Lathes and turning machines.An examination of the things a machine tool salesman will, and won't, tell you about what's really important, and what isn't.
Editor's note Editor's Note (foaled in 1993 in Kentucky) is an American thoroughbred Stallion racehorse. He was sired by 1992 U.S. Champion 2 YO Colt Forty Niner, who in turn was a son of Champion sire Mr. Prospector and out of the mare, Beware Of The Cat.
Trained by D. : Part 1 of this series, published in February 1993, covered machining centers. Part 2, on machine controls, appeared in June 1993.
The lathe lathe (lāth), machine tool for holding and turning metal, wood, plastic, or other material against a cutting tool to form a cylindrical product or part. It also drills, bores, polishes, grinds, makes threads, and performs other operations. is probably the most fundamental of all machine tools, second in essential simplicity only to the shaper/planer. The idea of suspending a workpiece Noun 1. workpiece - work consisting of a piece of metal being machined
piece of work, work - a product produced or accomplished through the effort or activity or agency of a person or thing; "it is not regarded as one of his more memorable works"; "the symphony was between two points and cutting it while it rotates past a stationary tool is both intuitively appealing and easy to execute. Indeed, simple lathes are among the earliest artifacts artifacts
see specimen artifacts. of modern industrial societies.
On the other hand, the situation today is far from simple. Today's buyer must choose from a bewildering be·wil·der
tr.v. be·wil·dered, be·wil·der·ing, be·wil·ders
1. To confuse or befuddle, especially with numerous conflicting situations, objects, or statements. See Synonyms at puzzle.
2. range of options. Manual lathes, CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) See numerical control.
CNC - Collaborative Networked Communication turning centers, vertical turning machines, turning cells, chuckers, automatics, live turrets Turrets can mean or be confused with:
The Changers are a fictional group of anti-hero published by Wildstorm an imprint of DC Comics. , integral milling capabilities, and much more are all available from a seemingly seem·ing
Outward appearance; semblance.
seeming·ly adv. endless list of manufacturers. Perhaps the best place to begin an examination of turning technology is with a review of the fundamentals of lathe design.
The Workpiece Goes Round And Round
Historically, the distinguishing characteristic Noun 1. distinguishing characteristic - an odd or unusual characteristic
distinctive feature, peculiarity
characteristic, feature - a prominent attribute or aspect of something; "the map showed roads and other features"; "generosity is one of his best of all turning machines is that the workpiece rotates past a stationary tool that is fed essentially parallel to the axis of rotation Noun 1. axis of rotation - the center around which something rotates
mechanism - device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function . This is exactly the opposite of milling, in which the tool rotates over, through, or past a stationary workpiece.
Of course, the word 'stationary' is relative because in the lathe both the tool and workpiece are moving simultaneously, the tool just doesn't rotate. A brief reflection on this definition will reveal the basic elements of a lathe:
* a headstock headstock
substantial wooden or metal fixed apparatus for restraining a cow by the neck in a crush, milking parlor or feed stalls. There is a bar or tongue which is swiveled at the bottom and can be opened at the top. equipped to hold and rotate the workpiece, and, perhaps,
* a tailstock to support it,
* ways to support the toolholding mechanism,
* a device to feed the tool, and,
* a bed or other foundation to support the whole mechanism.
How these individual elements are arranged will determine just what kind of lathe is produced. In the simplest configuration a head-stock and tailstock are mounted at each end of a set of horizontal ways, and the toolholding equipment is mounted on a slide that's free to move along them. This is a basic engine lathe (Mach.) See under Lathe.
a turning lathe in which the cutting tool has an automatic feed; - used chiefly for turning and boring metals, cutting screws, etc.
See also: Engine Lathe .
* Mount several different tools on a rotary turret and you have "turret lathe Tur´ret lathe
1. a lathe fitted with a turrethead. ."
* Remove the tailstock and build the headstock with a hole so that long workpieces can be fed through it and you have a "chucker."
* Add a system to automatically feed those long workpieces and you have a "bar machine."
* Add several slides to feed tools from various directions and you have an "automatic screw machine One of a series of machines employed in the manufacture of wood screws.
A machine tool resembling a lathe, having a number of cutting tools that can be caused to act on the work successively, for making screws and other turned pieces from metal rods.
