Library education in Bangladesh: strengths, problems, and suggestions.Introduction
Libraries are important social institutions. No community is considered complete without a library. The spread of democracy, the extension of education, the intensification in·ten·si·fy
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies
1. To make intense or more intense: of research activities, and the rapid increase in the production of recorded knowledge, have led to the enormous expansion of libraries and the development of their services. The communication of ideas is one of the most significant achievements in the cultural development of the human race. The library one of many means of human communication (Johnson, 1973) and is an important centre for disseminating dis·sem·i·nate
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.
Library development in Bangladesh is closely related to the library movement in the Indian subcontinent sub·con·ti·nent
1. A large landmass, such as India, that is part of a continent but is considered either geographically or politically as an independent entity.
2. . Libraries in India can be traced from the history of ancient Indian libraries furnished fur·nish
tr.v. fur·nished, fur·nish·ing, fur·nish·es
1. To equip with what is needed, especially to provide furniture for.
2. by the travel diary of the famous Chinese traveller Fa-Hien, who visited India in 399 AD (Mishra, 1979). The British settled and stayed on for nearly two hundred years, initially for trading. They subsequently started to establish academic institutions and libraries on a small scale (Kabir, 1987).
Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country in 1971. It had been part of India until August 1947 and part of Pakistan after that (Islam, 2003). Before the mid- 19 th century, most libraries in Bangladesh Government libraries
Any of a group of plant polysaccharides that are polymers of mannose.
[mann(ose) + -an2.] and Begum be·gum
1. A Muslim woman of rank.
2. Used as a form of address for such a woman.
[Urdu begam, from East Turkic begüm, first person sing. , 2002). Years of effort by librarians and other concerned citizens have radically changed this insignificant role and have made the library a widespread and vital service institution. Just one year after the enactment of the public library act in the UK, the first non-government library of the Bangladesh was established at Jessore in 1851 (Alam, 1991). Thereafter, three other non-government public libraries--Woodburn Public Library at Bogra, Barishal Public Library at Barisal, and Rangpur Public Library at Rangpur were established in 1854 (Khan, 1984). During 1851-1955, a good number of private and non-government libraries were established. The first government public library was established in Dhaka in 1955, and opened to the public in 1958 (Foote, 1995). After 1955, the development of the library profession has been closely linked with the efforts made by the Library Association of Bangladesh (LAB) (formerly EPLA EPLA European Patent Litigation Agreement
EPLA Electric Power Load Analysis
EPLA Electronics Precedence List Agency : East Pakistan East Pakistan: see Bangladesh; Pakistan. Library Association) since its establishment in 1956 (Hossain, 1980). In 1952, library education in Bangladesh This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now. started with the 3-month certificate course-training program initiated by the central library of University of Dhaka (Mirdah, 1969). The University of Dhaka (est. 1921) is commonly referred as Dhaka University.
The study is based on a comprehensive review of literature, computation Computation is a general term for any type of information processing that can be represented mathematically. This includes phenomena ranging from simple calculations to human thinking. of secondary information, and treatment of primary data collected by field visits to different library education institutions. This is the result of meticulous me·tic·u·lous
1. Extremely careful and precise.
2. Extremely or excessively concerned with details.
[From Latin met literature search, not only of published materials but also of all unpublished sources and archival reports and documents available. A number of institutions have also been visited to examine their situation. Conversation and informal interviews with leading library educators, eminent educators, and scholars interested in libraries and working library professionals were carried out.
Library education in Bangladesh has received very little attention, although libraries need dynamic people with the proper education to achieve their goals. Library science programs have not conducted surveys to determine the needs of the country's libraries and information centers, to determine the qualifications needed to staff such institutions.
"Education" and "Library" are two indivisible INDIVISIBLE. That which cannot be separated.
2. It is important to ascertain when a consideration or a contract, is or is not indivisible. When a consideration is entire and indivisible, and it is against law, the contract is void in toto. 11 Verm. 592; 2 W. concepts, fundamentally related to and co-existent with each other. Neither is an end itself; both together are a means to an ultimate end. One survives as long as the other exits. One dies as soon as the other perishes. Education is an aggregate of all the ways in which a person develops abilities, attitudes, and other forms positive value to society. Education is the result of acquired knowledge and the accumulation of observation and experience. Education cannot exist alone in the absence of library, and library has no meaning if it cannot impart education (Islam, 1968).
Library education means educating students to be qualified librarians or information scientists through organized instruction and training. It represents a synthesis of professional action and testifies to the importance, value, and necessity of libraries for the present and the future. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , the goal of library education is to develop professionals who are qualified to established, manage, operate, and evaluate user-oriented information systems and services (Large, 1987). In addition, the program should to familiarize students with the role of information in society and make them fully aware of sources of information and develop skills for exploring these resources.
Library and Information Science (LIS LIS - Langage Implementation Systeme.
A predecessor of Ada developed by Ichbiah in 1973. It was influenced by Pascal's data structures and Sue's control structures. A type declaration can have a low-level implementation specification. ) includes academic studies on how library resources are used and how people interact with library systems. The organization of knowledge for efficient retrieval of relevant information is also a major research goal of library education. At the same time, it should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information, or information science, a field related to computer science and cognitive science cognitive science
Interdisciplinary study that attempts to explain the cognitive processes of humans and some higher animals in terms of the manipulation of symbols using computational rules. . Library education is interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.
Adjective , and overlaps to some extent with the fields of computer science, various social sciences, statistics, and systems analysis.
