Leadership development and clergy: understanding the events and lessons that shape pastoral leaders.While much work has been done in understanding the developmental journey of leaders in secular organizations, there is limited empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" investigating the key experiences in the pastoral pastoral, literary work in which the shepherd's life is presented in a conventionalized manner. In this convention the purity and simplicity of shepherd life is contrasted with the corruption and artificiality of the court or the city. leader's journey and the associated lessons emerging from these events. One hundred pastors were interviewed about the key events in their development as leaders. Content analysis was used to develop detailed taxonomies of the key developmental events in their careers and of the lessons that emerged from each of these events. The results indicated that, consistent with past research on business leaders, the preponderance pre·pon·der·ance also pre·pon·der·an·cy
Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence.
Noun 1. preponderance of developmental experiences occurred in-the-trenches (32%), during times of significant transition (27%), or in personal relationships (23%), indicating that pastors develop as they are doing their work and leading on the edge of their comfort zones. Results also indicated that events were tied to predictable sets of lessons. Implications for pastors, denominational de·nom·i·na·tion
1. A large group of religious congregations united under a common faith and name and organized under a single administrative and legal hierarchy.
2. leadership, and seminaries are discussed.
Studies over the last two decades have indicated that most business leadership development happens as leaders are doing their work and facing the trial-by-fire challenges that come with the job of the leader (McCall, Lombardo Lombardo (lōmbär`dō), Italian family of sculptors and architects. Emigrants from Lombardy c.1470, they were leaders in the architectural Renaissance in Venice.
Pietro Lombardo, c. & Morrison Mor·ris·on , Toni Originally Chloe Anthony Wofford. Born 1931.
American writer who won the 1993 Nobel Prize for literature. Her novels, such as Sula (1973) and Beloved (1987), examine the experiences of African Americans. , 1988; McCall, 1998; Robinson & Wick, 1992). The most significant experiences tend to be events that put the leaders under pressure and adversity ad·ver·si·ty
n. pl. ad·ver·si·ties
1. A state of hardship or affliction; misfortune.
2. A calamitous event. , while also providing some of the most salient developmental lessons of their careers (McCauley, Ruderman, Ohlott, & Morrow mor·row
1. The following day: resolved to set out on the morrow.
2. The time immediately subsequent to a particular event.
3. Archaic The morning. , 1994; McKenna McKenna is usually a surname, and may refer to
Acquired or learned while working at a job: on-the-job training.
Adj. 1. on-the-job experiences as developmental turning points for leaders.
Currently, even less is known about how pastoral leaders develop and the types of lessons that emerge from significant pastoral leadership experiences. Like businesses, churches tend to rely on initial formal training to provide the primary development for pastors. Once pastors are in charge of a church, relatively few ongoing programs exist to support their continued development. Little is known about the continuing development of pastors as they move through different developmental stages as leaders.
Pastoral research has tended to focus on other topics, like the outcomes of leadership development (e.g., Fishburn Fishburn is a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated a few miles to the west of Hartlepool.
The village lies scattered along a dry swell of limestone rising north from the river Skerne (known locally as the "beck") to approx. 500 ft above sea level. & Hamilton Hamilton, city, Bermuda
Hamilton, city (1990 est. pop. 3,100), capital of Bermuda, on Bermuda Island. It is a port at the head of Great Sound, a huge lagoon and deepwater harbor protected by coral reefs. , 1989; Nauss, 1994, 1995). For example, a significant amount of research has addressed the topic of pastoral effectiveness with the goal of identifying the dimensions of effective pastoral leadership. This research sought to uncover congregational con·gre·ga·tion·al
1. Of or relating to a congregation.
2. Congregational Of or relating to Congregationalism or Congregationalists.
Adj. 1. expectations for pastors (Lichtman Lichtman is the surname of several people:
n (Meek meek
adj. meek·er, meek·est
1. Showing patience and humility; gentle.
2. Easily imposed on; submissive. et al., 2003). While some research has investigated the predictors of pastoral effectiveness and the competencies necessary to lead effectively in a large church setting (McKenna, 2005), there is very little known about how these competencies are developed and what causes some pastors to learn while others do not.
The job of a senior pastor can be very challenging (Hall, 1997; Kuhne & Donaldson People
People whose family name is or was Donaldson include:
Depletion of a tax shelter's benefits. In the context of mortgage backed securities it refers to the percentage of the pool that has prepaid their mortgage. , including emotional exhaustion Emotional exhaustion is a chronic state of physical and emotional depletion that results from excessive job demands and continuous hassles. it describes feeling of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by one's work. , depersonalization depersonalization /de·per·son·al·iza·tion/ (de-per?sun-al-i-za´shun) alteration in the perception of self so that the usual sense of one's own reality is temporarily lost or changed; it may be a manifestation of a neurosis or another , and reduced personal accomplishment (Evers Ev·ers , Medgar Wiley 1925-1963.
American civil rights worker in Mississippi who was killed by a sniper soon after the broadcast of a pro-civil rights speech by President John F. Kennedy. & Tomic, 2003). The researchers suggested that this propensity toward burnout may be driven by the extreme pressures of pastoral work, limited social and peer support for some pastors, and the ambiguity Ambiguity
ultimate authority in ancient Greece; often speaks in ambiguous terms. [Gk. Hist.: Leach, 305]
pledge to husband has double meaning. [Arth. inherent in the role of the pastor.