See also: Screw Screw ".
* Add a numerical control numerical control: see computer-aided manufacturing.
Control of a system or device by direct input of data in the form of numbers, letters, symbols, words, or a combination of these forms. unit, some ball screws A ball screw is a mechanical device for translating rotational motion to linear motion. A threaded shaft provides a spiral raceway for ball bearings which act as a precision screw. and servos and you have a "CNC Turning Center."
Put two or three of these next to each other and you have a "Turning Cell."
* Add a mechanism for supplying rotary power Rotary Power is an engineering company based in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, and designs and manufacturers hydraulic motors and pumps. It is a division of British Engines Ltd, also based in Newcastle, formed in 1922. Rotary Power was previously named RHL hydraulics. to the tooling and you have something that is neither a lathe, nor a machining center, but a hybrid capable of performing many tasks that would ordinarily or·di·nar·i·ly
1. As a general rule; usually: ordinarily home by six.
2. In the commonplace or usual manner: ordinarily dressed pedestrians on the street. require two or more machines. With a little ingenuity, you don't even have to confine your machining to the workpiece centerline cen·ter·line
1. A line that bisects something into equal parts.
2. A painted line running along the center of a road or highway that divides it into two sections for traffic moving in opposite directions, or, in the case of anymore.
Now, consider whether the spindle spindle: see spinning.
A rotating shaft in a disk drive. In a fixed disk, the platters are attached to the spindle. In a removable disk, the spindle remains in the drive. Laptops use spindle designations to indicate the number of built-in drives. is to be horizontal or vertical and whether you would like more than one spindle, or turret, or set of ways, or a robot loader A program routine that copies a program into memory for execution. , or any of a few hundred other possible options. Even then, the list is by no means exhaustive, but it does serve to illustrate the incredible range of choices available today under the "turning" umbrella.
Everybody Knows the Right Answer
Fortunately, turning machines are relatively simple from a structural point of view, and offer fewer fundamental variations from which to choose than machining centers. Naturally, this becomes less true as the machines become more complex, especially with the addition of powered rotary ("live") tooling. Nevertheless, the forces to which a turning machine is subjected tend to be more uniform and predictable than those encountered in a machining center. There are fewer variables involved in the process because the tool/workpiece relationship is fixed within much narrower operating limits.
This doesn't mean careful design isn't required in a turning machine; it most certainly is. It simply means that the engineer needs to plan the structure to accommodate fewer contingencies, and that means it's somewhat easier to reach a consensus on what constitutes an "optimum" design.
You may, for example, encounter a spirited dispute between proponents of horizontal, vertical, and slant bed designs. But, aside from the orientation, they are all basically similar structures, performing basically similar functions, and delivering basically similar performance.
You will also encounter proponents of cast, welded, and non-metallic bases including concrete and epoxy/granite composites; four, six, eight, twelve, and more sided turrets; various quick-change and tool powering systems; belt, gear, and directly driven servo-type spindles; and many other features, options, and design "innovations." What you won't find, however, are radical differences in the fundamental structural designs of the various types of turning machines.
In the big picture, there simply isn't a dispute in the turning world as basic as that between the moving column and moving table schools of machining center design. The one basic requirement is for mechanical and thermal stability, and the means of achieving stability are straightforward and well understood.
Yes, there are differences between individual builders, and yes, they can be significant under specific application conditions. But, with very few exceptions, they are not fundamental.
Manual or CNC
The most basic choice is between a manual and a CNC machine. The CNC machine offers enormous flexibility in producing short-run parts, but may not be as economical as a dedicated non-CNC machine with appropriate automation in volume production. Oddly enough, it may not be the most economical choice for one-off toolroom or repair shop applications either.
The emphasis in both, cases is on the word "economical," because capacity for capacity the CNC machine can be expected to cost significantly more than a manual counterpart. So, what do you get for the extra money?
Flexibility is the strong suit of CNC turning machines, with accuracy and repeatability not far behind. We may not like to admit it, but today's electro-mechanical systems are every bit the equal of the most skilled machinist who ever lived, and they never get tired. In a world where quality is increasingly a statistical proposition, it's hard to argue with the uniformity of a computer-controlled process.
