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Learning to effectively implement constant time delay procedures to teach spelling.

Abstract. This study examined the effectiveness of a training procedure designed to teach a special education resource teacher the constant time delay procedures. In addition, the study examined the effectiveness of constant time delay procedures in teaching written spelling words to one 12-year-old male student with a learning disability. A multiple-probe design across behaviors was used to demonstrate the functional relationship between the time delay procedure and the student acquiring, maintaining, and generalizing 15 spelling words. The investigation specifically sought to address teacher-training issues related to instructional procedures, student acquisition, maintenance, and generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.

2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application.
. The teacher successfully implemented the procedure with 100% treatment integrity and the student learned to spell all 15 spelling words.


In today's public schools, extreme diversity exists among students' academic achievement, behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.

behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 characteristics, learning styles, and cultural experiences. These differences often complicate com·pli·cate  
tr. & intr.v. com·pli·cat·ed, com·pli·cat·ing, com·pli·cates
1. To make or become complex or perplexing.

2. To twist or become twisted together.

 the delivery of effective instruction, especially for educators working with students with learning disabilities (LD). Since students with LD share many appearances and behaviors with their peers who do not have LD, they are often taught with the same traditional teaching methods, such as round-robin (algorithm) round-robin - A scheduling algorithm in which processes are activated in a fixed cyclic order. Those which cannot proceed because they are waiting for some event (e.g. termination of a child process or an input/output operation) simply return control to the scheduler.  reading, basal basal /ba·sal/ (ba´s'l) pertaining to or situated near a base; in physiology, pertaining to the lowest possible level.

 reading exercises, and weekly spelling quizzes. However, these activities do not provide the structure and explicit instruction that students with LD need (Stevens Stevens, family of U.S. inventors.

John Stevens, 1749–1838, b. New York City, was graduated from King's College (now Columbia Univ.) in 1768.
 & Schuster, 1987). Unfortunately, when teachers realize that traditional approaches are not effective, they are often unaware of alternatives, sometimes leading to inappropriate use of trial-and-error techniques at the students' expense (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997). A more systematic, data-based adj. 1. relying on observation or experiment.

Adj. 1. data-based - relying on observation or experiment; "experimental results that supported the hypothesis"
observational, experimental
 approach to the selection of instructional methods must be implemented to meet the needs of students with LD (Stevens & Schuster, 1987).

When selecting instructional strategies, teachers should look for an instructional match to student behavior (Slavin, 1987), a rapid pace of delivering instruction (Carnine et al., 1997; Darch & Gersten, 1985), and advanced cuing and prompting (Englert, 1984). Additionally, teachers should provide instruction that ensures active engagement in the learning activity, high levels of success for all students, a systematic approach to introducing new concepts and operations, adequate review on a regular basis to promote mastery, and immediate feedback for correct and incorrect responses (Brophy & Good, 1986; Snell Snell , George 1903-1996.

American geneticist. He shared a 1980 Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning cell structure that enhanced understanding of the immunological system, resulting in higher success rates in organ transplantation.
, 1993). These basic principles are vital for students with and without LD. Several effective teaching strategies and practices have been developed that incorporate the principles of effective instruction, such as the response-prompting strategies of least prompts and progressive and constant time delay (Doyle Doyle   , Sir Arthur Conan 1859-1930.

British writer known chiefly for a series of stories featuring the brilliant detective Sherlock Holmes, including The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902).
, Wolery, Ault Ault as a personal name can refer to:
  • Ault Hucknall
  • Chris Ault
  • Doug Ault
  • George Ault
  • Levi Addison Ault
  • Marie Ault
  • Samuel Ault
Ault as a place name can refer to:
  • Ault, Colorado
  • Ault Park (Ontario)
  • Ault, Somme, France
, & Gast, 1988).

Both progressive time delay (PTD PTD Property Tax Division
PTD Painted (architectural)
PTD Power Transmission and Distribution
PTD Permanent Total Disability (insurance term)
PTD Participatory Technology Development
) and constant time delay (CTD CTD 1 Connective tissue disease, see there 2 Cumulative trauma disorder, see there ) are considered near-errorless learning methods by transferring stimulus control Stimulus control
We refer to stimulus control when a discriminative stimulus changes the probability of a behavior (operant response). The discriminative stimulus comes to control behavior when it predicts something about the consequences of that behavior.
 from a controlling prompt to a target stimulus stimulus /stim·u·lus/ (stim´u-lus) pl. stim´uli   [L.] any agent, act, or influence which produces functional or trophic reaction in a receptor or an irritable tissue. . In these procedures, prompts are systematically faded by inserting time between the presentation of the target stimulus and the controlling prompt (Stevens & Schuster, 1987). The difference between PTD and CTD is in the time inserted between the presentation of the target stimulus and the controlling prompt. That is, both PTD and CTD begin with a 0-second delay between the presentation of the target stimulus and the controlling prompt. After students reliably respond correctly with a O-second delay, based on a predetermined pre·de·ter·mine  
v. pre·de·ter·mined, pre·de·ter·min·ing, pre·de·ter·mines
1. To determine, decide, or establish in advance:
 number of correct trials, a set amount of time is inserted between the presentation of the target stimulus and the controlling prompt. With PTD the delay increases gradually. As students become successful with each delay, the delay gets longer. With CTD, after students are successful with 0-second delay, a fixed delay (e.g., 5 seconds) is introduced and remains throughout the instruction. The delay provides an opportunity for the student to respond before the controlling prompt is presented or to wait if unsure of the correct response (Stevens & Schuster, 1987). The time delay procedure minimizes student error and provides consistent opportunities for reinforcement reinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or  on all related correct responses (Stevens & Schuster, 1988).

Time delay was initially described by Touchette (1971), using prompting strategies to teach letter-form discrimination to adolescents with severe mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. . Since then several researchers have successfully used CTD with students with severe mental retardation (Collins, Gast, Ault, & Wolery, 1991; Collins, Schuster, & Nelson, 1992; Hall, Schuster, Wolery, Gast, & Doyle, 1992; Zhang, Gast, Horvat Horvat is a very common surname in Croatia and Slovenia, originating from Croatia Horvat is the older version of Hrvat (in English: a Croat). It may refer to:
  • Branko Horvat, economist.
, & Dattilo, 1995). In addition, CTD has been effective in teaching students with moderate mental retardation (Browder, Hines Hines   , Earl Known as "Fatha." 1905-1983.