On top of this, the pastor's job is not static. Pastors are expected to perform a wide variety of tasks (Kuhne & Donaldson, 1995), and their effectiveness is evaluated according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. how well they deal with this broad range of responsibilities. Ministers must be able to use a wide variety of leadership skills across multiple functions in a variety of contexts (Nauss, 1994, 1995). Lichtman and Malony (1990) use the word "generalist gen·er·al·ist
A physician whose practice is not oriented in a specific medical specialty but instead covers a variety of medical problems.
generalist " when describing the ideal ministerial Done under the direction of a supervisor; not involving discretion or policymaking.
Ministerial describes an act or a function that conforms to an instruction or a prescribed procedure. It connotes obedience. style, also concluding that pastors need to be "flexible" and "participative" to be most effective for the church. Fishburn and Hamilton (1989) concluded that effective ministers are willing to seek help in areas where they require additional skill or knowledge. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , they are expected to develop their skills in demonstrable de·mon·stra·ble
1. Capable of being demonstrated or proved: demonstrable truths.
2. Obvious or apparent: demonstrable lies. ways over time.
For pastors, leadership may not be captured in either doing what is right or doing the right thing, but may be more effectively captured in significant life events that have impacted not only their leadership, but their overall character, vocation, and sense of identity. Christopherson (1994) describes this as a blending of "the language of accomplishment with the language of ascription as·crip·tion
1. The act of ascribing.
2. A statement that ascribes.
[Latin ascr , obligation, and service." It is simply not enough to talk about the pastoral leadership journey as a set of accomplishments or effectiveness measures, but instead the discussion must start with what Goldman Gold·man , Emma 1869-1940.
Russian-born American anarchist. Jailed repeatedly for her advocacy of birth control and opposition to military conscription, she was deported to the Soviet Union in 1919. (1991) described as a self transformed into "a transparent medium for Godly god·ly
adj. god·li·er, god·li·est
1. Having great reverence for God; pious.
god action." This transcending purpose, shaped by the personal and leadership events that define pastors and their leadership, may be the place where pastors begin and end each day when it comes to effectiveness.
The combination of this research suggests that it would be useful to better understand how pastors develop over time to become more effective. Furthermore, the unique challenges faced by a pastoral leader suggest that the key events in the pastoral journey may differ from the events in a business leader's journey. The reality is that pastors may not face the challenge of leadership effectiveness in the same way as other leaders. This study is an attempt to understand the unique nature of the pastoral journey, and the lessons that emerge as most critical in pastors' growth. Based on an analysis of the literature and the opportunity to better understand the pastoral journey, this study set out to test the following propositions: (1) The events that pastors describe as critical to their development are identifiable and commonly shared; (2) The key lessons that pastors learn from these events are identifiable and commonly shared; and (3) For each event, a predictable set of lessons emerges.
The participants in this study were 100 senior pastors. Because the study was exploratory, a convenience sample was used with the goal of identifying pastors from a wide variety of denominations and church sizes. Only the highest ranking pastor of each church was eligible for participation in this study. The majority of pastors were identified through personal connections by members of the research team, with additional contacts coming from published denominational lists of senior pastors of large congregations. The most heavily represented denominations were Presbyterian (24%), non-denominational (13%), Southern Baptist Noun 1. Southern Baptist - a member of the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention - an association of Southern Baptists
Baptist - follower of Baptistic doctrines (12%), and Free Methodist (12%). In the sample, 89% were male, and 11% were female pastors. The mean age of the pastors was 52 years; the youngest was 28 and the oldest was 75. Church sizes varied widely. The smallest church had 12 members and the largest church had 8500 members with a median church size of 350. On average, the pastors had been in a senior pastoral leadership position for 17 years and in their current positions for 9 years. The budgets in these churches ranged from $0.00 to $14.5 million with a median budget of $410,000.00.
All pastors participated in a 90-minute confidential interview in which they were asked to reflect on their development as leaders. Pastors were asked the same question used by McCall et al. (1988) in their research on the critical experiences in the development of business executives: "When you think over your career as a leader, certain events or episodes probably stand out in your mind--things that led to a lasting change in your approach to leadership. Please jot down Verb 1. jot down - write briefly or hurriedly; write a short note of
write - communicate or express by writing; "Please write to me every week" some notes for yourself identifying at least three 'key events' in your career--things that made a difference in the way you lead others." Participants were then asked to expand on their answers with the following probes: (a) What happened? (b) What did you learn from the experience (for better or for worse)? (c) What was it about you that allowed you to grow from this event? and (d) What was it about the situation that allowed (or forced) you to grow from this event? This formed the main portion of the interview. Several additional questions were also included regarding the current leadership challenges the pastors faced, their perceptions and measurement of effectiveness, any advice they had for other leaders, and general background information about their careers.