Development of Library Education Systems in Bangladesh
Bangladesh has had a slow and steady growth of library education, which started before independence. The country has nearly fifty-six years of history in library education. The last quarter of the 19 th century was a flourishing period of innovation in general library practice in the west. After World War I, there was a steady and gradual development of libraries in western countries. The library schools in western countries reshaped their curriculum and soon a new breed of more progressive, positive, and service-oriented librarians was produced. These remarkable developments in western library practice had no impact on Bangladesh (then part of India) during the first part of the 20 th century when the territory was under British colonial domination (Hossain, 1985). Under British rule there was noticeable development in the education in liberal arts liberal arts, term originally used to designate the arts or studies suited to freemen. It was applied in the Middle Ages to seven branches of learning, the trivium of grammar, logic, and rhetoric, and the quadrivium of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. , humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, but, paradoxically, absolutely nothing was done regarding education for librarianship Education for librarianship is the term for the educational preparation for professional librarians. This varies widely in different countries. In the United States and Canada, it generally consists of a one- or two-year Masters degree program in library science, called variously. . There were libraries in the middle of the 19th century but no growth in the techniques of librarianship, which are the foundation for library development and management.
The first part of the 20 th century may be termed the "dark age" for education and training for librarianship in Bangladesh. There were libraries but not the methods and techniques of librarianship for systematic services by professionally qualified manpower (Ahmed, 1982). The concept of librarianship and the necessity of library science education were felt intensely. The awareness of urgent necessity was discernable in the learned community, but there was a lack of leadership and momentum. Bangladesh had more time to wait even after the partition of India The Partition of India is the process that led to the creation, on 14 August 1947 and 15 August 1947, respectively, of the sovereign states of Dominion of Pakistan (later Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and Union of India (later Republic of India) upon the granting of independence in 1947. No major and consistent steps were taken until 1952.
First decade: 1951--1960
Librarianship training started with the first three-month certificate course in librarianship at the central library of the University of Dhaka in 1952. The university made provision for the institution of certificate course in librarianship under the Faculty of Arts Historically the Faculty of Arts was one of the four traditional divisions of the teaching bodies of universities, the others being theology, law and medicine. Nowadays it is a common name for the faculties teaching humanities. References
1. (Khorasani, 1986; University of Dhaka, 1957). The course started with the assistance of Fulbright scholars and has been called "Fulbright Course in Librarianship". Four Fulbright courses were conducted successively under the supervision of the then librarian of University of Dhaka, from 1955 -59 (Ahmed, 1994). The university took the opportunity to broaden the scope of library science teaching so that a number of schools were enabled to send teachers for training as school librarians.
The Fulbright courses drew a large number of candidates who were interested in librarianship. These courses testify To provide evidence as a witness, subject to an oath or affirmation, in order to establish a particular fact or set of facts.
Court rules require witnesses to testify about the facts they know that are relevant to the determination of the outcome of the case. to the growth and development of library systems and services in the country. The main objective of the course was to train the service employees of different libraries.
The table indicates that library education in Bangladesh started formally in 1952 with the first certificate course in librarianship. The period 1952--59 is significant for library education, with 110 people receiving formal training.
The four successful Fulbright certificate courses led to the institution of one-year Post-Graduate Diploma (PGD PGD Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
PGD Postgraduate Diploma
PGD Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase
PGD Policy for Global Development
PGD PhpGmailDrive (file sharing utility)
PGD Product Group (US Marine Corps) ) course in library science beginning in 1959-60 based on the University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies model (Ahmed, 1981). There was no training facility apart from this course available in Bangladesh until 1958 when the LAB instituted a six-month regular certificate course in library science as the University of Dhaka suspended sus·pend
v. sus·pend·ed, sus·pend·ing, sus·pends
1. To bar for a period from a privilege, office, or position, usually as a punishment: suspend a student from school. the Fulbright certificate course and took steps to launch PGD (Ahmed, 1990). The certificate course is still in place through eleven institutions that are affiliated with the LAB.
Second decade: 1961--1970
A one-year Masters of Arts (MA) course in library science was formulated at the University of Dhaka in 1962, for students who had completed the PGD (University of Dhaka, 1962). Beginning in 196263 with the services of distinguished American, British and Bangladeshi librarians, the MA course started on a more extensive scale.
The session of 1964-65 was a landmark in the development of library education in Bangladesh. In this session, programs and courses were recognized as a full-fledged "Department of Library Science" under the Faculty of Arts (University of Dhaka, 1965). This was the first time a university in Bangladesh established a department for library education.
Third decade: 1971--1980
In 1974-75, the University of Dhaka approved a two-year Master of Philosophy (MPhil) program (University of Dhaka, 1974), beginning with the 1975-76 session (University of Dhaka, 1976). At the end of 1975-76, the University of Dhaka endorsed a two-year MA course, called a "Master of Arts in Library Science Noun 1. Master of Arts in Library Science - a master's degree in library science
master's degree - an academic degree higher than a bachelor's degree but lower than a doctor's degree ." The first year was designated MA Preliminary and the second MA Final (University of Dhaka, 1977). At the same time, the PGD course continued and the successful students of PGD course could be admitted to the 2 nd year MA course. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program in library science was approved by the same university beginning in 1978 -79 (University of Dhaka, 1978).
Fourth decade: 1981--1990
During 1987-88, a three-year Bachelor of Arts (BA) with honours in library and information science began at the University of Dhaka (University of Dhaka, 1988). The department was re-named "Library and Information Science," to keep pace with the changes in information technology. The university suspended the PGD course and requested that the LAB launch that course beginning in 198990 (Khan, 1992).