American musician. A prominent jazz pianist for 50 years, he first gained wide recognition for his recordings with Louis Armstrong in the 1920s.
, McCarthy Mc·Car·thy   , Joseph Raymond 1908-1957.

American politician. A U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957), he presided over the permanent subcommittee on investigations and held public hearings in which he accused army officials, members of the media,
, & Fees, 1984; Chandler Chandler, city (1990 pop. 90,533), Maricopa co., S central Ariz., in the Salt River valley; inc. 1920. It is both a residential community and a center for research and technology. Tourism is also important, and the San Marcos Golf Resort is in Chandler. , Schuster, & Stevens, 1993; Gast, Winterling, Wolery, & Farmer, 1992; Griffen Griffen can mean any of the following:
  • Griffin (surname)
  • Griffen, Austria, a town in the district of Völkermarkt in Carinthia
  • Griffen Island, West Virginia
, Wolery, & Schuster, 1992; Koury & Browder, 1986; McDonnell & Ferguson Ferguson, city (1990 pop. 22,286), St. Louis co., E Mo., a suburb of St. Louis; inc. 1894. It is primarily residential. , 1989; Miller & Test, 1989; Wall & Gast, 1997) and students with mild disabilities, including learning and behavior disorders behavior disorder
1. Any of various forms of behavior that are considered inappropriate by members of the social group to which an individual belongs.

2. A functional disorder or abnormality.
 (Cybriwsky & Schuster, 1990; Keel keel

1. the ventrally directed large surface of the bird's sternum, the site of attachment of the major muscles of flight. Called also carina.

2. the prominent area over the sternum in Dachshunds.
 & Gast, 1992; Koscinski & Gast, 1993; Mattingly & Bott bott  
Variant of bot1.
, 1990; Stevens & Schuster, 1987; Winterling, 1990; Wolery, Ault, Gast, Doyle, & Mills, 1990).

Constant time delay has also been found effective in teaching numerous skills, including sight word reading (Gast, Ault, Wolery, Doyle, & Belanger Bélanger is a French surname that derives from the Old French given name Berenger, which is of Germanic origin. In the English-speaking parts of North America, Bélanger has been anglicized to Belanger or occasionally to Belonger. Belanger means "warrior" in Old French. , 1988; Koury & Browder, 1986; Wolery et al., 1990); spelling (Gast, Doyle, Wolery, Ault, & Baklarz, 1991; Johnson, 1977; Keel & Gast, 1992; Kinney, Stevens, & Schuster, 1988; Stevens & Schuster, 1987; Telecsan, Slaton, & Stevens, 1999; Winterling, 1990); multiplication multiplication, fundamental operation in arithmetic and algebra. Multiplication by a whole number can be interpreted as successive addition. For example, a number N multiplied by 3 is N + N + N.  facts (Cybriwsky & Schuster, 1990; Koscinski & Gast, 1993; Mattingly & Bott, 1990; Williams & Collins, 1994); manual sign production (Bennett, Gast, Wolery, & Schuster, 1986; Browder, Morris, & Snell, 1981; Kleinert & Gast, 1982); leisure skills (Zhang et al., 1995); and safety skills (Gast, Collins, Wolery, & Jones, 1993; Winterling, Gast, Wolery, & Farmer, 1992).

Stevens and Schuster (1987) examined the effectiveness of CTD to teach written spelling words to an 11-year-old student with a learning disability whose full-scale full-scale
1. Of actual or full size; not reduced: a full-scale model.

2. Employing all resources; not limited or partial:
 Wechsler Wechsler is a German word meaning "exchanger" (from '', "(ex)change").

Wechsler (or Wexler) may refer to:
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
  • Wexler (crater), a lunar impact crater
 Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R WISC-R Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised ) was 115, with a verbal scale score of 122 and a performance scale score of 104. This student was enrolled in a special education resource room for students with learning disabilities for four years prior to the intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant.  and was receiving special services for written expression. In addition, the student received private tutoring in written language for three years. The student had a severe spelling deficit, which qualified him for special education services.

Using a 5-s delay procedure in a tutorial An instructional book or program that takes the user through a prescribed sequence of steps in order to learn a product. Contrast with documentation, which, although instructional, tends to group features and functions by category. See tutorials in this publication.  environment, the student's tutor TUTOR - A Scripting language on PLATO systems from CDC.

["The TUTOR Language", Bruce Sherwood, Control Data, 1977].
, a certified See certification.  special education teacher, also the second author of the article, taught the student 15 spelling words divided into three sets. The procedure included an initial word screening and probe condition to assess the student's skill acquisition. Training began on the first word set with a O-s time delay between the target stimulus and the controlling prompt. After 10 trials of 0-s delay, a 5-s delay was inserted before the controlling prompt was presented. Five possible types of responses were noted during the instructional sessions: (a) correct anticipation, (b) correct wait, (c) nonwait error, (d) wait error, and (e) no-response error. Descriptions of the five types of responses are presented below in the CTD Procedures section. Acquisition criterion was established at 100% correct anticipations for 5 consecutive blocks of 10 trials each on a continuous reinforcement (CRF CRF
chronic renal failure

CRF Chronic renal failure
) schedule followed by 5 consecutive blocks of 10 trials each on a variable ratio (VR) 3 schedule. Once criterion was met for the first word set, a probe condition was implemented on the next word set. This probe procedure was repeated on the third word set once criterion was met for the second word set. The results indicated the student correctly spelled 14 out of 15 words (93.3%) and maintained the correct spelling of the words over a two-month period.

Generalization was assessed as part of both pretesting and posttesting. In both cases generalization was assessed by having the student write sentences that contained the spelling words and only checking for accuracy of the spelling words. During pretest pre·test  
a. A preliminary test administered to determine a student's baseline knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.

b. A test taken for practice.