All of the interviews were conducted either by telephone or in person by the authors or graduate assistants. All interviewers were trained to follow the interview protocol, but were encouraged to ask follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.
follow-up plan questions as needed as needed prn. See prn order. to clarify participants' responses. To create a climate of openness, the interviewer began the interviews by explaining that all responses would be kept confidential and that any information identifying them individually would not be shared. Furthermore, the pastors' names would not be attached to any part of their response without their explicit permission. Interviews typically lasted the full 90 minutes, the shortest lasting one hour, and others extending up to two hours. Responses were captured as written or typed notes to encourage an atmosphere of openness, and later typed up by the interviewer for analysis.
Taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.
In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order, Development for Events and Lessons
Coders began with the original taxonomy of events and lessons from the research on business leaders (Lindsey, Homes, & McCall, 1987). A content-analysis approach was used to identify common and emerging themes. Six coders independently coded a randomly chosen set of interviews, making note of areas where the taxonomy needed adjustment for the pastoral population. They met to discuss their codes and proposed modifications to create a revised version Revised Version
A British and American revision of the King James Version of the Bible, completed in 1885.
Noun of the taxonomy with categories and definitions that fit the events and language that the pastors used in their interviews. The coders then coded the events of another group of randomly chosen interviews and assessed their reliability (percent agreement). This process continued until the coders reached a level of at least 70% agreement. Final average inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. among coders was 76%. After the taxonomy was developed, a second group of four coders was used to code the additional interviews, after checking for inter-rater reliability. This second group had an average inter-rater reliability of 72%. Any disagreements were resolved through discussion and consensus. The final version of the event taxonomy had 25 categories including the "other" category (See Table 1).
Coders performed a similar procedure with the lessons taxonomy, starting with Lindsey et al.'s (1987) lessons taxonomy for business leaders, coding a randomly selected set of interviews, discussing the results, and modifying the taxonomy. Average inter-rater reliability was 78%. The final version of the lessons taxonomy had 37 categories including the "other" category (See Table 2).
Event & Experience Linkages
Following the coding process, frequency statistics were derived for events and lessons. A matrix of events by lessons was then created as a first step to assess the relationships between the events and the lessons learned. Binomial tests In statistics, the binomial test is an exact test of the statistical significance of deviations from a theoretically expected distribution of observations into two categories. were conducted for each event to explore the relationship of that event to each of the lessons. The binomial test was conducted on each cell in the matrix to determine whether the proportion of the total number of lessons associated with each event was greater than what would be expected by chance. The binomial binomial (bī'nō`mēəl), polynomial expression (see polynomial) containing two terms, for example, x+y. The binomial theorem, or binomial formula, gives the expansion of the nth power of a binomial (x+ statistical test was chosen over the other statistical tests (e.g., the chi-square test chi-square test: see statistics. ) because of the small sample size in each of the cells. In the interpretation of binomial results, a significant statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. indicates that the observed proportion of lessons in that cell differed significantly from the expected proportion. The expected proportion for each event was based on the total number of lessons associated with that event and the chance distribution of that total over the possible lesson categories. Because pastors were encouraged to present any lessons that they believed were associated with each event, cell values are independent, meeting the requirement of the binomial test for independence of results.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The total number of events recorded across the 100 interviews was 294. The percent of events that fell into each category are included in Table 1. "Setting the stage" events represented 6.7% of the total events. These included early non-church work experiences, the pastor's conversion experience, and his/her call to ministry. For example, one pastor taught swimming lessons with great success, another worked in a mortgage company as a manager, and another described his conversion from Hinduism Hinduism (hin`dĭzəm), Western term for the religious beliefs and practices of the vast majority of the people of India. to Christianity Christianity, religion founded in Palestine by the followers of Jesus. One of the world's major religions, it predominates in Europe and the Americas, where it has been a powerful historical force and cultural influence, but it also claims adherents in virtually .
"Transitions" were also regularly identified as critical developmental periods for pastors (26.6%). Some of the most critical transitions in a pastor's development include when he/she first became a church staff leader, first became the senior pastor of a church, first had a staff member reporting to him/her, or when a church congregation CONGREGATION. A society of a number of persons who compose an ecclesiastical body. In the ecclesiastical law this term is used to designate certain bureaux at Rome, where ecclesiastical matters are attended to. became so large that the pastor had to delegate A person who is appointed, authorized, delegated, or commissioned to act in the place of another. Transfer of authority from one to another. A person to whom affairs are committed by another.
A person elected or appointed to be a member of a representative assembly. more responsibility to others. Other key transitions included changing pastoral positions, being exposed to a much larger scope, experiencing a renewed call, living through a personal trauma, or shepherding others through a trauma (often the first time the pastor experienced these events). Pastors described the death of loved ones loved ones npl → seres mpl queridos
loved ones npl → proches mpl et amis chers
loved ones love npl , their children coming out as gay or lesbian, serving in Promise Keepers Promise Keepers is an international Christian organization for men, based in Denver, Colorado, United States, self-described as "a Christ-centered organization dedicated to introducing men to Jesus Christ as their Savior and Lord, helping them to grow as Christians". , being exposed to a mega-church, coming to serve a church with a few members and growing it to be multi-staffed, as examples of transitions that impacted their development as leaders.
