Library automation, networking, and other online and new technology costs in academic libraries.Abstract
Using the costs for the library automation activities at Southern Methodist University Southern Methodist University, at Dallas, Tex.; United Methodist; coeducational; chartered 1911. The school's facilities include laboratories for electron microscopy and stable isotopes, a museum of paleontology, and a graduate research center. plus a review of the literature in automation costs and requirements, the authors present some of the hidden as well as obvious budgetary requirements to meet the electronic library needs in small- and medium-sized university libraries today.
Over the past twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. , academic libraries have changed considerably as bibliographic utilities, online catalogs Similar to an online library or databases in the information storage respect, ‘’’online catalogs’’’ allow potential customers to browse a company’s items for sale from a different location using the internet. , automated circulation systems, and other new technologies have been implemented in a majority of library operations and services. These changes have created rising costs for libraries in a time of tight fiscal constraints, particularly in the area of telecommunications, buildings, furniture, and electronic equipment. For the medium and larger sized academic libraries, it is not uncommon for computer costs associated with implementing online catalogs, circulation/reserve, acquisitions accounting, and serials control systems - including retrospective conversion of paper records into machine-readable forms - to require $5 million plus. Annual maintenance, licensing agreements, software, and hardware requirements will exceed an additional $250,000 to $350,000 per year.
The increased access to electronic information systems not held locally and to other new technologies such as CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.
in full compact disc read-only memory
Type of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser). , laser technologies, interactive multimedia packages, OCR OCR
in full optical character recognition
Scanning and comparison technique intended to identify printed text or numerical data. It avoids the need to retype already printed material for data entry. (optical character recognition optical character recognition (OCR), method for the machine-reading of typeset, typed, and, in some cases, hand-printed letters, numbers, and symbols using optical sensing and a computer. ) and imaging systems, satellite communication and teleconferencing, laptop computers, packet telephone switches, and cellular telephones have also been making an impact in a few libraries along with LANs (local area networks) and WANs (wide area networks) for interconnecting local computing resources.
The impact has not been only on more technologically oriented methods of operations and services; new information and instructional technologies There are two types of instructional technology: those with a systems approach, and those focusing on sensory technologies.
The definition of instructional technology prepared by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology have placed tremendous pressures on outdated cabling and wiring. Expanded budgets are required for such things as asbestos abatement Noun 1. asbestos abatement - the removal of asbestos from a public building
abatement of a nuisance, nuisance abatement - (law) the removal or termination or destruction of something that has been found to be a nuisance in ceiling and floor tiling as well as utility tunnels An utility tunnel is a space for wires, conduits, pipes, and other conveyances used in the delivery of utilities with enough room for a human to enter. Modern pipes and cables need less attention and space than older varieties, so the construction of utility tunnels declined in the ; installation of fiber optics fiber optics, transmission of digitized messages or information by light pulses along hair-thin glass fibers. Each fiber is surrounded by a cladding having a high index of refractance so that the light is internally reflected and travels the length of the fiber and additional connective connective - An operator used in logic to combine two logical formulas. See first order logic. wiring and cabling within and among buildings; and equipment (hardware and soft ware) for both staff and public access. Additional funding is needed for online network memberships and connections to local, state, regional, national, and international networks. These network relationships require new and expanded licensing agreements with updated copyright procedures and related issues. New formats and access tools require revamped policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental , rules, and regulations. Expanded training (of staff and users) and continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). require increased travel budgets for participation in new professional associations and continuing education and training opportunities. Employment of new types of personnel to handle technological problems (including troubleshooting of hardware/software problems), programming, and maintenance and repair work, plus retooling of existing staff and enhanced hiring requirements when keyboarding skill (i.e., typing) becomes more important at all levels. The new equipment can focus stuff demands for installation of ergonomic ergonomic - Concerning ergonomics or exhibitting good ergonimics. furniture and security devices. There are increased costs in HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) In the home or small office with a handful of computers, HVAC is more for human comfort than the machines. In large datacenters, a humidity-free room with a steady, cool temperature is essential for the trouble-free (heating, air conditioning air conditioning, mechanical process for controlling the humidity, temperature, cleanliness, and circulation of air in buildings and rooms. Indoor air is conditioned and regulated to maintain the temperature-humidity ratio that is most comfortable and healthful. , circulation, and humidity) and other utilities costs (telephone, telefacsimile tel·e·fac·sim·i·le
A fax machine. , electrical power, security and control of equipment, software, building access, and other costs associated with telecommunications and online networking). Reconfiguration and reconstruction of physical facilities both within and outside of library buildings is often necessary. Special consultants to assist with strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. , selection of systems, technological issues, and related problems are often hidden costs. The emphasis on equipment increases the need for analysis of depreciation and replacement costs associated with many aspects of new technologies.