, the student correctly spelled 1 of the 15 words (6.6%) and during the posttest post·test  
A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned.
 generalization the student correctly spelled 14 of the 15 words (93.3%). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of time delay for teaching spelling that generalizes to different tasks.

While the literature supports the effectiveness of CTD, little research has been conducted on training teachers to effectively implement the procedure. Over the last two decades, research has focused on identifying the best practices in special education, leading to a growing concern that research knowledge is not linked closely to classroom practice (Vaughn Vaughn may refer to:
  • Vaughn, New Mexico
  • Vaughn, Montana
  • Vaughn, an American hard rock band formed by ex-Tyketto members.
  • Vaughn is also a brand of ice hockey equipment, specifically goalie equipment.
, Klingner, & Hughes, 2000). For example, instructional strategies that have been effective in research implementations frequently are implemented incorrectly in the classroom (Gersten, Vaughn, Deshler Deshler is the name of some places in the United States of America:
  • Deshler, Nebraska
  • Deshler, Ohio
, & Schiller, 1997; Pressley & El-Dinary, 1997).

There are several reasons why strategies are not implemented correctly in the classroom. Teachers may not accept a new strategy; they may not have had a voice in adopting the strategy; they may not receive any training; or they may receive inadequate initial training that does not include knowledge about the strategy, or opportunities to practice the strategy in an authentic learning situation. In addition, teachers may not receive ongoing technical support with follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.



follow-up plan
 training when necessary (Pressley & El-Dinary, 1997). Training at the preservice level needs to include knowledge of the strategy and opportunities to practice this knowledge in a situation-specific environment (Blanton, 1992), otherwise, teachers are not likely to sustain the implementation over time (Fuchs Fuchs   , Klaus Emil Julius 1911-1988.

German-born physicist who worked on the development of the atomic bomb in Britain and the United States and was imprisoned (1950-1959) for passing scientific secrets to the Soviet Union.

Noun 1.
 & Fuchs, 1998; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1998).

Unfortunately, while many graduate and undergraduate teacher-training programs introduce strategies such as CTD, a gap still exists between what researchers learn and what practitioners access and use in the classroom. This may be because research often focuses on the effectiveness of the procedure being studied, with little emphasis on training in the use of the procedure. For example, while Stevens and Schuster (1987) demonstrated the effectiveness of CTD, they did not provide information on how a teacher could be trained to use CTD. (They did not need to train a teacher because the second author was already trained in CTD and served as the tutor who implemented the procedure.) Without sufficient training information it is difficult for practitioners to learn and to use research-based strategies effectively.

Only two CTD studies were identified in the literature that addressed teacher-training issues (Browder & Shear shear: see strength of materials.

A straining action wherein applied forces produce a sliding or skewing type of deformation.
, 1996; Wolery, Anthony, Snyder Snyder, city (1990 pop. 12,195), seat of Scurry co., NW Tex., in a prairie and mesquite region; inc. 1907. Oil production is the city's main industry; natural gas is also refined and processed. , Werts, & Katzenmeyer, 1997). Browder and Shear (1996) provided two training sessions to two teachers to encourage treatment integrity and obtain fluency flu·ent  
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.

 on the drill sequence. The authors provided written instructions, verbal descriptions, modeling, and role-play role-play
To assume deliberately the part or role of; act out.

. However, examples of the training were not provided, and the authors did not mention if initially the teachers were familiar with the CTD procedure. In the second study, Wolery et al. (1997) evaluated the effects of a training package for three elementary general education teachers using the CTD procedure. The package consisted of an eight-page training manual, a 30- to 45-minute individual training session, and feedback on implementation of the CTD procedure for five days. The teachers reported that the written material was helpful and the training was easy to follow. However, samples from the written materials and specific information on the CTD training procedures were not provided.

Constant time delay procedures have been implemented for a number of academic skills with a diverse student population. The body of evidence suggests these procedures are effective for teaching both academic and leisure skills to students with disabilities and to peers without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the teacher-training procedures in an effort to help close the gap between what we learn from research and what teachers are able to use in the classroom. An additional purpose was to replicate rep·li·cate
1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.

2. To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of genetic material, a cell, or an organism.

A repetition of an experiment or a procedure.
 the research on spelling conducted by Stevens and Schuster (1987). Replicating their findings would suggest that our training procedures were effective and could be used by others to achieve the same outcomes as Stevens and Schuster.



The resource teacher participating in this study had been teaching in the special education classroom for six years at the participating middle school in northeast Georgia Georgia, country, Asia
Georgia (jôr`jə), Georgian Sakartvelo, Rus. Gruziya, officially Republic of Georgia, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,677,000), c.26,900 sq mi (69,700 sq km), in W Transcaucasia.
. Overall, she had 10 years' experience in special education and was certified in behavior disorders and interrelated in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.

 special education. She was working on her master's degree master's degree
An academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete at least one year of prescribed study beyond the bachelor's degree.

Noun 1.
 in special education. Her preparation as a special education teacher consisted of course-work course-work

said of a postgraduate degree based on lectures and practical work in courses rather than research.
 relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 theoretical and foundational elements of special education instruction, assessment and instructional methodologies, and practical experiences. She had no prior knowledge of or training on the CTD procedure.

A 12-year-old, sixth-grade male from a lower socio-economic socio-economic adjsocioeconómico

socio-economic adjsocioéconomique 
 family also participated in the study. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the Kauffman Battery of Intelligence Tests (KBIT See kilobit. ) (Kauffman & Kauffman, 1990), the student's IQ composite was 90. His performance on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (Wechsler, 1991) for basic reading was 76, math reasoning 96, spelling 75, reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%.  68, and the reading and writing composite was 70. His strengths appeared to be in math composite, with weaknesses in basic reading and writing skills. The student had been enrolled in a special education resource room for students with LD since the third grade. At the time of the study, he spent two hours per day in the resource room receiving instruction in reading, writing, and spelling.