"Leading in the trenches" experiences represented 32.3% of the events. Like business leaders, many of the critical developmental experiences in pastors' journeys occur when they are facing significant challenges in their ongoing work, especially problems and trials. Some of the most common events fell into this category including failures/mistakes (8.8%) and dealing with problem staff/church members/peers (7.8%). Other events included leadership setbacks and starting something from scratch. Several pastors were asked to leave their churches, and one tried to start a church but it did not work out. Sometimes members of the congregation banded together against the pastor. There were also positive examples of leading in the trenches, such as the pastor who was able to revitalize re·vi·tal·ize
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy. a dying church that was about to close its doors, and the several pastors who started new churches that grew very quickly.
The category of "When other people matter" included events tied directly to interactions with other people, and encompassed 22.7% of the events. Most significant was the presence of a good role model (10.5%), the most common event named overall. Interestingly, bad role models (2.0%) also played an important role, teaching pastors what not to do and how not to lead others. Seeing values playing out positively or negatively (4.4%) and exposure to those in need (4.1%) also emerged as critical developmental experiences. The somewhat surprising importance of even negative relationships is illustrated in the following example of a bad role model:
I was working as the associate pastor at a church.... The senior pastor was a master manipulator. He would find out what your weakness was and try to use it against you. The senior pastor, politically and strategically, worked for "his benefit" to forward his own agenda. He had a huge blind spot and could not see how his actions affected others.... You can learn a lot of good things from a bad experience if you allow yourself to.... All leaders have their own neuroses and brokenness. They need to know what this is before they lead.
Similar to business leaders, education and training emerged as a key developmental experience for pastors, representing 8.2% of the events. Pastors noted the importance of professional education (seminary seminary
Educational institution, usually for training in theology. In the U.S. the term was formerly also used to refer to institutions of higher learning for women, often teachers' colleges. ) and seminars they had attended. In these events, pastors often discussed some key truth that they discovered during the educational experience (e.g., the importance of casting a vision for your church) as a catalyst that was then either realized and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. applied several months later in their positions as leaders.
A total of 593 lessons were associated with the 294 events. The lesson titles and percentage of lessons that fell into each category are included in Table 2. Results indicate that the lessons tended to fall into six broad categories. In order of frequency these included: Handling relationships (30.2%), personal awareness (14.9%), managerial and organizational thinking (14.5%), values (13.3%), God's role (12.3%), and pastoral temperament temperament, in music, the altering of certain intervals from their acoustically correct values to provide a system of tuning whereby music can move from key to key without unacceptably impure sonorities. (11.8%).
At the individual lesson level, trust in/reliance on God was the single most common lesson learned (8.6%). Defined as "The importance of relying on God through difficult and easy times," this lesson was often identified with the realization that the pastor's leadership, effectiveness, ability to deal with the trauma of others, and daily measure of success had very little do with them, and more to do with God's purpose. Likewise, in this same overall category, pastors also talked about the importance of scripture scripture
Sacred writings of religions, comprising a large portion of the literature of the world. Scriptures vary in form, volume, age, and degree of sacredness. Nearly all scriptures were originally oral and were passed down as memorized texts through several generations , and knowing the presence of God. Several pastors expressed feeling unprepared for certain situations like leading a church as a student pastor or handling conflict, and realizing that God could still use them in these situations.
The role of relationships was a central theme. Key experiences in the lives of pastors often taught them lessons regarding developing others (6.7%) and how to deal with conflict (6.2%). As a result of a positive experience encouraging a congregation member to take part in leading worship, one pastor said, "I learned how important it is to affirm people in their gifts and that doing that really does Warren Trotter, better known as Really Doe, is an American rapper from Chicago, Illinois. He is affiliated with Kanye West and his G.O.O.D. Music family and label. Discography
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. by them or trying to stay away from them.
Building one's values, temperament, and personal awareness were also key areas that were developed during pastors' leadership journeys. In addition to the basic values that business leaders tended to discuss (e.g., integrity, honesty Honesty
See also Righteousness, Virtuousness.
ancient Greek personification of truth. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 18]
Better Business Bureau
nationwide system of organizations investigating dishonest business practices. [Am. , and respect), pastors called out the importance of humility/brokenness, empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. , patience, the complexity of the human condition, and fostering a less judgmental judg·men·tal
1. Of, relating to, or dependent on judgment: a judgmental error.
2. Inclined to make judgments, especially moral or personal ones: view of others. These lessons were as simple as learning the patience to introduce change, such as in the frequency of communion communion: see Eucharist; Lord's Supper. , slowly; and as deep as "coming to a deep-seated deep-seat·ed
1. Being so far below the surface as to be unsusceptible to superficial examination, study, or treatment: a deep-seated infection.