Fifth decade: 1991--2000
Library and information science was introduced as a subsidiary subject in degree (pass) and honours level for affiliated colleges beginning in 1991-92 (University of Dhaka, 1990). The university started the two-year MA course in 1994-95. The one-year MA course was restricted to library and information science graduate students (University of Dhaka, 1995). In 1997-98, to align itself with the western education system, the university initiated a four-year BA (honours) course in information science and library management to replace the three-year BA (University of Dhaka, 1999). In 1999-2000 the fouryear BA was declared the professional degree, to take effect in 1997-98 (University of Dhaka, 2000).
The University of Rajshahi (est. 1953), in the northwest region
The Northwest Region of the country, started a one-year PGD course in library science beginning with 1991-92 (University of Rajshahi, 1992). The university added a three-year Bachelor of Social Science (BSS See 802.11.
BSS - Block Started by Symbol ) with honours in library and information science from 1992-93 under the Faculty of Social Science and established the full-fledged Department of Library and Information Science in that same session (University of Rajshahi, 1993). In 1995-96 a one-year Master of Social Science (MSS MSS - maximum segment size ) course was introduced for its own library science graduates only (University of Rajshahi, 1996). After that, the bachelor program was converted into a four-year course beginning with 1997-98 (University of Rajshahi, 1999).
National University (est. 1992) began to offer 400 marks in library and information science as an optional subject in the BA (pass) degree beginning in 1998-99. Three different colleges under the National University will offer that program before the end of this decade.
Sixth decade: 2001--
This is the sixth decade for library education in Bangladesh. From 2001-02, the department of University of Dhaka had the new name "Information Science and Library Management" (University of Dhaka, 2002). From that same session, the University of Rajshahi did away with the PGD course.
The table shows that 30 institutions are providing library science education.
The National University introduced a two-year MA course in library and information science in 2003-04. From 2006-07, the university is also offering a four-year BA (honours) course in the same subject. The Lalmatia Girls' College has taken the opportunity to start both the MA and BA (honours) courses under the National University. The University of Dhaka started a two-year MA (evening) course in 2004-05 (University of Dhaka, 2005). From 2006-07, the University of Dhaka introduced a semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s system for the BA (honours) course. The University of Rajshahi introduced MPhil and PhD courses for library science graduates from 2006-07. In July 2007, the University of Rajshashi re-named the department of Library and Information Science "Information Science and Library Management."
Among private universities, in 2005 Darul Ihsan University (DIU Diu, India: see Daman and Diu. ) started a PGD course in library and information science, and in 2007, a two-year MA course. Royal University of Dhaka (RUD) introduced an MSc in library management and information science in 2005. International Islamic University International Islamic University may refer to:
In this decade, six more institutions have been established and received affiliation from LAB to start the certificate course. Four more colleges have begun to offer library and information science as an optional subject for their BA (pass) students under the National University.
Current State of Library Education
Library education in Bangladesh may be categorised Adj. 1. categorised - arranged into categories
classified - arranged into classes as follows:
Library education in Bangladesh is offered at several levels, including certificate, master's, and doctorate. There are at least three (MA, MSS, MSc) types of master's degree programs. Duration of courses ranges from six months to four years. The same certificate, diploma, or degree course name, and name of awarding certificate or degree can vary among universities and institutions. Numbers of credits can also vary.
Among public universities, the University of Dhaka offers a four-year BA (honours) course, oneyear MA, two-year MA (evening), two-year MPhil, and two-to-three-year PhD program. The University of Rajshahi offers the same (although degree names differ) except for the MA (evening) program. Among private universities, the University of Science & Technology Chittagong (USTC USTC University of Science and Technology of China
USTC United States Tax Cases (Commerce Clearing House)
USTC United States Transportation Command (see USTRANSCOM) ) offers a certificate course but it emphasises medical libraries (Islam and Chowdhury, 2006). International Islamic University of Chittagong (IIUC) offers a one-year PGD course. Royal University of Dhaka has introduced a two-year MSc in library management and information science; Darul Ihsan University has a one-year PGD course and two-year (4 semesters) MA. Among 30 educational institutions, only two government universities are involved in library education and the rest are all private institutions.
With the permission of the Ministry of Education, LAB has affiliated eleven institutions to conduct the certificate course. Fifteen institutions, with the affiliation of National University, conduct post-graduate diploma courses. Nine colleges offer library and information science as an optional subject in BA (Pass) course. In addition 99 institutions (14 government and 85 non-government) teachers training colleges (BANBEIS BANBEIS Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics , 2008a) offer a Bachelor of Education A Bachelor of Education (BEd) is an undergraduate academic degree which qualifies the graduate as a teacher in schools. North America
In North America the degree is awarded for courses taken that generally last two years (one year in some Canadian universities). (BEd), Bachelor of Education (BEd) with honours, and Master of Education (MEd) programs in Bangladesh under National University. In these programs library and information science is an optional subject bearing one hundred marks in their syllabus A headnote; a short note preceding the text of a reported case that briefly summarizes the rulings of the court on the points decided in the case.
The syllabus appears before the text of the opinion. (National University, 2007).