Prior to this investigation, the special education teacher was using a traditional approach to spelling consisting of teacher-directed instruction (e.g., sound-symbol correspondence, word patterns, rhyming rhyme also rime  
1. Correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of verse.

a. A poem or verse having a regular correspondence of sounds, especially at the ends of lines.

 patterns, vowel-changing patterns, dictionary skills, and word usage) (Heron, Okyere, & Miller, 1991). Students received spelling instruction 15 minutes per day (Monday Monday: see week.  through Thursday Thursday: see week. ) and took a spelling test A spelling test is an assessment of a person's (usually a student's) ability to spell words correctly. Spelling tests are usually given in school during language arts class, to see how well each student has learned the most recent spelling lesson.  during the second half of class on Thursday. A typical spelling lesson involved introducing approximately 12 words on Monday. The teacher visually displayed each word on the chalkboard and pronounced each word. Students worked independently on copying the words three times each, alphabetizing the word list, using the spelling words in sentences, and completing crossword puzzles crossword puzzle, word game in which words corresponding to numbered clues are put into a grid of horizontal and vertical squares to form intersecting words. The puzzle is solved when a player supplies all of the words correctly.  and word search puzzles puz·zle  
v. puz·zled, puz·zling, puz·zles
1. To baffle or confuse mentally by presenting or being a difficult problem or matter.

. A spelling review game was conducted at the beginning of Thursday's class prior to the spelling test. The class was divided into two competing teams and students took turns orally spelling words dictated dic·tate  
v. dic·tat·ed, dic·tat·ing, dic·tates
1. To say or read aloud to be recorded or written by another: dictate a letter.

 by the teacher. Students who spelled their words correctly were given the opportunity to shoot a foam ball into a basket for additional points. The winning team members were rewarded with praise and applause from the opposing team. The spelling tests were conducted after the review game. Here the special education teacher dictated the 12 words to the entire class and used each word in a sentence while the students wrote each word on paper. Students exchanged papers with another student and scored correct and incorrect responses as the teacher repeated dictation of each word and orally spelled and wrote each word on the chalkboard.


Instruction took place in the sixth-grade special education resource classroom, which included one special education teacher with eight students classified as having LD, behavior disorders (BD), of mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The CTD procedure was implemented at a table (2.5 x 6 feet) located on the left side of the classroom (25 x 30 feet). The teacher was seated directly across from the student, facing him and the other class members to monitor behaviors. The students who were not participating in this study were engaged in independent academic tasks or center activities related to the language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school.
 curriculum while the target student received special training.


Training materials for CTD included 3 x 5 inch white unruled Un`ruled´

a. 1. Not governed or controlled.
2. Not ruled or marked with lines; as, unruled paper s>.
 index cards with the target words printed in black marker marker /mark·er/ (mahrk´er) something that identifies or that is used to identify.

tumor marker
 in lower-case manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.  letters. Time delay data sheets (see Appendix A) were provided for the teacher, and a stack of lined paper strips (8 cm x 21.5 cm) and pencils were provided for the student to print his responses.


Teacher training procedures. Prior to any formal training, the teacher was given a copy of Stevens and Schuster's Schuster's, officially Ed. Schuster & Co., now defunct, was a popular department store chain in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The chain opted for neighborhood stores over a downtown location.  (1987, 1988) articles on time delay procedures to introduce the concepts. After the teacher had read the articles, the researcher conducted two training sessions where she answered the teacher's questions about CTD procedures and described the steps for using CTD with 0-s and 5-s delay intervals. The researcher then role-played the procedures with the teacher to demonstrate the correct wait and anticipated responses using the lesson plan for zero-second and nonzero-second delay trials from Stevens and Schuster (1988). These lesson plans provided an exact script for the teacher to follow in implementing the CTD procedure.

After the researcher demonstrated the procedure with a set of five words, the teacher practiced implementing the CTD with the researcher taking the role of a student. The teacher was instructed to count silently 1000-1, 1000-2, and so on, to the count of 5 to consistently wait the 5-s time delay. An additional count of 5 was implemented after the presentation of the controlling prompt to allow a total of 10 seconds for completed written responses. Specific directions and demonstrations were provided on data-collection techniques and recording the correct and incorrect wait and anticipated responses using the time delay data sheet developed by Stevens and Schuster (1988). To provide practice, the researcher sometimes responded correctly and at other times incorrectly both as anticipations and as waits. Role-playing role-play·ing
A psychotherapeutic technique, designed to reduce the conflict inherent in various social situations, in which participants act out particular behavioral roles in order to expand their awareness of differing points of view.
 sessions with the researcher as student continued until the teacher demonstrated mastery of the CTD procedures.

A teacher behavioral check sheet (see Appendix B) was used to determine the teacher's accuracy in implementing the time delay procedures during role-play. Once the teacher reached 100% consistency during two consecutive role-play sessions, a student was selected to practice with the teacher. The student functioned at a similar level in spelling as the identified participant of this study to provide the teacher with a more authentic practice session. Again, the teacher behavioral check sheet was used to determine accuracy in following the time delay procedures while working with a student. Once the teacher reached 100% consistency on the procedures with the student during two consecutive role-plays, experimental conditions were implemented with the student participating in the study.

Screening. A screening test was conducted prior to the study to identify 15 target words from the Herman Herman

only goal in life becomes winning at cards. [Russ. Opera: Tchaikovsky, Queen of Spades, Westerman, 401]

See : Obsessiveness
 Reading Series (Herman, 1930), as the target student was receiving reading instruction from this curriculum. Seventy-five words from lessons the student had not yet encountered were originally selected from this series. During each of three screening sessions, the teacher dictated all 75 words to the student. A correct response was defined as the student correctly printing the word on a strip of paper. The teacher's request remained consistent with the command "Spell <insert target word here>." Corrective cor·rec·tive
Counteracting or modifying what is malfunctioning, undesirable, or injurious.

An agent that corrects.

 feedback and praise were not given during the screening of the words. When the student incorrectly spelled a word during all three screening sessions, the word was considered appropriate for training. Using this procedure, 48 words were identified as appropriate for training. From those 48 words 15 were selected randomly and placed into Set A, Set B, or Set C. Table 1 lists the targeted words in their assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.