2. belief that in brokenness rather than pretended pre·tend·ed
1. Not genuine or sincere; feigned: a pretended interest in the proceedings.
2. Supposed; alleged: the pretended heir to the throne. wholeness is where God is."
Likewise, pastors talked about their personal growth including their self-awareness self-awareness
Realization of oneself as an individual entity or personality. , self-confidence, resilience, recognizing "it's it's
1. Contraction of it is.
2. Contraction of it has. See Usage Note at its.
it's it is or it has
it's be ~have not about me," the courage to be themselves, staying focused on what's really important, seeing themselves as leaders, and being willing to submit to God and others. Many of the pastors gained confidence through surviving difficult experiences, saying that if they could handle a situation as difficult as the one they had been through, they could handle anything. These developmental events pushed pastors to dive into leadership and figure out what it really means. One pastor said, "I learned that you can make some really bad mistakes when you refuse to lead," while another realized, "This is what it [being a leader] means sometimes, to make difficult and hard decisions." The frequency of these types of lessons suggests that pastors are called to acknowledge their brokenness and experience growth, self-understanding self-un·der·stand·ing
Self-knowledge. , and God's refining refining, any of various processes for separating impurities from crude or semifinished materials. It includes the finer processes of metallurgy, the fractional distillation of petroleum into its commercial products, and the purifying of cane, beet, and maple sugar grace throughout the journey. One of the clear themes that emerged is that, for pastors, "who you are" is as, if not more important, than "what you do."
Event and Lesson Linkages
Analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the events and the lesson distributions within each event to determine if predictable patterns could be established. That is, were some lessons significantly more likely to be tied to certain events? The events/lessons matrix in Figure 1 highlights the relationships between each of the key events (columns) and its associated lessons (rows). The darkened dark·en
v. dark·ened, dark·en·ing, dark·ens
a. To make dark or darker.
b. To give a darker hue to.
2. To fill with sadness; make gloomy.
3. circles indicate a significant relationship (p < .05); indicating that the number of pastors associating that lesson with the event was significantly higher than would be expected by chance. The white circles indicate a relationship that, while non-significant, was identified by at least two pastors. We included this latter frequency indicator for two reasons: (1) it is informative to highlight events that were associated with a wide variety of lessons; and (2) the small sample size may have limited the ability to detect significant event/lessons relationships. As will be discussed later, we recommend future research be conducted with a larger sample, and thus higher statistical power, to detect the strength of these relationships.
The matrix in Figure 1 allows visual examination of the data, showing where clusters of lessons occur. Several interesting patterns emerge. For example, a renewed call teaches the most statistically significant lessons (trust in/reliance on God, God's presence, courage to be one's self, and self-awareness). In contrast, education/training/seminars teach two statistically significant lessons: technical/professional knowledge and casting a vision. However, fourteen additional lessons were identified by at least two pastors, suggesting that educational experiences, for these pastors, tended to result in broader, less focused, set of lessons. Finally, lessons that came from leading without authority were so scattered Scattered
Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest. that none of the lesson categories received two or more codes.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Looking at the lessons, we see that basic values lessons were consistently learned (that is, the relationship was statistically significant) in the highest number of events (i.e. leading with others, exposure to a larger scope, values playing out, family, good/bad role models). Dealing with conflict/confronting problems lessons were also consistently learned in several events (problem staff/church member/peer, leadership setback setback
In architecture, a steplike recession in the profile of a high-rise building. Usually dictated by building codes to allow sunlight to reach streets and lower floors, the building must take another step back from the street for every specified added height interval. , failures/mistakes, being a church staff leader, and values playing out). If non-significant relationships are included, trust in/reliance on God was a key lesson learned in fourteen of the events. And some lessons, entrepreneurial en·tre·pre·neur
A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture.
[French, from Old French, from entreprendre, to undertake; see enterprise. thinking and use/abuse of power, were not associated with any event two or more times.
Looking at the event and lesson clusters, some other interesting patterns emerge. Most notably, the events where the pastor was "under fire" or trying to lead in a stressful situation tended to lead to lessons regarding handling relationships. During times of transition, the pastors learned lessons related to values and to God's role in their lives and leadership. Key events in pastors' lives where the emphasis was on an interaction with another person led to lessons on handling relationships and developing or affirming basic values and empathy.
This study provides an initial glimpse into the on-the-edge, high pressure, refining fire experiences that shape the leadership, character, and vocation of pastoral leaders. The current project has the potential to help leaders throughout the church to better understand their own developmental journey, to leverage the experience of other senior pastors who have been through similar experiences, and to be more intentional in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. about their ongoing development.
The results suggest that there are a broad set of experiences that are critical in the development of pastors. Like with business leaders, education and training represents an important element in the pastoral leader's development, but the importance of ongoing development in on-the-job experiences, during transitions, and in relationships tends to be underestimated.
In addition to a predictable set of events, the current study also suggests that there are a predictable set of lessons that pastors learn in their leadership journeys. These lessons are in the areas of handling relationships, managerial thinking, personal and ministerial values, personal awareness, and God's role in their lives. Furthermore, a predictable set of lessons learned within each of these events emerged from this research. The results of this study highlight the key experiences and the likely lessons that pastors will be challenged to learn in the experiences. The results might also be used by pastors to identify what the need to learn and to proactively look for the experiences that will teach these lessons.