In addition to all the new budget-impacting workloads, much greater interaction, collaboration, and cooperation have been required among librarians, their primary clientele, computer center personnel, physical plant operations, university administration, and others related to telecommunications planning and budgeting of all aspects of informational and instructional technologies.
Fund-raising has become far more commonplace in all types of academic libraries (public and private) than ever before in history - and not just through state and federal granting agencies but through approaches to foundations and corporations, as well as individual benefactors. Priorities have changed; funding methodologies have expanded; resources (budget, personnel, space, equipment, responsibilities) have had to be re-examined and reallocated. All of this requires that far more personnel time be devoted to both short- and long-range planning within libraries, across campus, and often within consortia of a local, state, regional, and even national nature.
The new technologies have required not only different expertise and training requirements for personnel but have required new types of personnel and more personnel, even though shifts in existing personnel could be made to meet new demands when the newer technologies made some activities obsolete and others less labor intensive Labor Intensive
A process or industry that requires large amounts of human effort to produce goods.
A good example is the hospitality industry (hotels, restaurants, etc), they are considered to be very people-oriented.
See also: Capital Intensive, Trading Dollars .
Gaddis (1989) notes that libraries have had to become more involved in soliciting bids, writing specifications, identifying potential vendors, evaluating systems and services, and preparing RFPs (request for proposals) (pp. 27-28). These RFPs have to ensure that future activities be accommodated by the systems selected for use and that these are also documented (i.e., systems must be sized to meet potential for growth and development as well as strategically developed to support linking capabilities among systems and to allow similar connections to other multimedia resources). Systems costs, Gaddis notes, include central processing units See CPU.
(architecture, processor) central processing unit - (CPU, processor) The part of a computer which controls all the other parts. Designs vary widely but the CPU generally consists of the control unit, the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), registers, temporary buffers , disk and/or tape storage/drives, printers, freight and installation, and maintenance (p. 28). Costs must be included for terminals for staff and users, wands or laser readers, and furniture for equipment. There are obvious software costs (for the operating system operating system (OS)
Software that controls the operation of a computer, directs the input and output of data, keeps track of files, and controls the processing of computer programs. , application programs or modules, maintenance, customizing to accommodate local systems), interfaces to other systems, and backup systems Noun 1. backup system - a computer system for making backups
ADP system, ADPS, automatic data processing system, computer system, computing system - a system of one or more computers and associated software with common storage . There is site preparation (space, air conditioning, raised floors, dedicated electrical power, power protection, fire extinguishing systems, grounded electrical outlets, individual surge protectors A device that provides protection against power surges. See surge suppression. See also traffic surge protection. , antistatic Eliminating or reducing static electricity. See static electricity, antistatic bag, antistatic device, antistatic liquid and antistatic wristband. materials, cleaning kits for terminals, and cabling throughout buildings). There are conversion costs (bibliographic with authority control; copy level conversion and barcoding; patron file creation; and creation of patron identification cards). There are implementation costs (time for planning, including staff line reporting, and developing policies and procedures), installation, training, publicity, and public relations public relations, activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most in an environment where there is also operational disruption for barcoding of collections, structural modifications, rewiring, and so on. At the end, there is staff recognition for all of the implementation activity. And always there are ongoing operational costs (including bringing systems up and taking them down), doing file saves; ongoing staffing needs for troubleshooting problems with peripherals and software operations; for coordinating vendor maintenance performance; for preparing documentation of hardware operations as they are handled locally, including emergency procedures; for performing day-end processes, including generation of reports and notices; ceaseless needs for funding initiatives to cover purchase costs for enhancements; membership in user groups (membership fees, navel costs, and staff time to attend meetings); and other developmental service components that grow from a successful library management system.