Probe procedures. Three probe sessions were conducted after the word screening and before instruction on the first word set. In order to assess maintenance of the instructed words and to identify any change in the uninstructed words, three probe sessions were conducted of all 15 words (three word sets) after the student reached criterion for each word set. During probe trials the teacher gave the task request "Spell <insert target word here>" and the student printed the word on an individual paper strip. Correct responses were recorded when the student correctly spelled the target word on the strip of paper within 10 seconds after presentation of the task request. A response was also correct when the student initially misspelled a word, but self-corrected it within 10 seconds. Errors were recorded on the data sheet when the student incorrectly spelled the target word on the strip of paper. An error was also recorded when the student did not complete the spelling of the target word within 10 seconds after presentation of the task request "Spell <insert target word here>" or did not attempt to spell the target word. During the probe sessions, reinforcement in the form of verbal praise was provided for correct responses, incorrect responses were ignored and the next trial was immediately presented to the student.

Constant time delay procedures. Instruction on the first word set was provided after the screening and three probe sessions with all three word sets (15 words). One instructional session occurred each day, Tuesday Tuesday: see week.  through Friday Friday: see Sabbath; week.


young Indian rescued by Crusoe and kept as servant and companion. [Br. Lit.: Robinson Crusoe]

See : Servant
, every week. An average instructional session consisted of 20 training trials during which the five words in a set were presented at least four times. Each time the five words were presented, they were shuffled before being presented again. During the initial instructional sessions, a O-s time delay was presented. The task request ("Spell <insert target word here>") was presented to the student, followed immediately by the controlling prompt (i.e., the word card). Criterion for mastery was 100% correct for four consecutive sessions. Subsequent sessions for that word set were presented at a 5-s delay, using the task request "Spell <insert target word here>."

Five types of student responses were recorded on the time delay data sheet (see Appendix A). A correct anticipated response was recorded when the student began to print the word before the controlling prompt was presented and correctly spelled the target word within 10 seconds after presentation of the task request. A correct wait response was recorded when the student wrote a word correctly after the controlling prompt was presented, provided he finished writing the word within 10 seconds after the presentation of the task request. Error responses were recorded as nonwait, wait, or no response. A nonwait error was recorded when the student printed the word incorrectly before the controlling prompt was presented. A wait error was recorded when the student printed the target word incorrectly after the controlling prompt was presented. Finally, a no-response error was recorded when the student did not attempt to print the word within 10 seconds following the presentation of the task request.

All correct responses were immediately followed by descriptive verbal praise (e.g., "excellent spelling" or "correct spelling") on a CRF schedule. Nonwait errors were followed by the teacher saying, "Wait for the word card if you don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)

"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party.
." Wait errors were followed by the teacher saying, "Look at the card carefully." Once the student reached 100% correct anticipations on all trials for two consecutive sessions, a variable-ratio (VR) 3 schedule of reinforcement was implemented on that word set. Under the V[R.sub.3] schedule, an average of every three correct responses was reinforced. The criterion for mastery for each word set was 100% correct anticipations for three consecutive sessions on a V[R.sub.3] schedule. Three probe sessions were implemented before training began on the next word set.

Maintenance procedures. Maintenance was assessed during the probe sessions before and after training on each word set. Probes occurred throughout the study to demonstrate maintenance of instructed words and no acquisition of uninstructed words.

Generalization procedures. Generalization across tasks was assessed for each word set one week after the student had reached criterion for that word set. The second observer dictated five sentences containing the target words from the word set just mastered. The student wrote the sentences, but only the target spelling words in these sentences were scored. This procedure was repeated after mastery of each word set.

A second assessment of generalization was conducted two weeks after the student reached criterion on the third word set. The special education teacher dictated 15 sentences containing the target words from all three word sets. While the student wrote entire sentences, only the spelling of the target word in each sentence was scored.

Experimental Design

The experimental design was a multiple-probe design across behaviors. This design, used by Stevens and Schuster (1987), is most appropriate to test the effectiveness of the time delay procedure with three functionally similar yet independent behaviors of the same participant in the same setting (Richards Rich·ards , Dickinson Woodruff 1895-1973.

American physician. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for developing cardiac catheterization.
, Taylor Taylor, city (1990 pop. 70,811), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit adjacent to Dearborn; founded 1847 as a township, inc. as a city 1968. A small rural village until World War II, it developed significantly in the second half of the 20th cent. , Ramasamy, & Richards, 1999).

Interobserver Agreement

Reliability checks were conducted by the primary author familiar with the time delay procedures. Checks occurred at least once per week throughout the study, for approximately 40% of the sessions in each phase. The second observer recorded each student response as correct or incorrect and then compared each with the teacher's record of correct and incorrect responses. Interobserver agreement was calculated using a point-by-point method (Tawney Noun 1. Tawney - English economist remembered for his studies of the development of capitalism (1880-1962)
Richard Henry Tawney
 & Gast, 1984) in which the number of agreements was divided by the number of agreements plus disagreements and multiplied mul·ti·ply 1  
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.

2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on.
 by 100.

Treatment Integrity

Data were collected on treatment integrity for approximately 25% of the sessions in each phase. The following teacher behaviors were assessed on each trial: presenting the discriminative dis·crim·i·na·tive  
1. Drawing distinctions.

2. Marked by or showing prejudice: discriminative hiring practices.
 stimuli, waiting the specified response interval before delivering the controlling prompt during the 0-s and 5-s time delay, recording correct and incorrect responses, and delivering reinforcement according to the predetermined schedule (see Appendix B). On each trial the teacher was to complete four planned behaviors for a total of 80 planned behaviors across 20 trials. Treatment integrity was calculated by dividing the number of observed teacher behaviors by the number of planned behaviors (80) and multiplying mul·ti·ply 1  
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.

2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on.
 by 100.

Social Validity

Prior to implementation of the study, a social validity questionnaire was completed by the special education teacher and the student to examine their satisfaction level with the current spelling instruction. The special education teacher independently completed the questionnaire prior to receiving information on the CTD procedure (see Appendix C). For the student, the researcher read the questions and wrote his responses to ensure clarity of the questions and accuracy of the responses. The teacher and student questionnaires differed slightly in the wording of the questions to reflect their roles in the CTD procedure. Specifically, the teacher's version focused on the teacher's perceptions of how well students were benefiting from the spelling lessons and on her willingness to learn new strategies. The student questionnaire consisted of five questions relating to his perception of his spelling ability and his satisfaction with his current spelling instruction.