This study, along with other studies of the leadership journey during the past two decades (Howard Howard, English noble family. Landowners in Norfolk from the 13th cent., the Howards obtained the duchy of Norfolk through the marriage of Sir Robert Howard to Margaret Mowbray, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of Norfolk. & Bray, 1988; McCall et al., 1988; Morrison & Brantner, 1992), has implications for the way that pastoral education and development is provided in seminaries and other pastoral training programs. Seminaries are valuable places for pastors to acquire foundational skills and knowledge such as theology, scripture, counseling, preaching skills, deepening deep·en
tr. & intr.v. deep·ened, deep·en·ing, deep·ens
To make or become deep or deeper.
Noun 1. deepening - a process of becoming deeper and more profound one's relationship with God, interpersonal relationship This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. skills, personal growth (Dowson Dow·son , Ernest Christopher 1867-1900.
British Decadent poet best known for his refrain "I have been faithful to thee, Cynara, in my fashion." , & McInerney The name McInerney (mac-en-er-nee) - also spelt McInerny, McInnerny or McEnearney - is of Irish Gaelic origin where it is found in the modern Irish form of Mac an Airchinnigh (pronounced mock-on-arc-kenny) and in the old and literary form of Mac an Oirchinnigh and Mac an Oirchindig. , 2005). However, the current research suggests that seminaries might increase their focus on giving pastors the skills they need to navigate (1) "Surfing the Web." To move from page to page on the Web.
(2) To move through the menu structure in a software application. through and learn from the key events in their careers, and include experiential ex·pe·ri·en·tial
Relating to or derived from experience.
ex·peri·en components so students understand the realities of pastoral leadership while still having access to professors and advisors to provide insight and feedback to their learning.
Furthermore, denominations and seminaries might consider how they can support the ongoing development of pastors. For example, good role models emerged as the most common developmental experience, suggesting that denominations could likely enhance ongoing pastoral leadership development by pairing new pastors with experienced pastors who can serve as mentors. A broader approach to leadership development could include: formal and informal programs for pastors to meet regularly with other pastors to share struggles and advice; or continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). programs that focus on the key struggles that pastors face such as problem staff/church members, living through personal traumas, shepherding others through trauma, starting a church from scratch, or transitioning from leading a moderate sized church to leading a large church.
On a personal level for pastors, the current study echoes the words of James James, person in the Bible
James, in the Gospel of St. Luke, kinsman of St. Jude. The original does not specify the relationship.
James, rivers, United States
James. when he says, "Consider it pure joy, my brothers, whenever you face trials of many kinds, because you know that the testing of your faith develops perseverance Perseverance
See also Determination.
redid dictionary manuscript burnt in fire. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 752]
Call of the Wild, The
dogs trail steadfastly through Alaska’s tundra. [Am. Lit. . Perseverance must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything" (James 1:2-4, New International Version). The pastors in this study said they grew the most through adversity and recognizing their brokenness, but emerged on the other side stronger leaders and more dependent on the grace of God.
As is true for all research, limitations in the current study should be considered. The study focused on Protestant ministers in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Additional research is needed to ensure the results generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. to other groups. Second, the research method asked pastors to recall key events from the past. This relies on memory. The current study is a good first step in identifying some of the most crucial events, providing a solid foundation for future work in this area. However, one consequence of this methodology may be that only the most salient events were recalled with minor events or incremental Additional or increased growth, bulk, quantity, number, or value; enlarged.
Incremental cost is additional or increased cost of an item or service apart from its actual cost. learning less likely to emerge. These latter areas may be just as critical in the development of pastors and their impact should not be ignored. Third, binomial tests in the events by lesson matrix were conducted at the .05 level. Multiple tests result in alpha inflation, increasing the likelihood of finding significant results by chance. Given the exploratory nature of this study, the researchers felt that these analyses were appropriate, with the caveat that the matrix should be interpreted with caution and future research should be conducted to validate To prove something to be sound or logical. Also to certify conformance to a standard. Contrast with "verify," which means to prove something to be correct.
For example, data entry validity checking determines whether the data make sense (numbers fall within a range, numeric data the findings with a larger sample. Future research might include longitudinal studies longitudinal studies,
n.pl the epidemiologic studies that record data from a respresentative sample at repeated intervals over an extended span of time rather than at a single or limited number over a short period. to assess leaders before and after the key experiences to evaluate the actual changes that occurred in their competencies, perspective, values, and skills.
Several areas for future research are suggested by the findings. Using the event and lesson taxonomies generated in this research study, future research could use a larger and more diverse sample of pastors to validate the events and lessons that emerged in this study and assess the linkages between the events and lessons learned.
A second interesting area for research would be to explicitly compare the key events and lessons of pastors with the events and lessons identified by business leaders. Pastors and business leaders might overlap o·ver·lap
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.
2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.
v. significantly, and where they don't don't
1. Contraction of do not.
2. Nonstandard Contraction of does not.
A statement of what should not be done: a list of the dos and don'ts. , the two groups might learn valuable lessons from each other. The results of a study on this broader population could also be used to develop a generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. "leadership map" that identifies the shared key events of pastors' and business leaders' careers, the lessons they have learned, their current challenges, and personal leadership strategies. In addition, future studies looking at pastors, other leaders within the church, and leaders outside of the church could add insight into issues related to the integration of faith into the work of Christian Christian
flees the City of Destruction. [Br. Lit.: Pilgrim’s Progress]
See : Escape
travels to Celestial City with cumbrous burden on back. [Br. Lit. leaders in secular organizations, and to leadership issues for lay people in the church.