Strengths of Library Education in Bangladesh
Library education is a relatively young field of study though it has existed nearly six decades in Bangladesh. Departments, institutions, and educators have an important responsibility, not only to teach but also to keep with the changing environment and trends in the field. It is very important to attract the best students to the program, those who have excellent knowledge of the issues and technology and who can perform well in the shrinking global society. The teaching departments should aim at high and make sure that their graduates are paid well in any type of library. The image of librarians in Bangladesh, and as a whole in the sub-continent, is not very high. It is the responsibility of departments and professional organizations like LAB and BALID (Bangladesh Association of Librarian, Information Scientists, and Documentalists) to improve the image. It is crucial to update the curricula including courses on technology in libraries. There should also be high standards for admission, performance, and the latest technology and other materials should be available to students.
Research and publication are an integral part of academia. Publication of excellent articles and books helps students to learn more and to appreciate and respect their professors. Graduates should also be able to do quality research, publication, and teaching, if required. At present in Bangladesh, there is no regular journal dedicated to library science. Eastern Librarian (started in 1961), the oldest library journal of Bangladesh, published by the LAB, and very much irregular at present. The last issue was volume 20, number 1 and 2, published in 2006, after long eight years since 1998, though it is scheduled to be published twice in a year. Moreover, the Bangladesh Journal of Library and Information Science (Vol. 1, No.1, December 1998) published by the Department of Information Science and Library Management of the University of Dhaka has not published an issue since the first one. As a result, faculty members have published in non-library science journals like University of Dhaka Studies and Rajshahi University Studies, Journal of Asiatic Society
The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones (1746-1794) on 15 January 1784 in Calcutta, the capital of British India, to enhance and further the cause of , Journal of Centre for Development Research (CDR (1) See CD-R and extension.
(2) (Call Detail Reporting) See call accounting.
(3) (Common Data Rate) A standard sampling rate for digital video for 480i and 576i systems. The rate is 13.5 MHz. See ITU-R BT. ), etc., where single author student or library professional articles are not entertained.
Similarly, only few quality books on library and information science are published in Bangladesh. Students depend on foreign library journals and books, which are expensive. Foreign books and journals should be used to gain knowledge of international library education and librarianship. Similarly, abstracts and indexes should be published in time for the benefit of researchers. Professional associations and academic departments must publish journals or newsletters on a regular basis, to keep professionals informed about developments in the field.
There has been a proliferation proliferation /pro·lif·er·a·tion/ (pro-lif?er-a´shun) the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells.prolif´erativeprolif´erous
n. of library science institutes in the country. Many institutes were started without proper facilities and faculty. This has caused problems and affects the standard of library education. National University and LAB administrations have allowed institutions to develop like mushrooms, without securing proper staff, skilled faculty members, adequate preparation, and facilities. Certainly this is not the right way to provide the training that will equip e·quip
tr.v. e·quipped, e·quip·ping, e·quips
a. To supply with necessities such as tools or provisions.
b. librarians sufficiently. There is an urgent need for the consolidation and improvement of existing training programs and to ensure that quality is maintained.
Academic institutions and professional associations must make government aware of the importance of library education, libraries, Internet access See how to access the Internet. , database development, and library networking. The government must provide proper funding for library science institutions, which are responsible for training and producing future librarians, library administrators, and library educators; otherwise, it will be difficult for them to catch up and compete in the competitive and changing modern world.
Continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). for faculty should be an integral part of all library institutions and associations. It will help the faculty to learn teaching methods with the latest electronic tools rather than depending on their old hand-written notes, to teach courses in the fast changing field of library science.
Problems and Suggestions
Bangladesh does not have a well-developed library and information system. Library services are inefficient and do not function well, with few exceptions. Education for librarianship in Bangladesh is overwhelmed o·ver·whelm
tr.v. o·ver·whelmed, o·ver·whelm·ing, o·ver·whelms
1. To surge over and submerge; engulf: waves overwhelming the rocky shoreline.
a. with shortfalls at all levels. library education is still facing multiple problems, e.g.:
Mission, Goals, and Objectives
There is no formal document stating the mission, goals, and objectives for library education in Bangladesh. The mission of library education programs should be clearly stated in a publicly-available formal document. It should address the purpose of the educational program in the larger political, social, economic, and technical context, and should be consistent with the non-discriminatory values of the profession. It should identify the constituencies being served and should be responsive to the needs of the country, and unless it is an independent, freestanding free·stand·ing
Standing or operating independently of anything else: a freestanding bell tower; a freestanding maternity clinic. organization, should be consistent with the values of its parent institution. The programs should state its goals and identify specific objectives, derived from its goals, addressing philosophy, principles, and methods of the program; areas of specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.
As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are ; level of preparation provided; teaching, service and research values; and the perceived role of library services in the society. The goals and objectives should be consistent with published education policy statements from recognized official bodies.
Library education programs must meet uniform standards for admission, curriculum, awarding of degrees, recruitment of faculty, excellent library collections, research facilities, and availability of computers for students and faculty. There is a need for an accrediting body to monitor the progress of departments and institutions, and to guide, monitor and approve their activities. There is an urgent need for a national level accrediting body. It would evaluate all programs at regular intervals make sure that quality and standards are maintained. The Bangladesh University Grants Commission (UGC See user-generated content. ) has done an excellent job of guiding higher education in Bangladesh. The time is ripe to appoint special bodies for certification and accreditation of library science departments and institutions.
The lecture remains the predominant pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. teaching method. Lecture classes last for fifty minutes in all levels. This is not enough at the bachelor or master's level. Departments or institutes do not organize any seminars, colloquia col·lo·qui·a
A plural of colloquium. , or workshops to supplement lecture classes. Classes in computer applications relevant to library and information science are totally absent except at the University of Dhaka. Presentation skill is a growing demand in librarianship, but the faculty members do not ask for a single presentation on any topic from the students.