After the final generalization session, the special education teacher independently completed the teacher's revised version Revised Version
A British and American revision of the King James Version of the Bible, completed in 1885.

Revised Version
 of the questionnaire that reflected her satisfaction with the CTD procedure and her willingness to continue using CTD (see Appendix D). The researcher read a revised social validity questionnaire to the student to reflect his satisfaction with the CTD procedure.


The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a teacher-training procedure on the implementation of constant time delay; therefore, treatment integrity data are presented first. To calculate treatment integrity, the second observer recorded the teacher's behaviors in relation to the procedural specifications during 25% of the sessions. A procedural data sheet listed six specific teacher behaviors, including presenting correct word with task request, waiting zero seconds before presenting the controlling prompt, waiting five seconds before presenting the controlling prompt, recording correct responses, recording incorrect responses, and reinforcing according to the predetermined schedule. For each trial the teacher needed to complete four of these behaviors. To calculate treatment integrity, the secondary observer recorded the presence or absence of these behaviors across all trials in the observation. The teacher followed the procedural specifications with 100% accuracy.

A secondary purpose of the study was to replicate the CTD research conducted by Stevens and Schuster (1987) as a test of the effectiveness of our teacher-training procedures. Figure 1 presents the probe, instructional, and generalization data across word sets, recording the percentage of correct responses (anticipations and waits) for each session. During Probe I the student did not spell any words correctly. Training began on Set A words implementing a O-s time delay. The student reached 100% criterion for four consecutive sessions in six sessions. During the 5-s time delay, criterion was met at 100% anticipations on two consecutive sessions with the CRF schedule in four sessions. During the V[R.sub.3] schedule, the student reached criterion at 100% for three consecutive sessions in the first three sessions.


Probe II, conducted for Sets A, B, and C, revealed a maintained 100% correct for Set A, and 0% correct for Sets Band C. With O-s delay, the student reached 100% criterion on Set B for four consecutive sessions in five sessions. During the 5-s time delay, criterion was reached at 100% on two consecutive sessions with the CRF schedule in three sessions. With the V[R.sub.3] schedule, the student reached criterion of 100% for three consecutive sessions in the first three sessions.

Probe III was conducted for Sets A, B, and C; this revealed an average of 98.3% (95% to 100%) for Set A, 100% for Set B, and 0% for Set C. With O-s delay, the student reached 100% criterion for four consecutive sessions in the first four sessions on Set C. During the 5-s time delay procedure the student's initial performance ranged from 15% to 95% during the week prior to spring break. The student reached criterion at 100% on two consecutive sessions the first two sessions after spring break. During the V[R.sub.3] schedule, the student reached criterion at 100% for three consecutive sessions in the first three sessions.

In the final probe condition, Probe IV, the student correctly spelled each word set with a mean accuracy rate of 93.3% (80% to 100). While he failed to maintain 100% accuracy for all three word sets, he demonstrated a significant improvement in his spelling performance compared to the initial probes prior to the time delay instruction.


Maintenance on each word set was assessed throughout the study during probe sessions. The student maintained an average of 97.2% (80% to 100%) on Set A as demonstrated in Probes II, III, and IV after training. The student maintained an average of 96.7% (80% to 100%) on Set B during Probes III and IV. The average for Set C was 93.3% (80% to 100%) as demonstrated from Probe IV.


Generalization across tasks was assessed one week after the student reached criterion for each word set. The student correctly spelled 80% (four out of five), 60% (three out of five), and 100% of word Sets A, B, and C, respectively. A final generalization across tasks was assessed for all three word sets two weeks after reaching criterion for Set C. The student correctly spelled 100% of the words from Sets A and C, and 80% of the words from Set B.

Efficiency Data

Efficiency data are summarized in Table 2, which presents the number of sessions to criterion for each word set, the number of trials to criterion, the number of errors, and the amount of instructional time for each word set. The number of sessions to criterion totaled 37, the minimum number of sessions necessary to reach criterion was 27 (9 for each word set). The student learned Set A in 260 trials with four errors and Set B in 220 trials, also with four errors. While he took the most trials to learn Set C (285), he did not make any errors while learning this set. The total amount of instructional time to criterion on all three word sets was 6 hours and 20 minutes. For Sets A and B, each of the five words was presented four times each session. For Set C, the five words were presented five times each session during the initial 5-s condition (CRF). The subsequent sessions presented the five words four times each session. This additional practice was warranted, because of the interruption INTERRUPTION. The effect of some act or circumstance which stops the course of a prescription or act of limitation's.
     2. Interruption of the use of a thing is natural or civil.
 of spring break during Set C.

Interobserver Agreement

Interobserver agreement was calculated using a point-by-point method (Tawney & Gast, 1984) in which the number of agreements was divided by the number of agreements plus disagreements and multiplied by 100. The primary and secondary observer recorded 100% agreement in the data-recording procedures across 40% of the sessions in each phase.

Social Validity

Prior to the investigation, the teacher noted she was satisfied with her current spelling lessons, but she was always willing to try new approaches. She indicated that her students retained the spelling words only long enough for the test and that there was no generalization. The teacher also commented that her students were well below grade level in their spelling abilities and could possibly benefit from a different approach. The student reported that he was not a good speller Noun 1. good speller - someone who spells words
poor speller, speller

writer - a person who is able to write and has written something
 and could not spell as well as the other students in the class. But he indicated that he enjoyed the current spelling lessons that involved segmenting and sound blending of words. He also noted that he thought there was a better way to learn how to spell and was willing to try a new approach.

At the conclusion of the investigation, the teacher reported she was very pleased with the outcome and was surprised at how easy the CTD procedure was to implement. Furthermore, she planned to continue to use the procedure and to include more students during the spelling sessions. The student indicated he was a good speller and could spell better than anyone in the class. He reported that he enjoyed the new spelling lessons because he received a lot of attention and praise from the teacher. Additionally, he felt better about himself because he did not make many errors in spelling.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the teacher-training procedures in an effort to help close the gap between what we learn from research and what teachers are able to use in the classroom. An additional purpose was to replicate the research on spelling conducted by Stevens and Schuster (1987) as a means of demonstrating that our training procedures were effective and could be used by others.

