cook-Gumperz, 1986: p. 1)
The move away from viewing literacy as simply reading and writing to seeing it as constructing meaning in social contexts is now a well-documented example of educational theorising.
What then is involved in these newer definitions of literacy? Comber comb·er
1. One, such as a machine or a worker, that combs something, such as wool.
2. A long wave that has reached its peak or broken into foam; a breaker. summarises thinking over the last decade when she says:
We can no longer take it for granted that literacy has a common meaning. Increasingly educators are writing of `literacies' to point out that there is no one state that can be achieved and described as literacy, that in fact literacy is defined by cultures, context, tasks, history -- it is a social construct.
Thus literacy is no longer perceived as a static set of skills which children master solely within the school context; being literate enables students to interact in socially approved ways. Where the dilemma occurs for ASSI students is whose socially approved ways -- the school or the community? The following research examines this dilemma.
Studies in literacy practices in communities
The initial impetus for the study came from the researchers' familiarity with the ASSI community coupled with an implicit belief that differences existed between the school and community purposes for literacy use. Furthermore, recent research findings have emphasised `the need for close contact and sharing between an informed teaching service in local school situations and the home cultures and environments of the children that they serve' (Reid, 1998: p. 246).
Examining other studies that look at literacy practices in communities provides some insight into how other researchers have distinguished and theorised about these differences. The study conducted by Heath (1982) suggests that for the children of Trackton and Roadville there was a mismatch mismatch
1. in blood transfusions and transplantation immunology, an incompatibility between potential donor and recipient.
2. one or more nucleotides in one of the double strands in a nucleic acid molecule without complementary nucleotides in the same position on the other between literacy practices of those at home and at school. This mismatch was due in part to the differences in the way in which each community addressed language to children at home. Further, the types of questions asked during school time were different from those asked at home for the students of Trackton. Trackton parents did not ask known answer questions; they asked questions that required an analogy as an answer. The work of Heath (1982) provided a broad conceptual backdrop for the current study. Furthermore, Heath (1982) reports that scores in the language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. subjects of the children from Trackton were consistently low, except for those students who had begun at adapt to and adopt some of the literacy behaviours that they had to learn at school (1994: p. 90).
Michaels' study of `sharing time' (1986) took place in a Year 1 classroom where half the students were African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. and half non-African American. Michaels identifies sharing time as a gatekeeping encounter in the classroom and found that the two different groups of students have very different ways of sharing information. This study suggests that teachers may benefit from learning more about the discourse and interactional structures from students' diverse homes and communities.
A study by Breen, Louden, Barratt-Pugh, Rivalland, Rohl, Rhydwen, Lloyd and Carr (1994) primarily sought to provide a descriptive account of literacy practices which would enable an exploration of similarities and differences in these practices across communities.
The Breen et al. (1994) study involved a number of data sources, including interviews conducted with family members; the observation of family literacy This article
* Its factual accuracy is disputed.
* It needs additional references or sources for verification.
* Very few or no other articles link to this one. activities over several months; and an account of family literacy practices collected by a school-aged member of each family. The researchers in the study of ASSI students used the Breen et al. (1994) study as a basis for their own work, focussing on interviews with family/community members of students at the school. has multiple issues:
The project team recognised that a secondary purpose of this study could be to explore opportunities for the establishment of communication networks between the school and the school's local community which could, in turn, optimise learning outcomes for these students. This secondary purpose remained a priority throughout the data collection.(1) As the ASSI community is closeknit and relies on formal introductions and informal connections to ascertain acceptance levels for those from outside the community, data collection procedures needed to be genuine. The research team engaged a research assistant who had been a teacher at the school and who was well known to the community across generations, ensuring this person was accepted by both the school teachers and the community members.
The central aim of the current study was to explore how the key stakeholders in the education of ASSI children talked about and defined literacy. The key stakeholders were identified as the state educational jurisdiction (via curriculum documents), the school (via school-based curriculum documents), the teachers (via semistructured interviews) and the community members (via interviews, group meetings and community meetings).