On the other hand, if all the machine is required to do is turn out cylindrical cyl·in·dri·cal
Of, relating to, or having the shape of a cylinder, especially of a circular cylinder. repair parts on an "as-needed" basis, you might want to seriously consider a manual machine. Not only will it cost less, but chances are that even a moderately skilled machinist will be able to make simple parts on it just about as quickly as he can program and run the CNC. The advantage may shift to the CNC, however, if the same part has to be made frequently, if the parts are complex, or, as may be the case more and more often in the future, if there is nobody available who knows how to operate a manual machine.
All things considered All Things Considered (ATC) is a news radio program in the United States, broadcast on the National Public Radio network. It was the first news program on the network, and is broadcast live worldwide through several outlets. , a CNC machine is probably the better choice in a situation in which the economics are anywhere close to equal. And where flexibility, accuracy, and repeatability are the key requirements, it's clearly the right answer.
Horizontal or Vertical
Say the word "lathe" and most people picture a machine with a horizontal spindle, headstock on the left, tailstock on the right, and tools in the middle. The bed may be horizontal, vertical, or slanted slant
v. slant·ed, slant·ing, slants
1. To give a direction other than perpendicular or horizontal to; make diagonal; cause to slope: , but the workpiece axis of rotation will be parallel to the floor. Such is the strength of tradition that "lathe" and "horizontal" are virtually synonymous, but it doesn't have to be that way.
Of course, we're all familiar with the giant vertical turret lathes, which are the machines of choice for turning really big parts. Loading, holding, and machining large parts in a horizontal orientation is not practical for many reasons, nearly all of which have to do with the force of gravity. In a horizontal machine, you're fighting gravity Fighting Gravity is a music group based out of Richmond, Virginia. Originally a ska band called Boy O Boy, Fighting Gravity has incorporated a variety of music into their style, including reggae, rock, and pop. every step of the way. In a vertical, gravity works for you rather than against you most of the time.
A number of builders now offer CNC verticals sized and configured con·fig·ure
tr.v. con·fig·ured, con·fig·ur·ing, con·fig·ures
To design, arrange, set up, or shape with a view to specific applications or uses: for general purpose applications on more "normal" size parts. Tradition notwithstanding, these machines should be carefully evaluated, because under the right conditions they offer worthwhile advantages over horizontal configurations.
In chucking operations, for example, it's frequently both easier and more precise to load workpieces in a vertical orientation Vertical orientation is a 3:4 aspect ratio, rotated 90 degrees from a NTSC television's standard 4:3 aspect ratio. It has been used primarily for arcade games (especially during the early 1980s) and for art projects, including a music video by The Shamen. , which is why more and more high-volume special turning machines are being designed this way. Verticals also may offer an advantage in machining parts with faces that must be kept parallel, again because gravity will help ensure close contact between the part and the locating mechanism. They are also somewhat easier to tool for irregularly shaped parts that are difficult to hold.
Statistically speaking, a vertical spindle orientation will provide a small increment To add a number to another number. Incrementing a counter means adding 1 to its current value. of improved process repeatability in chucking operations because the chuck jaws engage the workpiece more uniformly. In a horizontal orientation, the lower jaws engage first, and must lift the workpiece into contact with the upper jaws, introducing an uncontrolled, if minor, process variable. The same applies to collet-held workpieces.
Verticals also eliminate workpiece "sag" and the uneven loading of spindle bearings caused by gravity. Also reduced is workpiece distortion or damage from clamping clamping (klamp´ing) in the measurement of insulin secretion and action, the infusion of a glucose solution at a rate adjusted periodically to maintain a predetermined blood glucose concentration. forces because the parts only have to be gripped tightly enough to rotate past the tool, and not supported against the force of gravity. These are all, admittedly, very small increments, but still statistically measurable.
Verticals are, in short, an option that should be considered for applications on chucked parts which are oddly shaped, have precision machined parallel faces, or require the "N-th degree" of process repeatability. They are not, however, without their drawbacks.
A horizontal machine, for example, is a much better choice for workpieces with blind bores because the chips are easier to remove. They are the only choice for bar work and are more practical for long shaft-type workpieces because they offer better operator accessibility. Horizontals are also more familiar to most machinists and are available in a greater range of sizes, types, and configurations than verticals.