Methods of teaching and assessment should be designed to develop or enhance students' interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability , ability to work in teams, and time and task management skills. Students should also be encourages to participate in discussion and presentations, since much of professional library work is done publicly and verbally. Class hours should last from two to three hours, giving enough time to students for preparation.
The students are usually not given weekly/fortnightly/monthly/bi-monthly assignments that are part of their final grade. The evaluation of students is done by formal final examination only, sometimes including an oral examination. There is no provision of evaluation of faculty members by students. Written assignments, group assignments, and individual projects should be assigned on current topics to help students develop their writing skills as well as the understanding of the subject. Evaluation should be done continuously on the basis of tests, assignments, projects, oral presentations, class performance, class attendance, and a formal examination. To maintain the quality of education and performances of faculty members, students should have the opportunity to appraise appraise v. to professionally evaluate the value of property including real estate, jewelry, antique furniture, securities, or in certain cases the loss of value (or cost of replacement) due to damage. their teachers at the end of each course. These concepts are not new in Bangladesh. Many private universities are already practicing this.
Full time Faculty
Most institutions primarily use part-time faculty for the certificate course and post-graduate diploma course. They have an insufficient number of full-time skilled and experienced faculty members. As a result, the students are not getting the kind of assistance or academic support that they could expect from full time faculty members.
The reputation of any discipline depends on a teaching standard that presupposes adequate faculty strength with a good academic record, up-to-date knowledge of the subject, and adequate teaching experience. The number of teaching staff should be sufficient to accomplish program objectives. The qualifications of each full-time faculty member should include research-based competence in the designated teaching areas, technological proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence , effectiveness in teaching, a sustained record of publications, and active participation in appropriate professional associations.
Information Technology Courses
The field of librarianship has changed tremendously in the last ten years because of growth of information technology and its application in the libraries. Only 10--20 percent of courses in all programs have any relationship with technology.
In order to remain competitive, programs must include more courses (at least 50 percent) on information technology. Necessary computer hardware, software, and multimedia resources should be made available and be sufficient for the level of use required for coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's .
Institutions offering certificates or postgraduate postgraduate
after first degree graduation, the registerable degree in veterinary science.
may be a research degree, e.g. PhD, or a course-work masterate with a vocational bias, or any combination of these. diplomas have no space, adequate classrooms, laboratories for cataloguing and classification, and so on. Even the departments of the University of Dhaka and University of Rajshahi have an insufficient number of classrooms. Not only that, in most cases the full- or part-time faculty do not have their own desks, let alone own a room where students can meet and talk with their teachers.
The lack of adequate classrooms and facilities is an impediment A disability or obstruction that prevents an individual from entering into a contract.
Infancy, for example, is an impediment in making certain contracts. Impediments to marriage include such factors as consanguinity between the parties or an earlier marriage that is still valid. to learning. National University and LAB should specify and provide adequate classrooms and labs for the institutions that provide certificates or postgraduate diploma
A postgraduate diploma is a qualification awarded typically after a bachelor's degree. Countries which award postgraduate diplomas include Australia, India, New Zealand, England and Wales, and the Republic . UGC should monitor and make it obligatory that departments have a sufficient number of classrooms for their students. All institutions and departments should provide space for faculty member, for their own sake as well as for interaction beyond formal class lectures.
Computer Labs and Practical Tools
A majority of institutions do not have well-equipped computer labs or a sufficient number of computers for students. Competent professionals cannot be produced with merely theoretical exposition; they also require adequate practical exposure by working in a well-developed computer laboratory. A sufficient number of classification and cataloguing tools (DDC See VESA DDC. , LC, CC, Sears list of subject headings) for practice are also not available.
Departments and institutions must fund well-equipped computer labs to provide students firsthand experience in information technology. A sufficient number of practical tools should be made available, because they are too costly for students to buy.
For library science students, the library is like a workshop or a laboratory. Many institutions have either no library at all, or a library with an inadequate collection of textbooks and reference books. Availability of the latest editions of textbooks and reference sources is altogether out of the question. Access to electronic databases is still limited or not available to most students due to lack of institutional subscriptions to expensive foreign databases.
Collections of library resources should be of sufficient depth, quantity, and accessibility to support the courses and research efforts of the institutions. These should include monographs and serials, in print and electronic formats; a range of bibliographical bibliographical
pertaining to the literature of a subject.
the ways in which a bibliography can be approached or managed. tools to support teaching and research; and other appropriate media. Departments should subscribe to Verb 1. subscribe to - receive or obtain regularly; "We take the Times every day"
buy, purchase - obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction; "The family purchased a new car"; "The conglomerate acquired a new company"; library-related indigenous and foreign journals (print and electronic), which are most important for students and researchers. A procedure for access to additional resources from other locations should also be in place.
The curriculum of library science programs is quite old and needs to be restructured with redefined objectives. There is more emphasis than necessary on cataloguing and classification, which has less importance where online catalogues are available from other libraries. The syllabi syl·la·bi
A plural of syllabus. are not based on market demand, as no survey has been done to discover the workforce needs of growing library and information centres.
There is an urgent need to conduct a survey to determine the staffing needs of the country's libraries and information centres. The results could be used to redesign re·de·sign
tr.v. re·de·signed, re·de·sign·ing, re·de·signs
To make a revision in the appearance or function of.
re the curricula.
Libraries of all types have many things in common, but services are different from library to library, and among library types. No provision for specialization has been made in the syllabus; rather, all are trained in traditional librarianship. Insufficient library education programs are a hindrance hin·drance
a. The act of hindering.
b. The condition of being hindered.