The first two data sources involved a simple document analysis. The key English documents used by the school system when framing the students' experiences of literacy were examined to identify the theoretical base and the recommended teaching methods. A similar process was followed for both the relevant regional and school-based curriculum documents.
Teacher interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed by the researchers and project officer. Interviews with the community members were run as organised meetings where notes were taken by the project officer. Developed as the community felt more comfortable talking in groups, these meetings became a feature of the data collection with these particular stakeholders.
Table 1 presents a summary of the data sources, the nature of the data and a summary of each group's literacy definitions. These summaries will be discussed in more detail below.
Table 1: Overview of findings Summary of literacy Stakeholders Data source definitions System Queensland Language Documents identify Education Framework literacy as a socially (Qld Dept of Education, constructed phenomenon. 1989); The framework addresses English in Years 1-10 the need for schools to Syllabus Documents be aware of the role of (Qld Dept of Education, culture in language 1991); learning. Regional strategy plan. School School development plan; The school documents school English program. focus on the development of the four macro-skills of language: talking, listening, reading, writing. Teachers Interviews with teachers Teachers describe the from the middle primary need for ASSI students years with ASSI students to be competent in in their classes. (what might be summarised as) new literacies, including technological and visual literacy, and numeracy. ASSI Interviews, group The community community discussion, community identifies being meetings literate to include reading and writing within a broader form of cultural literacy. This literacy includes knowing when and how to use standard and non-standard forms of language. There is a strong link with literate ability, as defined by the community, and the life chances of its students.
Clearly the most comprehensive views are those of the system documents, the teachers and the community members. It is where planning for the teaching of literacy takes place -- the school-based curriculum documents -- that the definitions are less broad.
Key issues in the literacy definitions
Within the broad framework of the systemic definitions of literacy it was decided that a more detailed examination was needed of the two key stakeholders in the study: the teachers and the community.
The community's definition of literacy
One community member defined literacy as: `Literacy is communication, talking amongst one another. Listening and talking play a major part in literacy'. Research suggests that knowledge of the functions of literacy, for example, to initiate and maintain social relationships, is learnt within the home and social group and precedes knowledge of other forms of literacy (Taylor, 1983). This community seemed to be aware of the social construction of literacy.
Furthermore, the community offered clear instructions to teachers of ASSI children about their children's literacy needs, as shown in the comments of one member.
Our children need hands on experience, they need to read to know the meaning of things, they need to see it in operation, see it modelled, have some practice with lots of examples. Language used to indicate inappropriate behaviour should be in the imperative mood Noun 1. imperative mood - a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener's behavior
imperative, imperative form, jussive mood
modality, mood, mode - verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker . Teachers should not `waste words' -- they should be precise and to the point.
The speaker appears to have thought long and hard about ways of interacting with these children, even to the point of making recommendations about the syntactic Dealing with language rules (syntax). See syntax. form of the language directed to them.
Another community member reported his perception that ASSI students are disadvantaged in the classroom interactions.
Dark kids are overlooked when a response to the teacher is required in class. The kids are disadvantaged in class. They need more practice at responding so they'll get better and then praised for their efforts. This is a form of literacy.
Earlier research by Philips (1972) with native American students on the Warm Springs Indian reservation The Warm Springs Indian Reservation consists of 2,640.194 km² (1,019.385 sq mi) in north central Oregon, in the United States, and is occupied and governed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. demonstrates that students are more willing to speak where classroom participation structures have features similar to those of community participation structures. This finding is again reflected in Heath (1982) and Micheals (1986), and may suggest that further research within this community could result in greater understanding of ASSI community's participation structures. The comment above from a community member reflects an understanding of the central role of patterns of interaction in classroom success and that the rules of classroom interaction are, in fact, another form of literacy, a view supported by more recent studies that focus on school literacy practices (Freebody, Ludwig & Gunn, 1995; Baker, 1996; Ludwig & Herschell, 1998).
Community members also demonstrated a strong sense of the links between language and culture. They began by stating emphatically em·phat·ic
1. Expressed or performed with emphasis: responded with an emphatic "no."
2. Forceful and definite in expression or action.
3. that in their view `literacy is paramount to personal relationships', and followed this by statements about differences in dialect dialect, variety of a language used by a group of speakers within a particular speech community. Every individual speaks a variety of his language, termed an idiolect. . From the following statement it was clear that they understood when and where to use non-standard and standard dialects and that this understanding was an important aspect of literate knowledge for their children.