Peter Spyers-Duran (1990) provides a concise summary of the benefits of automation, as follows: 1. "handle a large volume of routine and repetitive transactions"; 2. "facilitate better, sophisticated, more varied information management and retrieval of information"; 3. "assist with the general management"; 4. "reallocate Verb 1. reallocate - allocate, distribute, or apportion anew; "Congressional seats are reapportioned on the basis of census data"
allocate, apportion - distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose; "I am allocating a loaf of resources to meet contemporary needs"; 5. "offset cost of labor"; and 6. "introduce cost avoidance Cost avoidance is a management accounting term referring to an expense one has avoided incurring. It is commonly used in the field of energy management to describe the energy costs you avoided due to energy management initiatives. measures through resource sharing, joint ventures, sharing staff specializations and improved means of communication" (p. 8).
Another, even more important, benefit is discussed by Tyckoson (1989): "[Automation] allows users to access and share information by methods that could not be achieved with more traditional formats" (p. 11). Many libraries have already begun planning and implementing other benefits of the new technologies, including coordinated collection development; speedy document delivery of full-text information; ability to digitize To convert an image or signal into digital code by scanning, tracing on a graphics tablet or using an analog to digital conversion device. 3D objects can be digitized by a device with a mechanical arm that is moved onto all the corners. special collections In library science, special collections (often abbreviated to Spec. Coll. or S.C.) is the name applied to a specific repository within a library which stores materials of a "special" nature. unique to a particular library; linkages and interfaces with other information agencies, vendors, and libraries for data that are not held locally; improved and enhanced access to visual and sound collections; and expanded capabilities to use all the new technologies and, often, even the more traditional formats in an interactive multimedia way in wired classrooms around the world with real face-to-face online collaborative research and study going on among students, faculty, researchers, and scholars. Other benefits include, Rush (1986) notes, "expanded service to the public, decreased backlogs, more timely processing, increased productivity, reduced space requirements, or other improvements" (p. 115). Joan Frye Williams adds another benefit: "an automated system contains staff costs by accommodating workload increases" (p. 117).
Funding priorities today must also include assisting with standardization standardization
In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting of databases, communication and access protocols, and simplified entry from one system or personal computer into other systems, regardless of location, type of system and network, and computer (mainframe, personal computer, or other). Funding priorities must provide for continuing innovation and creativity to enhance access to all information resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.
(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT. - print and nonprint, electronic, and so on.
Juergens (1990) notes that, "there are at most 1,400 library employees in all of the nation's technology-based networks, as opposed to 340,000 library employees in the country in 1987, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the American Library Association American Library Association, founded 1876, organization whose purpose is to increase the usefulness of books through the improvement and extension of library services. " (p. 20). Of those 340,000 library employees, it would be interesting to discover how many of them use automation daily and at what level. Juergens also states that "bibliographic networks (e.g., OCLC OCLC - Online Computer Library Center , WLN WLN Washington Library Network
WLN Wiswesser Line Notation (notation used in organic chemistry)
WLN Western Library Network
WLN Little Naukati, Alaska (Airport Code)
WLN Weapons Logistics Network , RLN RLN Relaxin
RLN Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
RLN Retropharyngeal Lymph Node
RLN Remote LAN Node
RLN Resource Loaded Network ) cost 1-2.8% of a library's annual expense budget" (p. 22). Hunter (1988) notes that, "the amount of recorded literature doubles every 15 to 17 years" (p. 37). The amount of that literature in electronic format is still a minimal part of information dealt with by libraries, but it is growing dramatically each day. Hunter (1988) also notes that "we are already technically capable of doing far more than our budgets will ever allow" and that "scholarly publishers and research librarians cannot afford all of the things which new technology makes possible - we will have to make choices" (p. 40). Gupta (1991) states that, "the investment in information systems, if used effectively, will lead to improved information systems performance, and hence will result in better organisational decision making which may enhance the overall performance of the organisation" (p. 105).