A third important area for future research is exploring the personal and situational factors that can be leveraged by pastors to help them capture the lessons of experience in the moment. Without the right strategies, some leaders might experience significant events and fail to learn the important lessons available from these critical incidents. For example, research with business leaders has repeatedly shown the importance of feedback (Walker & Smither Smith´er
n. 1. Light, fine rain.
2. Fragments; atoms; finders.
Smash the bottle to smithers.
- Tennyson. , 1999), a learning focus (Lombardo & Eichinger, 2000; Speitzer, McCall, & Mahoney Mahoney could refer to:
midmost of or after the experience (Ellis ELLIS - EuLisp LInda System. An object-oriented Linda system written for EuLisp. "Using Object-Oriented Mechanisms to Describe Linda", P. Broadbery <email@example.com> et al, in Linda-Like Systems and Their Implementation, G. Wilson ed, U Edinburgh TR 91-13, 1991. & Davidi, 2005; Seibert, 1999) as critical elements in experiential learning. Likewise, previous research has identified several contextual factors (e.g., management support, job demands, level of responsibility) that are critical to leadership development (McCall, 1998; McCauley et al., 1994).
A final area for future research is in exploring the possible interventions that could be used to support continuing pastoral development. What post-graduate training programs can be introduced to help pastors deal with emerging challenges in their ministries? How can pastors be better linked together in networking and support groups? How can church denominations make better use of experienced pastors as mentors? Furthermore, a set of resources and development tools could conceivably con·ceive
v. con·ceived, con·ceiv·ing, con·ceives
1. To become pregnant with (offspring).
2. be created to help pastors navigate through challenges and capture the lessons that only experience can teach. These tools could serve as interventions and simultaneously assess how effectively pastors are moving through seasons of challenge, testing, and discouragement. The current research offers exciting possibilities for pastors to better leverage the learning and developmental opportunities that may be available to them through everyday circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or .
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Gilford
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High-priced and highly speculative stock that moves up and down sharply over a short period. Generally glamorous in nature due to the capital gains potential associated with them; also used to describe any high-priced stock. Antithesis of sleeper. : Developing the next generation of leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. Press.
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ASTD Air-Sea Temperature Difference
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MCKENNA, ROBERT B. Address: firstname.lastname@example.org. Title: Chair and Associate Professor of Organizational Psychology. Degree: B.A., Seattle Pacific University External links
• • , 1990; M.B.A., 1992; Ph.D., Claremont Graduate University Claremont Graduate University (formerly The Claremont Graduate School) was founded in 1925 in the city of Claremont, California. It is one of two graduate institutions in the prestigious Claremont Colleges consortium, the other being the Keck Graduate Institute. , 1998.
YOST, PAUL R. Address: Title: Associate Professor of Graduate Psychology. Degree: B.A., Seattle Pacific University, 1987; M.A. University of Maryland University of Maryland can refer to:
ROBERT B. MCKENNA, PAUL R. YOST, and TANYA N. BOYD
Seattle Pacific University
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1 The American Society for Training and Development reported that in 2005, the companies they follow spent, on average, $955 per employee for formal training. Assuming 100 million workers in the United States, this equates to more than $90 billion spent by companies on formal training in one year alone.
TABLE 1 Key Events in Clergy Development Key Events Percentage Description of Event Codes Setting the Stage (6.7%) Early non-church work 1.4% Being exposed to new environments, experience cultures, or management philosophies through non-church jobs. Conversion 2.1% Dedicating one's life to Christ. Call to ministry 3.2% Knowing that one is called to ministry (e.g. dreams, voice of God, other confirmatory guidance). Transitions (26.6%) Church staff leader 2.0% Being in a staff position in the church (e.g. Assistant Pastor, Associate Pastor). Leading alone 2.7% Leading a small congregation (up to 200 people in the congregation). Leading with others 4.8% Leading a medium-sized congregation (200-400 people in the congregation). This is a situation where the pastor gets things done with their staff. Leading through others 2.4% Leading a large-sized congregation (400+ people in the congregation). In this situation, the senior pastor provides vision and direction, but the staff is responsible for execution. Congregational switch 2.1% Moving from one type of congregation to a new one, such as a new denomintion, or a switch between rural and city. Exposure to a larger 2.0% Experiencing a much larger and scope often expanding ministry (e.g. a member on staff at a mega- church). Renewed call 2.4% Experiencing a spiritually redefining moment after an earlier calling to ministry. This may be a call from God to serve in a new way. Personal trauma 5.8% Experiencing crises or traumas with a powerful emotional impact, whether the event was work- related or personal. Shepherding others 2.4% Helping lead other people through through a personal crises or traumas in their lives, personal trauma Leading in the Trenches (32.3%) Leading without 2.1% Getting things done through other authority people without having any direct authority over them. Starting from scratch 5.3% Building something from nothing (e.g. church plant, non-profit, para-church organization). Organizational 2.5% Turning a church around; turnaround stabilizing a church, para- church, or