Sometimes to use `broken English' is more effective but on formal occasions Australian South Sea Islanders use spoken Standard Australian English. It is preferred for children to keep their home language and learn Standard Australian English.
The ASSI community had wide social aspirations for its children and knew what the nature of their educational experience should be, especially in terms of literacy education. In a final plea for the system to address the specific needs of these students, one woman made a personal observation about the importance of the school and the community having a shared view of these needs. She stated that greater emphasis on literacy was necessary
... to improve our children's chances of jobs, better professions, greater range of professional jobs and careers. In the islands the people are being educated to the level of doctors and dentists and teachers. I have noticed that this isn't happening here for South Sea Island people in our education system.
It was found that the types of comments teachers made in their interviews indicated genuine engagement with issues of literacy as a socially constructed phenomenon. That teachers recognised that there are different types of literacy is revealed in the following quote.
There are a variety of different languages: computer, social, to be tax literate, literate in specialist fields. You can be environmentally literate. Visual literacy Visual literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be communicated through a process of reading. is important and there are skills for visual literacy.
Teachers also commented that these literacies are hierarchical in importance and that transferability of literacy skills is possible.
A variety of literacies are required, however some are more important. There can also be transference TRANSFERENCE, Scotch law. The name of an action by which a suit, which was pending at the time the parties died, is transferred from the deceased to his representatives, in the same condition in which it stood formerly. of literacy skills which is assisted by: experience, hands on guided practice, reading instructions, watching a video for focussed learning episode, and listening.
Still another teacher recognised that the school context is a problematic stage for the playing out of literacies `but the culture of school limits the variety of literacies, also they are value laden'. Another teacher stressed the importance of culture for literacy learners with diverse needs.
The scope of culture necessarily determines the language and the medium for delivery. There are slight differences between `lingo' and standard English Stan·dard English
The variety of English that is generally acknowledged as the model for the speech and writing of educated speakers.
Usage Note: People who invoke the term Standard English , which is more difficult/different to understand, identify and respect/ acknowledge. They can actually function, but not be accurate within the other language system.
This issue of classroom use of non-standard dialect or `lingo', as used here, is well researched in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , where Labov (1972) identified Black English Vernacular Black English Vernacular
n. Abbr. BEV
See African American Vernacular English.
Noun 1. Black English Vernacular (BEV), a term which has since become common in minority education there. What research has taken place in Australia has usually focussed on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages (Eades, 1993). Some recently completed research (Cox, Webb & McFarlane, 1997) suggests that the non-standard dialect use of the ASSI students is different in terms of discourse structure, vocabulary, syntax, phonology phonology, study of the sound systems of languages. It is distinguished from phonetics, which is the study of the production, perception, and physical properties of speech sounds; phonology attempts to account for how they are combined, organized, and convey meaning and pragmatics pragmatics
In linguistics and philosophy, the study of the use of natural language in communication; more generally, the study of the relations between languages and their users. .
Corson (1993) believes that educational institutions such as schools commonly value one kind of language use more than other kinds. This form of language use comes from only one group (and a dominant one at that) within society so that the other language users feel left out and struggle to understand the school-preferred method of using language. To value non-standard varieties is not something many people find easy: for teachers, it may be contrary to a professional lifetime of tacit prejudice. (Corson, 1993: p. 112).
Conclusion and suggestions for a pedagogical ped·a·gog·ic also ped·a·gog·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.
2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner. model
A number of conclusions can be drawn from this article, the most obvious being that the Australian South Sea Islander community's educational needs are diverse and extremely under-researched. The number of Australian South Sea Islanders in schools has never been estimated but the Call for Recognition (1992) reports that:
While estimates vary it is likely that today there are between 15,000 and 20,000 descendants of the original Pacific Islanders Pacific Islander
1. A native or inhabitant of any of the Polynesian, Micronesian, or Melanesian islands of Oceania.
2. A person of Polynesian, Micronesian, or Melanesian descent. See Usage Note at Asian. , 10,000 to 12,000 of whom identify as Australian South Sea Islanders.