Malinconico (1992) quotes David Bishop
David Bishop is an award-winning screenwriter and author. Born in New Zealand, he was a UK comics editor during the 1990s, running such titles as the (JAL JAL Jalisco (Mexican state)
JAL Jalapa (Guatemala territorial division)
JAL Jump And Link
JAL Japan Airlines Company, Ltd. , Sept. 1989, p. 197) saying that "revenues earned by the electronic database industry are already near $11 billion and are expected to grow 20% per year for the next 5 years, reaching more than $22 billion by 1995" (p. 37). Malinconico (1992) also notes that database growth is about 25 percent per year with CD-ROM database growth about 60 percent per year. In addition, he notes the growth of electronic journals, specialized networks - such as NASA's Mission to Planet Earth - campuswide networks, electronic imaging and virtual libraries, and national network development - such as the NREN NREN - National Research and Education Network (National Research Education Network) (p. 38). As he points out, "the new information services See Information Systems. simultaneously increase user need for the assistance of information specialists and reduce the contact they have with them" (p. 40). Susan Baerg Epstein (1990) expands this to note that with the new technologies we have "improved services and limited increases in number of staff needed to meet greater demands" and that "existing staff can [now] be more productive" (p. 114).
A major problem with the new technologies which libraries must learn to deal with more effectively is the fact that new electronic systems represent additional ongoing expenses. James E. Rush (1986) feels that the application of new computer technologies will help us "to improve service, to make more informed decisions, and to lower costs or avoid cost increases" (pp. 114-15). A major improvement in service via speedier document delivery of journal articles via CARL UNCOVER 2, FAXON Finder, and FAXON Xpress - as well as similar services, with full-text delivery over the Internet using excellent text/graphics copy via resources such as RLG's Ariel - demonstrate a growing phenomena.
Many libraries have found new, or adapted old, methods to increase their fiscal resources. These include, as Rush (1986 p. 13) notes, sharing costs across consortia; distributing operating costs operating costs npl → gastos mpl operacionales over a broader base; improving resource sharing through state and federal grants and through proposals to foundations; obtaining legislation for funding; gaining funds from wealthy and influential citizens/ benefactors; and offering revenue-producing services to businesses. Williams (1986) adds "allocating available operational funds more wisely using management reports generated by automated systems, transferring financial resources now supporting repetitive clerical tasks to other parts of the budget in order to improve direct user services" (p. 117). Williams also suggests that a library should "deposit one seventh of the system's original price in a special interest-bearing replacement account" each year, or consideration of funding strategies such as "commercial lease-purchase agreement Lease-purchase agreement
An agreement that allows for portions of lease payments to be used to purchase the leased property. , Municipal Leasing Corporation (MLC (MultiLevel Cell) A flash memory technology that stores more than one bit per cell. Traditional flash memory defines a 0 or 1 bit based on a single voltage threshold. ) Lease Purchase Agreements, and Limited Partnerships with investors" (pp. 117-18). At least one academic library (Southern Methodist University Libraries, Dallas, Texas “Dallas” redirects here. For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation).
The City of Dallas (pronounced [ˈdæl.əs] or [ˈdæl. ) received a $500,000 endowment for library automation and new technologies.
Strategic planning for electronic systems, most library administrators will agree, is an absolute necessity. Mann (1986) suggests "intensive long-range planning and budgeting programs that include start-up, performance, utilization, enhancement, and replacement criteria for each component of the system" (p. 118). He also urges preparation of "financial feasibility studies The analysis of a problem to determine if it can be solved effectively. The operational (will it work?), economical (costs and benefits) and technical (can it be built?) aspects are part of the study. Results of the study determine whether the solution should be implemented. before the library initiates investments in technology, preparing strategies, and projections to relate investments in technology to financial benefits such as the avoidance and/or recovery of costs as a result of reduced operating expenses Operating expenses
The amount paid for asset maintenance or the cost of doing business, excluding depreciation. Earnings are distributed after operating expenses are deducted. , and use of ratios and other analyses to identify trends in the financial health of the library, and comparison of the results with trends at peer libraries" (p. 118).