If you do select a horizontal, you will then have to choose among horizontal, slant, or vertical bed designs, or some combination of these choices. Proponents of slant and vertical beds claim easier chip handling, less thermal distortion, and reduced floorspace requirements as the major benefits of their designs.
This is probably true because the bulk of modern CNC machines are either slant or vertical bed designs. What is also true, however, is that you will probably pay more for these machines than for a traditional horizontal bed design. This is another case where you have to look carefully at what you intend to do with the machine before you can make an intelligent and cost-effective decision.
The bottom line, then, is that either a horizontal or vertical machine layout will serve you well, with the edge going to the horizontal for true general-purpose versatility. But, for those parts which can benefit from the vertical's inherent advantages, the horizontal is a distinct choice. The point is not to be blinded by tradition, but rather to make your selection based on an objective evaluation of your requirements and the capabilities of the machines available to meet them.
To Mill Or Not To Mill?
The integrated turning/milling machine is a rather recent phenomenon, but one that warrants a closer look. In the right applications, mill/turn machines can literally eliminate the need for a machining center, while producing more accurate parts in less time. The impact on production costs, competitiveness, and profitability can be profound.
Of course, auxiliary auxiliary
In grammar, a verb that is subordinate to the main lexical verb in a clause. Auxiliaries can convey distinctions of tense, aspect, mood, person, and number. milling and grinding grinding, process by which surface material is removed from an object, usually metal, by the abrasive action of a rotating wheel or a moving belt that contains abrasive grains. attachments for lathes have been available for many years. What makes the new machines different is that the capabilities are truly integrated. This is really an outgrowth of the enhanced control capabilities offered by today's CNCs, which have the raw computational Having to do with calculations. Something that is "highly computational" requires a large number of calculations. horsepower horsepower, unit of power in the English system of units. It is equal to 33,000 foot-pounds per minute or 550 foot-pounds per second or approximately 746 watts. required to handle the complex, interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
in motions required to perform these operations.
There are a couple of basic approaches to the design of these machines. In one design, the rotary tools A Rotary tool is a handheld power tool with a variety of rotating accessory bits and attachments that can be used for cutting, carving, sanding, polishing and many other applications. Popular brands include Dremel and Foredom. are positioned on a separate slide or saddle that moves on either the main ways or an auxiliary set. In the other, the rotary tools are powered through a mechanism built into the turret itself, allowing you to literally "mix and match" stationary and rotary tooling as necessary.
The powered turret approach seems to be the most popular at the moment. Most machines offer a combination of radially ra·di·al
a. Of, relating to, or arranged like rays or radii.
b. Radiating from or converging to a common center.
c. Having or characterized by parts so arranged or so radiating.
2. and axially ax·i·al
1. Relating to, characterized by, or forming an axis.
2. Located on, around, or in the direction of an axis.
ax mounted tools. The radial radial /ra·di·al/ (ra´de-al)
1. pertaining to the radius of the arm or to the radial (lateral) aspect of the arm as opposed to the ulnar (medial) aspect; pertaining to a radius.
2. tools are used for operations like milling fiats or keyways. Axial axial /ax·i·al/ (ak´se-al) of or pertaining to the axis of a structure or part.
1. Relating to or characterized by an axis; axile.
2. tools give the ability to drill and tap bolt a bolt with a head on one end and a thread on the other end, to be screwed into some fixed part, instead of passing through the part and receiving a nut. See Illust. under Bolt.
See also: Tap holes and other features on the face of the part. One caveat: make sure the machine you select has the capability to perform all the operations you need now and in the future.
The advantages of being able to perform non-turning operations on a workpiece in the same setup in which turning operations are performed should be fairly obvious. They include better accuracy, shorter overall production time, and higher machine utilization by limiting multiple setups, reduction of in-process inventory by eliminating inter-machine "float," reduced capital costs by eliminating the need for machining centers, and, as a direct result, improved competitiveness and profitability.
So why aren't all CNC turning centers equipped with rotary tooling?
Probably the biggest reason is that mechanical and structural considerations presently limit the milling capabilities of these hybrid machines to fairly small parts and relatively simple operations. Within their limits, these machines can be highly productive, but they cannot duplicate the versatility and application range of two separate single-purpose machines of comparable capacity.