non-profit organization gone haywire. The church may be suffering spiritually and experience revival. Problem staff/church 7.8% Confronting a staff member or members/peers congregation member with serious moral or performance issues. Leadership setback 5.8% Perceiving a setback (e.g. not getting a coveted position, being derailed). Failures/mistakes 8.8% Experiencing shortcomings and failures (e.g. ideas that didn't fly, conflicts that got out of hand, failures to make the most of opportunities). When Other People Matter (22.7%) Values playing out 4.4% Experiencing or observing short- lived events involving a person doing something to another person that had a visible impact and led to a value-laden conclusion. Exposure to those in 4.1% Seeing or ministering to those in need poverty-stricken areas, or those who have other physical/ psychological/spiritual needs. Family 1.7% Experiences with family that led to new insights about leadership. Good role models 10.5% Observing great role models. These people are often described in superlative terms, and are seen as a touchstone for behavior of "what to do." Bad role models 2.0% Observing difficult individuals (often senior church workers) who may have fatal flaws. These are a touchstone for behavior of "what not to do." Other Events (12.3%) Education/training/ 8.2% Taking part in formal education and seminars training (e.g. seminary, formal coursework, church leadership seminars, and books). Other 4.1% Experiencing other key events that have an effect on pastoral leadership development. TABLE 2 Key Lessons in Clergy Development Key Lessons Percentage Description of Lesson Codes Managerial and Organizational Thinking (14.5%) Technical/professional 2.2% Learning new content in a well- knowledge/skills defined technical area, including knowledge of scripture, administration, church finances, etc. Learning how the 3.2% Learning about a specific organization works division, function within or outside of the church, or type of organization. Includes lessons about the ins and outs of the church or denomination. Shouldering full 1.0% Standing alone, assuming the risk responsibility for the group; not doing it alone, but feeling leadership responsibility while building a working church/organization. Thinking strategically 2.5% Considering, anticipating, and preparing for future consequences and decisions. Managing change 2.0% Leading self and others through a change process. Entrepreneurial thinking .7% Identifying new possibilities and the resources necessary to achieve them. Casting a vision 2.9% Needing to have a vision and finding ways to communicate it and motivate people. Handing Relationships (30.2%) Understanding others' 3.9% Having a global perspective and perspectives openness to other perspectives on God and life. Dealing with conflict 6.2% Learning that conflict is endemic, and should be confronted, not avoided. Not taking things 1.0% Being objective in tough personally situations; problems are not always personal. Being tough when 4.0% Developing the strength to do what necessary must be done in the service of the church/organization, even though it may involve a human cost. Directing and motivating 3.4% Learning about the staffing, others managing, and directing required to build a working church/ organization (e.g. delegation, sharing responsibility, motivating others, teams). Developing other people 6.7% Realizing part of dealing with people is developing them; individual growth benefits all. Listening 1.5% Hearing what others are saying and focusing on statements of others (e.g., active listening) You can't manage 3.5% Discovering that leadership cannot everything all alone and should not be done alone; reliance on others is crucial. References to church as community and trusting others. Values (13.3%) Basic values 5.7% Developing concepts of principles that guide ethical behavior at a higher "Kingdom" level. Humility/brokenness 2.4% Admitting mistakes and/or being humble; recognizing personal limits and weaknesses. Empathy 2.4% Connecting to the feelings of others. Patience 2.0% Being willing to wait on the next thing or decision, especially when challenged. Complexity of the human .8% Admitting that people find condition themselves in complex, often paradoxical situations where there aren't easy answers. Includes lessons related to complexity of life, theology, and God. Pastoral Temperament (11.8%) Self-confidence 2.5% Trusting or having knowledge of the self, or, in the extreme, being arrogant. Self-awareness 4.4% Gaining self-insight or discovery (e.g. personal style, use of intuition, adaptability) Resilience 1.9% Developing ways to accomplish goals in the face of obstacles. Use and abuse of power .8% Dealing with the double-edged sword of power, recognizing power may help or hinder. Learning to submit 2.2% Submitting to God or others, including lessons of obedience to God. Personal Awareness (14.9%) Work and personal life .7% Gaining a perspective and finding balance in work and personal life. Knowing what really 1.2% Finding something worth doing on excites you its own merit, or something that is distasteful and will be avoided. Risk taking 2.2% Being prepared to take advantage of opportunities as they arise and take risks. Courage to be yourself 2.0% Being aware of self and communicating using a unique, personal voice. It's not about you 3.2% Realizing that it is about God's purpose and serving others, not selfish motives. Seeing yourself as a 1.9% Recognizing that the leader responsibility of leadership must be owned. What's really important 2.0% Learning a new perspective on the things that matter most in life. Learning focus 1.7% Being in a learning mode throughout career and life. God's Role (12.3%) Trust in/reliance on God 8.6% Recognizing the importance of relying on God through difficult and easy times. God's presence 1.7% Feeling God showing up through prayer, other people, dreams, etc. in adversity and peace. Importance of Scripture 2.0% Relying on Scripture as an anchor. Other (2.9%) Experiencing other key lessons that have an effect on pastoral leadership development.