The development of a pedagogical model which recommends school literacy practices which offer ASSI students the opportunities thought to be missing in schools is a still a long way off. There needs to be more intense research into the educational needs of this group of students, and this research must be undertaken in all the areas that have established communities of ASSI people.(2)
What augurs augurs
Roman officials who interpreted omens. [Rom. Hist.: Parrinder, 34]
See : Prophecy well for the students in this study is that the teachers and community know that mastery of literacy in its broadest definition is essential for the students' life chances. While each group uses a different label for non-standard dialect -- some teachers call it `lingo' while the community label it `broken English' -- both groups identify the use of non-standard dialect by the students in school as being important in their literacy development. The community openly state that they want their children to keep both languages and that both languages are essential in the cultural processes in the community. Teachers know that Standard Australian English is necessary for educational success.
Learning is more than a simple transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the student -- it involves learning being mediated me·di·ate
v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates
1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties: by complex interactive processes (Michaels, 1986). The ASSI community members expressed a knowledge of this complexity when they commented on classroom interaction, and advocated for teachers to be aware of this cultural complexity. Teachers, on the other hand, did not comment on issues of classroom interaction as being either culturally bound or central to the teaching/learning process. Such a lack of acknowledgement by the teachers, the school and the system, it is believed, could be the strongest hindrance hin·drance
a. The act of hindering.
b. The condition of being hindered.
2. One that hinders; an impediment. See Synonyms at obstacle. to the meeting of the diverse educational needs of this group.
By raising awareness Raising awareness is a common phrase advocacy groups use to justify a particular event, brochure or even the entire organization. Raising awareness refers to alerting the general public that a certain issue exists and should be approached the way the group desires. among teachers and school systems of a number of these pedagogical implications the education community may be better prepared to meet the needs of these students. The simple recognition that ASSI are a distinct non-indigenous population with educational needs different from, but at times similar to, those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people would be an important beginning.
Teachers need to also understand the social practices of literacy learning. As Luke and Freebody (1997) point out:
... sociological models (of reading) emphasise the cultural resources, discourses and practices children acquire in community language socialisation. These resources are not natural or idiosyncratic id·i·o·syn·cra·sy
n. pl. id·i·o·syn·cra·sies
1. A structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or group.
2. A physiological or temperamental peculiarity.
3. , but they are built through cultural and subcultural `ways of taking' (Heath, 1982) from the community environment ...
This notion of `ways of taking' supports the arguments put forward in this article and, it seems, could be the approach that will enable the findings to be useful for other minority communities. By looking more closely at Heath's (1982: p. 49) `ways of taking' it can be seen that:
Each community's ways of taking from the printed word and using this knowledge are interdependent in·ter·de·pen·dent
Mutually dependent: "Today, the mission of one institution can be accomplished only by recognizing that it lives in an interdependent world with conflicts and overlapping interests" with the ways children learn to talk in their social interaction with their caregivers.
Heath (1982) refers to the work of Barthes in which she states that `ways of taking' are peculiar to the culture in which children grow up. If students from ASSI communities have `ways of taking' which differ from those that the systems, schools and teachers are teaching, then the system must know how to identify these different means and be able to cater for this diversity.
The authors would like to thank the members of the Australia South Sea Islander community who made time to take part in the data collection. Further, they acknowledge that the participation of Mary Rose The Mary Rose was an English Tudor carrack warship and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. The Mary Rose was well equipped with 78 guns (91 after an upgrade in 1536). Ramsden was central to the success of the project.
(1) There have been a number of projects conducted by the team within the same ASSI community and this secondary purpose has remained part of these further projects. See: Cox et al., 1997, and Mullins et al., 1997.
(2) There are communities of ASSI people in Sydney, the north coast of NSW NSW New South Wales
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare , Brisbane and Central, North and Far North Queensland Far North Queensland, or FNQ, is the northernmost part of the Australian state of Queensland. The region, which contains a large section of the Tropical North Queensland area, stretches from the city of Cairns north to the Torres Strait. .