Less obvious, but equally important, is the fact that mill/turn machines are considerably more complex than a single-purpose machine both mechanically and to program. Both of these factors may limit their usefulness in certain kinds of applications.
Once again, it comes down to a question of what you want the machine to do. If you can eliminate the need to purchase a separate machining center by buying a hybrid, and you probably aren't going to need a machining center in the future for some other purpose, then the combination machine can be an incredible value. If not, then you have to look very carefully at the extra cost, which is significant, and make the best long term decision.
In either case, the hybrid machine is an interesting and potentially profitable alternative which should be considered. It is also a technology that is going to improve rapidly, because it is such a good idea. It's worth watching the evolution of these machines even if you have no immediate need.
If One Spindle Is Good, Two Must Be Better
Like the hybrid machines, today's multiple-spindle turning centers are a reflection of the increasing power of modern controls. These machines come in two basic configurations, side-by-side or face-to-face, and both are primarily used to perform operations on both ends of a part.
In the side-by-side configuration, a manipulator is commonly used to move the part between chucks, although manual loading is also used. These machines can also be used as regular chuckers to produce two parts simultaneously, giving them an edge in versatility for job shop applications.
The face-to-face configuration is basically a machine with a headstock at each end of the bed and one or (more typically) two turrets between them. In another illustration of the power of tradition, the primary operations on these machines are nearly always performed on the left head-stock and the secondary operations on the right.
On the more sophisticated machines, the workpiece "hand-off" is often made by moving the headstocks into contact, synchronizing synchronizing,
n a technique that a therapist uses to coordinate his or her breath with that of the client; builds trust and establishes relationship. their rotary speeds, and then transferring the "grip" from one chuck to the other on the fly. This is a real test of the control system and a tribute to the precision and reliability of modern controls and servos. Less sophisticated machines use robotic ro·bot·ic
Relating to, characteristic of, or employing robots. manipulators or manual part transfer.
These machines tend to be more complex and expensive than standard CNC turning centers. They offer, however, a greater degree of flexibility and higher production capabilities which can be highly profitable in the right applications.
Two of the more interesting developments in turning over the last few years have been the introduction of essentially modular machines, and a rebirth re·birth
1. A second or new birth; reincarnation.
2. A renaissance; a revival: a rebirth of classicism in architecture. of interest in quick-change tooling systems. These are both trends that promise significant changes in the way turning machines are purchased and used in the future.
As we've already seen, turning machines are really quite simple in conception, being in essence a combination of more or less standard components. Put a tailstock on a chucker and you have an engine lathe, put a through hole in the headstock of an engine lathe and you have a bar machine, and so forth. So, why not simply offer standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. "pieces" in a range of standard configurations? Why not, indeed.
In the past few years, several builders have done just that. The result in each case is a series of machines built up from common components that can be configured for a very broad range of applications. It's a good idea that promises to reduce machine cost through volume production of standardized components while increasing customer choice through greater opportunity for customization--another trend to watch closely in the coming years.
Over the years, a number of tooling suppliers have developed quick-change systems for lathe tooling to improve machine uptime. Most of them are based on some sort of proprietary mechanism to hold the cutting tool which then mates with a block or adapter A device that allows one system to connect to and work with another. An adapter is often a simple circuit that converts one set of signals to another; however, the term often refers to devices which are more accurately called "controllers. that is permanently or semi-permanently attached to the turret.
Most such systems use some variation on the tapered ta·per
1. A small or very slender candle.
2. A long wax-coated wick used to light candles or gas lamps.
3. A source of feeble light.
a. shank shank (shangk)
1. leg (1).
2. crus ( 2).
The part of the human leg between the knee and ankle. concept developed originally for use on machining centers. Another variation on this theme makes the adapter mechanism an integral part of the turret, with the German-developed VDI (1) (Video Device Interface) An Intel standard for speeding up full-motion video performance. See DCI.
(2) (Virtual Device Interface) An ANSI standard format for creating device drivers. VDI has been incorporated into CGI. system being the most common example.
A more recent development from Germany is the non-proprietary hollow shank/taper system (DIN 69 893) which is suitable for both rotary and stationary tooling, making it a very interesting choice for the new hybrid machines. The system is under evaluation as an ISO (1) See ISO speed.