A unique component addressed in this study is the teacher-training procedure. Previous studies have reported very little about the training procedures involved in preparing teachers to implement time delay procedures. Reporting teacher-training procedures provides important information for replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.

There are various replication methods.
, for addressing the challenges of implementing research-based procedures in classroom settings, and for reducing the gap between research and practice. The teacher-training procedures used in this study included written information on constant time delay (the 1987 and 1988 Stevens & Schuster articles), question-and-answer opportunities throughout two training sessions, and three levels of role-playing. While Browder and Shear (1996) reported role-playing as part of their teacher training, they did not offer any specifics about the role-playing procedures.

In this study the researcher first role-played with the teacher as student. Afterwards af·ter·ward   also af·ter·wards
At a later time; subsequently.

afterwards or afterward

later [Old English æfterweard]

Adv. 1.
, they switched roles, and finally, the teacher role-played with a student whose spelling skills were similar to those of the participant in this study. In each of the role-playing situations, practice continued until 100% criterion was met on the teacher behavior check sheet during each training session. The total training time was approximately one hour per session for two training sessions. These training procedures resulted in 100% accuracy on treatment integrity observed during 25% of the sessions. Teacher training is a time-consuming time-con·sum·ing
Taking up much time.


taking up a great deal of time

Adj. 1.
 process, and strategies requiring a great deal of training time are often avoided in staff development programs. The ease with which the procedure was taught and successfully implemented suggests that it may offer options for other teachers and other content areas in both special and general education classrooms.

The results of this study indicate the 5-s CTD procedure was effective in teaching the student to spell 15 target words. These results are consistent with those of the Stevens and Schuster (1987) study, in which 14 out of 15 target words were learned. In addition, correct responding was maintained over time and generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

 to another task. These findings suggest that the training procedure outlined above is effective in preparing a teacher to use CTD.

This study revealed findings on skill acquisition that are similar to those found by Stevens and Schuster (1987). The main difference between the two studies is the number of sessions to reach criterion under the two different reinforcement schedules. After the 0-s delay, both studies required 100 trials to criterion. Stevens and Schuster required 100% correct anticipations for five consecutive blocks of 10 trials on a CRF schedule, followed by 5 consecutive blocks of 10 trials on a V[R.sub.3] schedule. By comparison, the current study required 100% correct anticipations for two consecutive sessions of 20 trials each on a CRF schedule, followed by 100% correct anticipations for three consecutive sessions of 20 trials each on a V[R.sub.3] schedule. During generalization, the Stevens and Schuster (1987) study reported the student spelled 93.3% of the words (14/15) correctly in a posttest session. The current study reported 80%, 60%, and 100%, respectively, across word sets during the initial generalization and 93.3% of the words during the final generalization session.

The modeling provided by the time delay procedure resulted in a low percentage of errors during practice. While learning Set C, the student did not make any errors, and he only made four errors while learning each of the other word sets. This is particularly significant to the student in this study because of his long history of spelling errors and academic failure. At the completion of the study he expressed a positive outlook on his spelling skills and commented that he enjoyed the program and was encouraged by the positive remarks from his teacher. His reaction supports Cybriwsky and Schuster's (1990) finding that correct responses followed by positive teacher interactions for reinforcement are highly motivating for students.

As noted in the efficiency data, it took our student 6 hours and 20 minutes to master the 15 words. Given his history of difficulty learning to spell, the teacher was pleased that he was able to learn the words in that amount of time with so few errors. In addition, she also was pleased with the time delay procedure because of the minimal teacher preparation and the ease of implementing the procedure in the classroom setting. These reactions are all similar to results cited by Keel, Dangel Dangel is a French specialist automobile company based in Sentheim, Alsace. It has produced 4x4 versions of Citroën and Peugeot vehicles since 1980. Its first conversion was the Peugeot 504. , and Owens Owens, river, c.120 mi (190 km) long, rising in the Sierra Nevada, E Calif., SE of Yosemite National Park and flowing SE, to enter Owens Lake, near Mt. Whitney. Since 1913, at a point c.  (1999), Stevens and Schuster (1987), and Wolery and Gast (1984).

The added advantage of minimal teacher preparation supports Stevens and Schuster's (1987) and Wolery and Gast's (1984) findings. Preparation generally includes a set of flash cards used throughout the probe and training sessions and a data sheet for record keeping. The minimal preparation time is beneficial to both special and general education teachers because of their limited planning time.

While Stevens and Schuster (1987) demonstrated the effectiveness of CTD to teach written spelling words, they did not train a teacher in the use of CTD as the second author served as the tutor in their study. In order to put effective instructional procedures in the hands of teachers in a way that allows them to successfully implement them, it is important that research reports not only the effectiveness of instructional procedures, but also how to train teachers in using them. As noted earlier, instructional strategies that have been effective in research studies frequently are implemented incorrectly in the classroom (Gersten et al., 1997; Pressley & El-Dinary, 1997).

To ensure effective implementation, we need to know how to train teachers. Only two studies were found that included information about training teachers to conduct CTD; however, neither provided sufficient training information to allow replication. This study extends the knowledge base on CTD by including a specific teacher-training procedure that successfully prepared a teacher naive naive - Untutored in the perversities of some particular program or system; one who still tries to do things in an intuitive way, rather than the right way (in really good designs these coincide, but most designs aren't "really good" in the appropriate sense).  about CTD. The effectiveness of the teacher-training procedure is evident in that the findings are similar to those of Stevens and Schuster (1987), who directly implemented the CTD procedure rather than teaching it to a classroom teacher.

One common problem with learning new procedures is that teachers often do not sustain the implementation over time (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1998; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1998). Follow-up with the teacher in this study revealed that she continues to use CTD to teach spelling to other students with learning disabilities, as well as students with behavior disorders and students with mild intellectual disorders. Additionally, she has plans to use CTD to teach multiplication facts to small groups of students within an inclusive classroom setting. When teachers are well trained in a procedure and the procedure is effective, they are more likely to continue to use it.