Future technologies will continue to change libraries and the ways in which they operate. Bazillion (1992) focuses on the new "notebook computers A laptop computer that weighs in a range from five to seven pounds. The term originated when laptops were routinely more than 10 pounds, and those that became lighter were placed in a special "notebook" category. In practice, notebook computer and laptop computer are synonymous. of increasing power and portability" which he feels will "reduce valuable space [required] for banks of conventional pcs [personal computers]" and which "will not need the same noise reduction" considerations (p. 10). But what will they need in the availability of active telecommunications ports to connect to the local library system? What will that flexibility cost? He also predicts that "CD-ROM will diminish as library computers become more powerful, and software more sophisticated..." (p. 10), and that "libraries will be regional research centers which must provide enough communications ports (hardware, communications) communications port - A connector for a communications interface, usually, a serial port. for convenient dial-in access" (p. 12).
To estimate costs for a system, Bolef (1987, p. 109) and Kirby (1986, p. 15) suggest that one must consider both one-time and ongoing costs. The following is a breakdown of those items and some general estimates of costs based on one mid- to large-size academic library:
One-time Costs Retrospective conversion of bibliographic records, $725,000 including extracting from OCLC files, removal of duplicate records, authority control processing, collection analysis on resulting files Library management software $99,500 One-time conversion software $44,150 System software augmentations: GTO OCLC record transfer $10,000 QUIKMERGE for tapeloaded index efficiencies $5,850 Multiple-database access subsystem (10+ $125,000 databases) (plus interest if paid over time) Basic hardware (computer, i.e., mini, micro, Shared, no or charge-back mainframe), CPU (Central processing unit) and to Libraries its parts including disk drives and controllers, tape/cartridge drives, and telecommunications controllers. First component of peripherals (such as terminals, printers, scanners, and microcomputers with modems) $237,500 Installation of telecommunications lines, including telecommunications electronic components (switches, concentrators, conduit, fiber and copper wiring) $520,073 Site preparation and associated facilities modifications (e.g., asbestos abatement, rerouting of electrical and data wiring) $416,000 Consultant fees. Prior to official project funding unavailable. Training costs (see "Ongoing Costs" below). New furniture (We have focused on this within other initiatives [e.g., Electronic Reference Center]. Supplies (e.g., smart barcodes) $18,000 Security and fire prevention devices $61,180 Collection preparation, including barcoding (est. $15,000 in and volunteer staff/time to do it... time and ca. 2 months of library staff). Ongoing Costs Maintenance contracts for the hardware: (a) Mainframe and computer center (shared, no charge-back to Libraries) (b) Library peripherals (computers, (extended terminals, warranties printers, and scanners) with replacement rather than maintenance currently cheaper). (c) Communications links. Telecommunication costs, including connections between computers, between terminals and computers, and between terminals and printers 1992/93: $160,000 Maintenance contracts for software: (1992/93) (a) Library Management software $30,418 (b) Conversion Software (Loaders/Quikmerge/etc.) $975 (c) Database Transfer Software (e.g., GTO for $2,045 OCLC records) (d) Multiple-Database Access System Software $25,400 Additional software funds for updating, upgrading, and purchases of new software ... including loaders for commercial databases to add to MDAS component (not yet determined for this campus). Ongoing database files (a) GPO records $2,500 (b) Authority Records $2,272 (c) Additional datafiles (1) Early American Imprints $5,800 (2) American Theological Library not currently available Association microform analytics (3) Southwest Film and Video (no additional charge Archives to campus) Supplies (barcodes: patron & library est. $2,500 materials; paper and ribbons for printers) (shared, no charge-back Temperature/humidity controls to Libraries) Personnel costs (including benefits) $77,220 Library Automation Director $47,520 Computer Center Senior Systems Analyst All library staff have automation workload, but do not represent new positions for the campus. Training consultants for existing/new (est. $5,000-$10,000/ staff year initially, with time and travel contract. May include here travel for User Group [national, regional] or related professional associations as continuing education requirement). Security devices for terminals and printers (we have not chosen to implement to date). Lighting for terminal screens (we have not chosen to implement to date). Public relations $12,500 Staffing requirements desirable): Technical Staff: 1 Senior Systems Analyst/Programmer; 1 Programmer/ Analyst; .5 SAS programmer; .2 of networking, systems and operations staff Library Staff: 1 Project Manager; 2 pc/networking maintenance; 1 electronic file service librarian; 2 bibliographic instruction equivalent for user and staff training; special project staff for clean-up of database, maintenance of datafiles, and so on. Impact on all staff for testing of upgrades, enhancements, and so on.