2. One that hinders; an impediment. See Synonyms at obstacle. to the production of a professional workforce for the development of libraries and librarianship.
Traditional courses are not effective in real life library management. Library education requires specialization. Students should specialize spe·cial·ize
1. To limit one's profession to a particular specialty or subject area for study, research, or treatment.
2. To adapt to a particular function or environment. in a particular sector to be effective in that sector rather jack of libraries and master of none.
The LIS departments of the University of Dhaka and the University of Rajshahi work with limited resources and personnel. Sufficient attention has not been given to research work in university departments. The number of MPhil and PhD students and graduates is not encouraging. Only two MPhil students and about ten PhD students came from University of Dhaka up to February 2008. Moreover, MA, MPhil, and PhD students do not get research facilities or encouragement due to the lack of research tools and funding for research projects. The number of supervisors is too low due to pressure of undergraduate and graduate programs and the shortage of fulltime teachers.
At the postgraduate level, emphasis should be given to developing students' analytical and problem-solving skills. Research-based master programs should be promoted more. Prospective students and library professionals should be actively encouraged to pursue the MPhil and PhD. For researchers, a sustained record of scholarship is expected from both the private and public sector.
Internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic. and Training
An internship is a pre-professional work experience that provides students and recent graduates with the opportunity to gain experience in a particular career field. For students, internships also supplement academic classes and, in some cases, earn marks. Fresh graduates of any professional discipline are not ready to work productively until they receive training. Training provides experience in the field while academic education or knowledge give an understanding of how to perform. Intensive programs of lectures, seminars, and mentoring help a new professional to develop an early career. Both education and training are needed. Aside from the University of Dhaka and University of Rajshahi, there is no provision of internship in any syllabus from certificate to master's level.
Departments should make sure that their graduates have practical experience before they accept professional positions. Public and private sector libraries of all kinds should come forward to appoint fresh graduates as interns This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using . and train them for their own sake as well as for the development of the profession. LAB and BALID should arrange professional training on various topics including current trends in librarianship.
Continuing Education and Training
There is a scarcity Scarcity
The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently. of professional development training in Bangladesh. There are many library professionals who have had not training except formal library education.
In order to assist practicing librarians and information specialists and keep educators aware of issues and trends in practice, there should be a suitable number of workshops and short courses. Educational institutions and professional associations must take responsibility to train their future generation about current trends in library development, research, writing, and publishing.
There is no rigid criterion for student enrollment at the certificate and post-graduate diploma levels. As a result, 300-350 students per year are admitted to these institutions to be paraprofessionals or semi-professionals.
Criteria for admission should be maintained strictly to produce quality library support staff. Low quality students should be discouraged, because the profession is too much dynamic and needs high quality students to handle the upcoming situation in information management or knowledge management.
Uniformity of Degrees
There is no uniformity in the name of programs or degrees offered by various department and institutions. Library education programs are known as either Library Science (LIS) or Library and Information Science (LIS) or Library Management and Information Science (LMIS LMIS Liquid Metal Ion Source
LMIS Logistics Management Information System
LMIS Labour Market Information System
LMIS Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems
LMIS Lockheed-Martin Information System
LMIS Laboratory Management Information System ) or Information Science and Library Management (ISLM ISLM Integrated Services Line Module
ISLM Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Lymph-Nodes Metastases (oncology) ), etc. This causes confusion both in- and outside the profession. The University of Rajshahi offers the degree BSS (Hons) and MSS, under the Faculty of Social Science. The Royal University of Dhaka offers MSc, where other universities (private or public) offer BA (Hons.) and MA under the Faculty of Arts.
From certificate to post graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. level, programs should be known by one name, e.g., Information Science and Library Management. Degrees should be given under a particular faculty, consistent with the developed world as well as the Bangladeshi context, e.g., Faculty of Arts.
Number of Institutions
Only 6 (both public and private) out of 75 universities (UGC, 2008) and 16 out of 1,581 (both public & private) degree colleges (BANBEIS, 2008b) offer library science education. Among them, only two public universities offer undergraduate to PhD level, two private universities at Master's level, one private university at the certificate level, and one offers a post-graduate diploma. Among nine colleges, only Lalmatia Girls' College offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs under National University. More programs are needed.
More institutions should offer BA (hons) and MA programs in library science. UGC should create initiatives to open "Department of Information Science and Library Management" in public universities like Jahangir Nagar Jahangir Nagar (Bengali: জাহাঙ্গীর নগর) is the former name of Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was named after Mughal Emperor Jahangir. University, Khulna University, Chittagong University, and Shahjalal University of Science and Technology • • [ .
Library Education Policy
The government Bangladesh approved a National Book Policy in 1996 and a National Library Policy in 2001, but there is neither a National Policy for Library Science Education nor any initiatives taken to create one.
LAB and BALID should communicate the necessity and importance of national policy for library science education. Institutions related to library science education should join with these professional bodies and to achieve a well-defined national policy for the sake of well-organized and developed library education system.
No separate cadre (company) CADRE - The US software engineering vendor which merged with Bachman Information Systems to form Cayenne Software in July 1996. has been made for the recruitment of librarian in government institutions through Bangladesh Public Service Commission (PSC (Public Service Commission) Same as PUC. ). As a result, library graduates join another cadre or take other public and private sector jobs that are not relevant to their education. Library education does not attract young talents because of its low status, low pay scale, and limited opportunities for promotion.