The results of this study and other research cited throughout this article indicate that the constant time delay procedures are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities. While the procedures were effective for teaching spelling words to this student, generalization of the results is limited due to the inclusion of only one participant. Future studies should involve more than one student in both individual and small-group situations.

Another limitation of the study involves maintenance of the words learned. The final probe sessions were conducted following the acquisition of the third word set to monitor skill acquisition on all word sets. Further follow-up on acquisition of the spelling words would strengthen our confidence in the long-term Long-term

Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.


1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term.
 effects of the time delay procedure. Unfortunately, due to end-of-school-year time restraints, a long-term follow-up was not possible.


The results of this study provide several implications for future research. For teacher training in the CTD procedures, implications include examining the effectiveness of these teacher-training procedures with a group of teachers. In addition, future research should investigate the effectiveness of training general education teachers in the use of CTD, and possibly having teachers train students to implement CTD with each other.

Implications for future research in CTD to teach spelling include an examination of the effectiveness of the procedure for students with LD in the general education classroom. Future studies should also determine if five sessions of 10 trials each are as effective as five sessions of 20 trials each for learning spelling words (Cuvo, Ashley For use as a person's name, see .
Ashley may refer to: Places
  • Ashley, New South Wales
United Kingdom
  • Ashley, Cambridgeshire
  • Ashley, Cheshire
  • Ashli, Cyprus
  • Ashley, Devon
  • Ashley, Dorset
, Marso, Zhang, & Fry, 1995). Further, additional research needs to determine if reaching the criterion of two consecutive sessions of 100% correct during the 5-s delay with CRF is sufficient. After meeting this criterion, our student did not make any errors. This suggests that the requirement of three consecutive sessions at 100% correct during V[R.sub.3] may be unnecessary and that CTD has the potential to be more efficient than demonstrated in this study.

APPENDIX A: Time Delay Data Sheet


APPENDIX B: Teacher Behavioral Check Sheet


APPENDIX C: Social Validity Questionnaire


1. Are you satisfied with your spelling lessons?

2. Do you think your students learn how to spell words from your lessons?

3. Would you like to learn a new strategy in spelling?

4. Do you think your students would benefit from a different approach to spelling?

5. Are your students making progress in spelling?

6. Are your students at grade level in their spelling?


1. Do you think you are a good speller?

2. Do you enjoy the spelling lessons in class?

3. Do you think there is a better way to learn how to spell?

4. Would you like to learn another way to be a better speller spell·er  
1. One who spells words: students who are good spellers.

2. An elementary textbook containing exercises that teach spelling.

Noun 1.

5. Do you spell as well as others in your class?

APPENDIX D: Revised Social Validity Questionnaire


1. Were you satisfied with the CTD spelling lessons?

2. Do you think your student learned how to spell words from the CTD lessons?

3. Are you pleased with the student's spelling ability after the CTD lessons?

4. Would you continue to use the CTD with other students in your class?

5. Were you satisfied with the training you received on CTD?

6. Were the CTD sessions manageable in your classroom setting?


1. Do you think you are a good speller?

2. Do you enjoy the spelling lessons in class?

3. Do you spell as well as others in your class?

4. Did you enjoy the spelling lessons with the printed cards?

5. Would you like to continue your spelling lessons with the printed cards?
Table 1
Targeted Spelling Words

Set A      Set B   Set C

begin      trap    best
touch      bench   must
hospital   print   lunch
never      shelf   trust
gift       chips   important
Table 2
Sessions, Trials, Errors, and Instructional Time to Criterion for
Each Word Set

Word Set   Sessions   Trials   Errors   Time (hr:min.)

Set A         13       260       4           2:10
Set B         11       220       4           1:50
Set C         13       285       0           2:20
Total         37       765       8           6:20
Mean          12.3     255       2.66        2:07


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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: MacMillan Macmillan, river, c.200 mi (320 km) long, rising in two main forks in the Selwyn Mts., E Yukon Territory, Canada, and flowing generally W to the Pelly River. It was an important route to the gold fields from c.1890 to 1900.  Publishing.

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1. Often Offensive Affected with mental retardation.

2. Occurring or developing later than desired or expected; delayed.
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This concept is an extremely powerful and versatile programming tool, because it allows programmers to modify certain steps of a library procedure in arbitrarily complicated ways,
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Under Workers' Compensation statutes, a risk is deemed incidental to employment when it is related to whatever a
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1. A group of three.

2. Music A chord of three tones, especially one built on a given root tone plus a major or minor third and a perfect fifth.

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Observational learning (also known as: vicarious learning or social learning or modeling) is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others.
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In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order,
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Errorless learning is a procedure introduced by Herbert Terrace (1963) which allows discrimination learning to occur with few or even with no responses to the negative stimulus (abbreviated S-).
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Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.

A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager.
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  • the act of washing clothing and textiles
  • the room of a house in which this is done
History of laundry
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     2. In law, the singular frequently includes the plural.
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A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.

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[Medieval Latin chor
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Requests for reprints should be addressed to: Trudie Hughes, College of Education, Georgia State University History
Georgia State University was founded in 1913 as the Georgia School of Technology's "School of Commerce." The school focused on what was called "the new science of business.
, Atlanta, GA 30303.

TRUDIE A. HUGHES is a doctoral student and temporary instructor, Georgia State University.

LAURA Laura, subject of the love poems of Petrarch. She is thought to be Laura de Noves (1308?–1348), wife of Hugo de Sade, but this has not been proved.


Petrarch’s perpetual, unattainable love. [Ital. Lit.
 D. FREDRICK, Ph.D., is associate professor, Georgia State University.

* MARIE Marie (mərē`), 1875–1938, queen of Romania, consort of Ferdinand. The daughter of Alfred, duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, she was the granddaughter of Czar Alexander II of Russia and of Queen Victoria of England.  C. KEEL, Ph.D., was an associate professor, Georgia State University. She passed away before the publication of this article.
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Author:Keel, Marie C.
Publication:Learning Disability Quarterly
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 22, 2002
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