Baker, C. (1996). Constructing Classroom Literacies. Keynote address keynote address
An opening address, as at a political convention, that outlines the issues to be considered. Also called keynote speech.
Noun 1. at ALEA ALEA Australian Literacy Educators' Association
ALEA Airborne Law Enforcement Association
ALEA American Law and Economics Association
ALEA Aquatic Lands Enhancement Act (Washington)
ALEA Australian Livestock Exporters Association National Conference, Brisbane.
Barton, D. (1994). Literacy: An introduction to the ecology of written language. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bliss, S. (1992). Educational inequality experienced by South Sea Islanders in the Mackay District. Unpublished manuscript, University of Queensland The University of Queensland (UQ) is the longest-established university in the state of Queensland, Australia, a member of Australia's Group of Eight, and the Sandstone Universities. It is also a founding member of the international Universitas 21 organisation. , Department of Education.
Breen, M. (1995). Community literacy practices: A study. Australian Council of Adult Literacy video conference held at Griffith University Griffith University is an Australian public university with five campuses in Queensland between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. In 2007 there were more than 33,000 enrolled students and 3,000 staff. , Qld.
Breen, M., Louden, W., Barrett-Pugh, C., Rivalland, J., Rohl, M., Rhydwen, M., Lloyd, S. & Carr, T. (1994). Literacy in its Place: Literacy practices in urban and rural communities. Overview and interpretations. Canberra: Department of Education and Training.
Cazden, C. (1992). Whole Language Plus: Essays on literacy in the United States and New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. . New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Teachers' College Press.
Cook-Gumperz, J. (ed.) (1986.) The Social Construction of Literacy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
Comber, B. (1992). Critical literacy Critical literacy is an instructional approach that advocates the adoption of critical perspectives toward text. Critical literacy encourages readers to actively analyze texts and it offers strategies for uncovering underlying messages. : A selective review and discussion of the recent literature. South Australian Educational Leader, 3, 1, pp. 1-10.
Cope, B. & Kalantzis, M. (1995). Why literacy pedagogy has to change. Education Australia, 30, pp. 8-12.
Corris, P. (1973). Passage, Port and Plantation: A history of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands, independent Commonwealth nation (2005 est. pop. 538,000), c.15,500 sq mi (40,150 sq km), SW Pacific, E of New Guinea. The islands that constitute the nation of the Solomon Islands—Guadalcanal, Malaita, New Georgia, the Santa Cruz Islands, labour immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. . Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Corson, D. (1993). Language, Minority Education and Gender: Linking social justice and power. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual mul·ti·lin·gual
1. Of, including, or expressed in several languages: a multilingual dictionary.
Cox, R., Webb, G. & McFarlane, N. (1997). Perspectives on South Sea Islander language use. Paper presented at Language Australia: Language Expo, Brisbane Convention Centre.
Department of Education, Qld (1993). Capricornia Region: Regional Strategy Plan. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Education.
Department of Education, Qld (1994). English in Years 1 to 10 Syllabus Materials. Brisbane: Department of Education, Qld.
Eades, D. (1993). Aboriginal English in Pen 93. Rozelle, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association.
Freebody, P., Ludwig, C. & Gunn, S. (1995). Everyday Literacy Practices In and Out of School in Low Socio-economic Urban Communities. Brisbane: Griffith University.
Gee, J. (1992). The Social Mind: Language ideology In sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology, a language or linguistic ideology is a systematic construct about how languages carry or are invested with certain moral, social, and political values, giving rise to implicit assumptions that people have about a and social practice. New York: Bergin and Garvey.
Gee, J. (1996). Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in discourse. 2nd edition. London: Taylor and Francis.
Gistitin, C. (1995). Quite a Colony: South Sea Islanders in Central Queensland. Brisbane: AEBIS Press.
Heath, S. (1982). What no bedtime story bedtime story
A story that is read or told to a child just before bedtime. means: Narratives skills at home and school. Language in Society, 11, 1, pp. 49-76.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1992). The Call for Recognition: A report on the situation of Australia South Sea Islanders. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Huth, A. (1976). A record of South Sea Islander settlement at Joskeleigh. Gladstone, Qld: Community historical report.