Creating a cadre service through PSC for library science graduates is essential to keep library graduates in the profession. In doing this, the government can get a return on its investment. Government policymakers should be aware that this is the information age, and the days when the library was a storehouse are gone. Before it is too late to attract young talents to the profession, the government must work on uniformity in pay scale, equivalence with with other professions, and rationalised library structures..
LAB and BALID are not working to popularize pop·u·lar·ize
tr.v. pop·u·lar·ized, pop·u·lar·iz·ing, pop·u·lar·iz·es
1. To make popular: A famous dancer popularized the new hairstyle.
2. the profession and library education in the country. Many library science graduates do not join these professional associations, because there is no obligation to belong to them in order to get a library-related job.
Both associations should be more active in the development of library education. They must take a leading role in and outside the country. Members of both associations should choose dynamic personalities as their executives and leaders. Having elected officers from professional members, who work for the association in "spare" time, is not sufficient. There is a need to appoint a fulltime paid executive director. Membership in a library association should be required for a library graduate to get a library job. Library and information centres must stop the recruitment of non-professionals.
This study takes a historical look at library education, with a general outline of the challenges in Bangladesh. It is evident that library education is an evolving and dynamic field in Bangladesh which has not been given special attention. A comprehensive library science education system with adequate training facilities is very much needed. There is a healthy controversy about what should constitute education in these areas. Information professionals are being called upon every day to perform new tasks. The change is the result of factors such as new technologies for information and knowledge management, and the multidisciplinary nature of information science.
The present situation is not hopeless hopeless Terminal care Futile. See Medical futility. , but the essential characteristics of library service have not been developed in terms of number of libraries, skilled workforce, systematic operation, modern technology, usefulness of the system, etc. The profession is now attracting people from different social backgrounds with good academic qualifications. In the coming years, new professionals will be able to organize the entire library system of Bangladesh in a better way.
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goes to Wizard of Oz to get brains. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]
See : Ignorance
can’t live up to his name. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; Am. .
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A. I. M. Jakaria Rahman
East West University, Dhaka
International Jute jute (jt), name for any plant of the genus Corchorus, tropical annuals of the family Tiliaceae (linden family), and for its fiber. Study Group
Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dr. Muhammad Mezbah-ul-Islam
Department of Information Science & Library Management
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Table I: Number trained Year Name of Courses No. of persons trained 1952 First Certificate Course 03 in Librarianship Fulbright Courses 1955 - 56 First Fulbright Course 08 1956 - 57 Second Fulbright Course 35 1957 - 58 Third Fulbright Course 30 1958 - 59 Fourth Fulbright Course 34 Total: 110 Table II: Library education programs offered Name of Post BA University/Institute, Certificate Graduate (Pass) Location, Year of Course 1 (6 Diploma 2 Course establishment months) (1 year) (3 years) Bangladesh College of Technology & Education (BCTE), Rajshahi. 2000 v v -- Bangladesh South West Model Institute (BSWMI), Jessore. 2004 -- v -- Bogra Library Science College (BLSC), Bogra. 2004 -- v -- Institute for Library and Information Management (ILIM), Dhanmondi, Dhaka. 1997 v v -- Institute for Library and Information Science (ILIS), Nilkhet, Dhaka. 2000 v v -- Institute for Library and Information Studies (ILIS), Rajshahi. 2000 v v -- Institute of Education, Library and Management (IELAM), Khulna. 2000 v v -- Institute of Library and Information Science (ILIS),, Mymensigh. 2001 v v -- Institute of Library and Information Science (ILIS), Chittagong. 2002 v v -- Institute of Library and Information Technology (ILIT), Chittagong. 2002 v v -- Institution of Library, Arts, Commerce and Science (ILACS), Khulna. 1999 v v -- Library and Information Science Institution (LISI), Nuria, Barisal, 2002 v v -- Pabna Al-Amana Ideal Library and Information -- v -- Science College, Pabna. 2004 v v -- S. B. Science and Technology College, Bogra. 2002 -- v -- Zia Education Development Institute, Choumohony, Noakhali. 2005 Darul Ihsan University, Dhaka 1993 -- v -- University of Dhaka, Dhaka. 1921 -- -- -- International Islamic University of Chittagaong, Chittagong. 1995 -- v -- University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi. 1953 -- -- -- Royal University of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2002 -- -- -- University of Science & Technology of Chittagong (USTC), Chittagong. 1992 v -- -- Barmi Degree College, Shreepur, Gazipur -- -- v Basail Emdad - Hamida College, Tangail -- -- v Barhatta College, Netrokona -- -- v Fulbaria College, Mymensigh -- -- v Joypara Degree College, Dohar, Dhaka -- -- v Kalihati Degree College, Tangail -- -- v Lalmatia Girls College, Dhaka -- -- v Sathkhira Degree College, Sathkhira -- -- v Sufia Mohila College, Madaripur -- -- v Total: 12 17 9 Name of University/Institute, BA/ BSS Location, Year of (Hons.) MA/MSS MA (2 establishment (4 years) (1 years) years) Bangladesh College of Technology & Education (BCTE), Rajshahi. 