The earlier costs represent typical library management system expenditures - other initiatives and extended automation services may add incrementally. Some typical projects are noted here:
New hardware and networking demands; extended services (special renewal options, document delivery services to off-campus constituents, and so on) (shared, no charge-back to libraries for those options currently in production [e.g., special faculty renewal].)
Retrospective conversion of specialized collections such as art history slides, manuscripts, photographs, and so on to machine-readable files development costs not currently available).
Implementation of new technologies and/or services such as a microcomputer lab ($26,000 upgrades), CD-ROM Reference Center ($136,010), CD-ROM LAN (Local Area Network) A communications network that serves users within a confined geographical area. The "clients" are the user's workstations typically running Windows, although Mac and Linux clients are also used. networking ($70,000 installation), or similar new additions to library service centers-plus maintenance of staff support for office automation (up to $30,000 per year) Miscellaneous and unexpected expenses.
Bolez (1987) notes that "costs vary with the size of the system (single-function, bifunction, multifunction, or fully integrated) and the amount of modification required" (p. 109). She notes that "after 5-7 years there is a need to upgrade, modify, enlarge, or completely re-vamp" (p. 109). And each year today's academic libraries are finding that the changes in existing technology are so rapid that it is almost impossible to get by only with initially purchased equipment and software - change is required on an annual, biannual bi·an·nu·al
1. Happening twice each year; semiannual.
2. Occurring every two years; biennial.
bi·an , or more frequent basis.
Camp et al. (1987, p. 348) offer an interesting table on how academic libraries use the regular library budget for automation.
Ongoing tensions will be experienced in library budgets for resources: print, media, microform In micrographics, a medium that contains microminiaturized images such as microfiche and microfilm. See micrographics. , and electronic. Library users will expect and demand instant access to full-text as well as indexes and online library catalogs. Internet access See how to access the Internet. will be, and of ten is, considered the norm. As individual librarians and campuses commit to these projects, the details of budget requirements noted earlier and the goals of service noted must be considered and carefully monitored.
[TABULAR DATA OMITTED
Annual survey of automated library system vendors: Integrated, multi-user, multifunction systems. (1992). Library Systems Newsletter, 12(3/4), 17-33. Annual survey of automated Pc-based library system vendors. (1992). Library Systems Newsletter, 12(5), 35-43. Bailey, C. W., Jr. (1989). Public-access computer systems: The next generation of library automation systems. Information Technology and Libraries, 8(2), 178-185. Bazillion, R. J. (1992). Personal computing Refers to users working on their own computers rather than a terminal to a mainframe. Sometimes, the term refers to using computers at home for work and/or entertainment in contrast to business use only. See personal computer. and academic library design in the 1990s: Library design of the future must keep portability in mind. Computers in Libraries, 12(3), 10-12. Berry, J. (1989). Upgrading systems, software, microcomputers. Library Journal, 114(15), 56-59. Boissonnas, C. M. (1986). What cost, automation? Library Acquisitions: Practice & Theory, 10(2), 107-112. Bolez, D. (1987). Cost considerations in automating the library. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 75(2), 109-113. Bridge, F. R. (1992). Automated system marketplace 1992: Redefining the market itself. Library journal, 117(6), 58-72. Broering, N. C. (1984). An affordable microcomputer library information system developed by Georgetown University Georgetown University, in the Georgetown section of Washington, D.C.; Jesuit; coeducational; founded 1789 by John Carroll, chartered 1815, inc. 1844. Its law and medical schools are noteworthy, and its archives are especially rich in letters and manuscripts by and . Microcomputers for Information Management, 1(4),269-283. Buckland, M. K. (1988). Library materials: Paper, microform, database. College Research Libraries, 49(2), 117-122. Burlingame, D. F. (1989). The small library and fund-raising for automation. Library Hi Tech, 7(2), 49-52. Camp, J. A.; Agnew, G.; Landram, C.; Richards, J.; & Shelton, J. M. (1987). Survey of online systems in U.S. academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 48(4), 339-350. Cullen, R. (1992). A bottom-up approach from down-under: Management information in your automated library system. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 18(3), 152-157. Dowd Dowd is a derivation of an ancient surname which was once common in Ireland but is now quite rare. The name Dowd is an Anglicisation of the original Ui Dubhda, through its more common form O'Dowd. , S.; Whaley, J. H., Jr.; & Pankake, M. (1986). Reactions to "Funding online services from the materials budget." College & Research Libraries, 47(3), 230-237. Drabenstott, J. (Ed.). (1985). Projecting library automation costs. Library Hi Tech, 3(3), 111-119. Drabenstott, J. (Ed.). (1986). Funding library automation. Library Hi Tech, 4(1), 111-119. Epstein, S. B. (1990). Selling automation to your patrons: It's easier than you feared. Library Journal, 115(17), 63-64. Gaddis, D. (1989). Automation of the public library: Cost implications for the library budget. North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. Libraries, 47(1), 26-32. Gaida, H. H. (1986). The real cost of the online catalog: Report on a panel discussion, TLA (Three Letter Acronym) The epitome of acronyms! While two-, four- and five-letter acronyms exist, there are more three-letter acronyms. Obviously, three words to describe a concept or product is the most popular.
TLA - Three-Letter Acronym College and University Libraries Section, Fall Conference, November 1, 1985, University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee Sewanee is an unincorporated town in Franklin County, Tennessee, United States, treated by the U.S. Census as a census-designated place (CDP).
The population was 2,361 at the 2000 census. . Tennessee Librarian, 38(1), 24-25. Geraci, D., & Langschied, L. (1992). Mainstreaming data: Challenges to libraries. information Technology and Libraries, 11(1), 10-18. Grycz, C. J. (Ed.). (1992). A special issue on economic models for networked information (Issue theme). Serials Review, 18(1-2). Gupta, Y. P., & Chin, D. C. W (1991). An empirical examination of information systems expenditure: A stage hypothesis using the information processing information processing: see data processing.
Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations. and organizational life cycle The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page. approaches. Journal of Information Science, 17(2), 105-117. Hartinger, V. J. (1990). Justifying non-traditional automation projects. Library Software Review, 9(4), 228-230. Havercamp, D. (1985). Integrated library systems An integrated library system, or ILS, is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. for small libraries: Estimating the cost. Library Hi Tech, 3(4), 61-65. Hilton-Chalfen, D. (1991). Planning for campus information technology access: What must we do? EDUCOM EDUCOM Educational Communications Review, 26(1), 51. Hughes, C. A. (1992). A comparison of perceptions of campus priorities: The "logical" library in an organized anarchy ANARCHY. The absence of all political government; by extension, it signifies confusion in government. . Journal of Academic Librarianship, 18(3), 140-145. Hunter, K. (1988). Academic librarians and publishers: Customers versus producers or partners in the planning of electronic publishing An umbrella term for non-paper publishing, which includes publishing online or on media such as CDs and DVDs. ? Journal of Library Administration The Journal of Library Administration is a quarterly scholarly journal that provides information on how to manage a library. It is published by Haworth Information Press, and was launched in 1980. , 9(4), 35-47. Illinois State Library Automation Committee. (1989). Plan for funding automated resource sharing in Illinois libraries. Illinois Libraries, 71 (3/4), 218-236. Juergens, B.(1990). Costs and new technologies: The view from the network/broker. Technical Services Quarterly, 8(1), 17-28. Kirby, C. L. (1986). Automation funding for libraries. Information Reports and Bibliographies, 15(3), 15-16. Lawrence, G. S. with Matthews, J. R., & Miller, C. E. (1983). Costs and features of online catalogs: The state of the art. A report prepared for the Council on Library Resources. Research report RR-83-1. University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). , Office of the Assistant Vice President, Library Plans and Policies. Lawrence, G. S., & Oja, A. R. (1979). An economic criterion for housing and disposing of library materials, based on frequency of circulation. Research report RR-79-2. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Office of the Assistant Vice President, Library Plans and Policies, Library Studies and Research Division. Le Compagnon, B., & Leydon, J. F. (1991). Manage computer support costs through effective user training. CAUSE/EFFECT, 14(2), 47-53. Malinconico, S. M. (1992). Information's brave new world Brave New World