Labov, W. (1972). Language in the Inner City: Studies in Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania Press.
Lo Bianco, J. (1996). Australian Literacies. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Luke, A. (1994). The Social Construction of Literacy in the Primary School. Melbourne: Macmillan Education.
Luke, A. & Freebody, P. (1997). The social practices of reading. In S. Muspratt, A. Luke and P. Freebody (eds), Constructing Critical Literacies. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Ludwig, C. & Herschell, P. (1998). The power of pedagogy: Routines, school literacy practices and outcomes. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 21, 1, pp. 67-83.
Mackey, W. (1992). Language policy, literacy and culture: Contexts, contents and constraints. In Language Policy, Literacy and Culture. Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. : UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization .
Michaels, S. (1986). Narrative presentations: An oral preparation for literacy with first graders. In J. Cook-Gumperz (ed.), The Social Construction of Literacy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Moore, C. (1985). Kanaka: A history of Melanesian Mackay. Port Moresby Port Moresby (môrz`bē), town (1990 pop. 193,242), capital of Papua New Guinea, on New Guinea island and on the Gulf of Papua. Rubber, gold, and copra are exported. Port Moresby was founded by Capt. John Moresby, who landed there in 1873. , PNG (Portable Network Graphics) A bitmapped graphics file format endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium. It is expected to eventually replace the GIF format, because there are lingering legal problems with GIFs. : Institute of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (păp`ə, –y Studies & UPNGP.
Mullins, S., Cox, R., Fatnowna, K., Gisititin, C., Kennedy, R. & Warkill, J. (1997). After Recognition: Access and equity for Australian South Sea Islanders. Rockhampton, Qld: Rural, Social and Economic Research Centre.
Philips, S. (1972). Participation structures and communicative competence Communicative competence is a linguistic term which refers to a learner's L2 ability. It not only refers to a learner's ability to apply and use grammatical rules, but also to form correct utterances, and know how to use these utterances appropriately. : Warm Springs children in community and classrooms. In C. Cazden, V. John and D. Hymes (eds), Functions of Language in the Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
Ramsden, M., Cox, R. & Webb, G. (1994). Report on Australian South Sea Islander component of the English Teachers' Association of Queensland, National Development Project. Unpublished manuscript, Central Queensland University Central Queensland University is an Australian public university based in Queensland. Its main campus in North Rockhampton Queensland, but it has operations throught Asia-Pacific. , Rockhampton.
Reid, J. (1998). `Show me a child before s/he is ...?' Prior-to-preschool literacy experiences of children in Australia. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 21, 3, pp. 234-48.
Savva, H. (1990). The rights of bilingual children. In R. Carter (ed.), Knowledge About Language and the Curriculum. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Street, B. (1993). Cross Cultural Approaches to Literacy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, D. (1983). Family Literacy: Young children learn to read and write. Portsmouth, New Hampshire Portsmouth, New Hampshire is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire in the United States of America. It is the fourth-largest community in the county, with a population of 20,784 as of the 2000 census. : Heinemann.
Robyn Cox is a lecturer in Language Education at the University of Brunei Darussalam. Prior to this, she was at Central Queensland University where she was also involved in teacher education in language. Robyn has a strong belief in the important role that new graduates in the teaching of literacy have to play when they take up their teaching positions in schools. In the light of this, Robyn's work in Brunei is providing new challenges as each day passes.
Address: Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam, GCB GCMG (born July 15, 1946) is the 29th Sultan of Brunei, the eldest son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, the previous Sultan of Brunei, and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Damit. Institute of Education, University of Brunei Darussalam, Tungku Link, Brunei Darussalam. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Grant Webb has been actively involved in planning and conducting literacy inservice, professional development and teacher networking in all sectors and systems of education in Queensland over the last ten years. Currently, his research interests centre around the diverse needs of students in Queensland schools and the issues of boys and literacy and school-based literacy and how the two interrelate in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
Address: Department of Education Queensland, PO Box 760, Mackay, Qld 4740.