2000 -- -- -- Bangladesh South West Model Institute (BSWMI), Jessore. 2004 -- -- -- Bogra Library Science College (BLSC), Bogra. 2004 -- -- -- Institute for Library and Information Management (ILIM), Dhanmondi, Dhaka. 1997 -- -- -- Institute for Library and Information Science (ILIS), Nilkhet, Dhaka. 2000 -- -- -- Institute for Library and Information Studies (ILIS), Rajshahi. 2000 -- -- -- Institute of Education, Library and Management (IELAM), Khulna. 2000 -- -- -- Institute of Library and Information Science (ILIS),, Mymensigh. 2001 -- -- -- Institute of Library and Information Science (ILIS), Chittagong. 2002 -- -- -- Institute of Library and Information Technology (ILIT), Chittagong. 2002 -- -- -- Institution of Library, Arts, Commerce and Science (ILACS), Khulna. 1999 -- -- -- Library and Information Science Institution (LISI), Nuria, Barisal, 2002 -- -- -- Pabna Al-Amana Ideal Library and Information -- -- -- Science College, Pabna. 2004 -- -- -- S. B. Science and Technology College, Bogra. 2002 -- -- -- Zia Education Development Institute, Choumohony, Noakhali. 2005 Darul Ihsan University, Dhaka 1993 -- -- v University of Dhaka, Dhaka. 1921 v v -- International Islamic University of Chittagaong, Chittagong. 1995 -- -- -- University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi. 1953 v v -- Royal University of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2002 -- -- v University of Science & Technology of Chittagong (USTC), Chittagong. 1992 -- -- -- Barmi Degree College, Shreepur, Gazipur -- -- -- Basail Emdad - Hamida College, Tangail -- -- -- Barhatta College, Netrokona -- -- -- Fulbaria College, Mymensigh -- -- -- Joypara Degree College, Dohar, Dhaka -- -- -- Kalihati Degree College, Tangail -- -- -- Lalmatia Girls College, Dhaka v -- v Sathkhira Degree College, Sathkhira -- -- -- Sufia Mohila College, Madaripur -- -- -- Total: 3 2 3 Name of MA University/Institute, (Evening) M. Phil. Ph.D. Location, Year of (4 semester (2 (2-3 establishment /2years) years) years) Bangladesh College of Technology & Education (BCTE), Rajshahi. 2000 -- -- -- Bangladesh South West Model Institute (BSWMI), Jessore. 2004 -- -- -- Bogra Library Science College (BLSC), Bogra. 2004 -- -- -- Institute for Library and Information Management (ILIM), Dhanmondi, Dhaka. 1997 -- -- -- Institute for Library and Information Science (ILIS), Nilkhet, Dhaka. 2000 -- -- -- Institute for Library and Information Studies (ILIS), Rajshahi. 2000 -- -- -- Institute of Education, Library and Management (IELAM), Khulna. 2000 -- -- -- Institute of Library and Information Science (ILIS),, Mymensigh. 2001 -- -- -- Institute of Library and Information Science (ILIS), Chittagong. 2002 -- -- -- Institute of Library and Information Technology (ILIT), Chittagong. 2002 -- -- -- Institution of Library, Arts, Commerce and Science (ILACS), Khulna. 1999 -- -- -- Library and Information Science Institution (LISI), Nuria, Barisal, 2002 -- -- -- Pabna Al-Amana Ideal Library and Information -- -- -- Science College, Pabna. 2004 -- -- -- S. B. Science and Technology College, Bogra. 2002 -- -- -- Zia Education Development Institute, Choumohony, Noakhali. 2005 Darul Ihsan University, Dhaka 1993 -- -- -- University of Dhaka, Dhaka. 1921 v v v International Islamic University of Chittagaong, Chittagong. 1995 -- -- -- University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi. 1953 -- v v Royal University of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2002 -- -- -- University of Science & Technology of Chittagong (USTC), Chittagong. 1992 -- -- -- Barmi Degree College, Shreepur, Gazipur -- -- -- Basail Emdad - Hamida College, Tangail -- -- -- Barhatta College, Netrokona -- -- -- Fulbaria College, Mymensigh -- -- -- Joypara Degree College, Dohar, Dhaka -- -- -- Kalihati Degree College, Tangail -- -- -- Lalmatia Girls College, Dhaka -- -- -- Sathkhira Degree College, Sathkhira -- -- -- Sufia Mohila College, Madaripur -- -- -- Total: 1 2 2 Source: Brochure 2007 of Library Association of Bangladesh; Annual reports of National University and present survey. Table III: Patterns of library science education Level of education Nomenclature Certificate Certificate in Library and Information Science Post Graduate Post-Graduate Diploma in Library and Diploma Information Science Bachelor Bachelor of Information Science and Library Management Bachelor Bachelor of Library and Information Science Bachelor Bachelor of Arts (Pass) (Optional subject) Master Master of Information Science and Library Management Master Master of Information Science and Library Management Master Master of Library and Information Science Master Master of Science in Library Management and Information Science Research Master of Philosophy Doctorate Doctor of Philosophy Duration of Level of education Name of Degree Course Certificate CLIS 6 months Post Graduate Diploma PGDLIS 1 year Bachelor BA (Hons.)/BSS 4 years/ 8 (Hons.) semesters Bachelor BA (Hons.) 4 years Bachelor BA (Pass) 3 years Master MA/ MSS 1 year Master MA (Evening) 2 years/ 4 Semesters Master MA 2 years/16 months Master MSc 2 years Research MPhil 2 years Doctorate PhD 2-3 years Figure 1: Library education programs offered by number of institutions Level of Number of education institutions Certificate 12 PG-Diploma 17 BA (Pass) 9 BA/BSS 3 MA/MSS/MSc 5 MPhil 2 PhD 2 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 2: Educational institutions involved in library education Instructions 50% Collleges 30% Universities 20% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 3: Public and private institutions Number of educational institutions Private Public Number 26 2 Note: Table made from bar graph.