Aldous Huxley’s grim picture of the future, where scientific and social developments have turned life into a tragic travesty. [Br. Lit.: Magill I, 79]
See : Dystopia
Brave New World . Library Journal, 117(8), 30-40. Mann, T, Jr. (1986). Funding for library automation: A forum. Library Hi Tech, 13(Spring), 118-119. Michalko, J. (1990). Costly boundaries: Costs, new technologies, and bibliographic utilities. Technical Services Quarterly, 8(1), 29-36. Montgomery, J. R., & Snyder, J. K. (1989). Costing a library: A generic approach. Research in Higher Education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. , 30(1), 47-87. Morris D. E. (1989). Electronic information and technology: Impact and potential for academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 50(1), 56-64. Nelson, N. M. (Ed.). (1991). Library technology 1970-1990: Shaping the library of the future: Research contributions from the 1990 Computers in Libraries Conference (In Supplements to Computers in Libraries, No. 25.). Westport, CT: Meckler. New question for the 80s: What price automation? (1985). Library journal, 110(6), 20. Nielsen, B. (1989). Allocating costs, thinking about values: The fee-or-free debate revisited. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 15(4), 211-217. Niemeier, K. (1990). Funding technology for secondary school libraries. Computers in Libraries, 10(11), 50. Ogg, H. C. (1991). CheapLANs: Resource sharing on a budget. Library Software Review, 10(3), 179-185. Pasqualini, B. F. (Ed.). (1987). Dollars and sense: Implications of the new online technology for managing the library (Proceedings of a conference program held in New York City New York City: see New York, city.
New York City
City (pop., 2000: 8,008,278), southeastern New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. The largest city in the U.S. , June 29, 1986. Machine-assisted Reference Service Section, Reference and Adult Services Division, American Library Association). Chicago, IL: American Library Association. Poole, J. M., & St. Clair, G. (1986). Funding online services from the materials budget. College & Research Libraries, 47(3), 225-229. Potter, W. G. (1989). Expanding the online catalog. Information Technology and Libraries, 8(2), 99-104. Reader, E. A. (1989). Competitive procurement of integrated library systems. Library Hi Tech, 7(2), 7-15. Riggs, D. E. (1989). Capital outlay capital outlay
See capital expenditure. - Buildings and computers: Plans, budgets, and project management. Library Administration Management, 3(2). 87-92. Rogers, M. (1992). Conference reveals melee in multimedia world. Library Journal, 117(7), 22, 24-25. Roose, T (1987). Persuading your board, promoting your service. Library Journal, 112(7), 60-61. Roose, T (1988). Why ask the board? Library Journal, 113(2), 46-47. Rush, James E. (1986). Funding library automation: A forum. Library Hi Tech, 13(Spring), 114-117. Schuman, P. G. (1990). Reclaiming our technological future. Library Journal, 115(4), 34-38. Spyers-Duran, P. (1990). Cost of library technologies: the bottomless pit A bottomless pit, as its name implies, is a pit that has no identifiable bottom. Such pits are known by a large variety of names, and are a common hazard in many computer games and video games. of the 1990s? Technical Services Quarterly, 8(1), 3-16. Sitts, M. K. (Ed.). (1985). The automation inventory of research libraries 1985. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries, Office Management Studies. Taylor, R. G., Jr. (1987). Incremental costs Costs which are additional costs to the Service appropriations that would not have been incurred absent support of the contingency operation. See also financial management. of library service policies for online catalog access. Information Technology and Libraries, 6(4), 305-309. Tnopir, C. (1991). Predicting the future. Library Journal, 116(16), 70, 72. Tenopir, C. (1992). File reloads. Library Journal, 117(8), 57-58. Tyckoson, D. (1989). Electronic databases, information pricing, and the role of We library as a collective information utility. Technicalities, 9(6), 11-13. Weiskel, T (1989). The electronic library and the challenge of information planning. Academe, 75(4), 8-12. Williams, J. F. (1986). Funding library automation: A forum. Library Hi Tech, 13(Spring), 117-118.