(2) (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, www.iso.ch) An organization that sets international standards, founded in 1946. The U.S. member body is ANSI. standard.
Perhaps the most innovative approach to quick-change is the automated au·to·mate
v. au·to·mat·ed, au·to·mat·ing, au·to·mates
1. To convert to automatic operation: automate a factory.
2. turret changing system offered by at least one U.S. builder on its modular turning system. An entire 12-station turret (with all stations powered) can be changed in 30 seconds or less using this system, which can have a dramatic impact on the reduction of setup time.
Another trend that bears watching is the migration of sophisticated adaptive control Adaptive control
A special type of nonlinear control system which can alter its parameters to adapt to a changing environment. The changes in environment can represent variations in process dynamics or changes in the characteristics of the disturbances. technologies commonly found on grinders to turning machines. The integration of in-process gaging with real-time SPC 1. (business) SPC - Statistical Process Control. Something to do with quality management.
2. (body) SPC - Software Productivity Centre.
3. (company) SPC - Software Publishing Corporation.
4. and automatic tool compensation promises to substantially improve the quality performance of turning operations in the future.
Source File If you would like to discuss any of the aspects about lathes and turning mentioned in this article, please contact these companies. You may use the convenient Reader Service Card in this issue. Turning machines--horizontal, between centers, chuckers, single-spindle, bar-type: Amera Seiki 244 Bardons & Oliver 245 Bridgeport Machines 246 Brisard 247 Cincinnati Milacron 248 Clausing Industrial 249 Comau Productivity 251 Cone Blanchard Machine 252 Cosa Corp 253 Daewoo Machinery 254 Danobat 255 Davenport Machine 256 Deckel Maho 257 Dorries Scharmann 258 Emco Maier 259 Ex-Cell-O Machine 260 Giddings & Lewis 261 Gildemeister 262 Gomiya 263 Haas Automation 264 Hardinge Brothers 265 Harrison Rem Sales 266 Hitachi Seiki 267 Ikegai America 269 Index Corp 270 Jones & Lamson 271 Kia Machine Tool 272 Kitamura Machinery 273 Kummer America 274 Leadwell Mfg 275 LeBlond Makino 276 Light Machines 277 Marubeni Citizen-Cincom 278 Mazak 279 Methods Machine/Nakamura 280 MHI Machine Tool 281 Mighty Enterprises Inc 182 Mitsui Machine 283 Miyano Machinery 284 Modern Machine Tool 313 Manarch Sidney 285 Mori Seiki 286 MSC Machine Tool Div 375 Newcor Machine Tool 287 Okuma Machinery 288 Olofsson Corp 289 Omatech Inc 290 Omniturn CNC Control 291 Ravensburg Machine 293 Republic Lagun 294 Robert Bosch Corp 295 Saeilo 296 Servo Products 297 Simmons Machine Tool 298 Spinner Machine Tool 299 South Bend Lathe 300 Summit Machine Tool 301 SMG Machine Tool 302 Tomen America 303 Toolmex Corp 304 Tornos Technologies 305 Toyoda Machinery 306 Traub 307 Tsugami Rem Sales 308 Turmatic Systems 309 US Baird 310 Voest Alpine 311 Wasino 312 Yang 314 YCI Inc CNC Div 315 Turning machines--vertical turret: Daewoo Machinery 254 Giddings & Lewis 261 Gomiya USA 263 Index 270 Kingsbury Turning Div 316 Mandelli 317 Mario Carnaghi 318 Mazak 279 Mitsui Machine 283 Newcor Machine Tool 287 Okuma & Howa 319 Olofsson Corp 289 Omnitrade Machinery 320 Pittler Tornos 292 Republic Lagun 294 Spinner Machine Tool 299 Takang Industry 321 Takisawa USA 322 Toolmex Corp 304 Wasino 312 Werth Engineering 323 Turnmill machines: American-Wera 324 Bohle Machine Tools 325 Caltec Machinery 326 Cincinnati Milacron 248 Crankshaft Machine 327 Daewoo Machinery 254 Hitachi Seiki USA 267 Leistritz 328 Marubeni Citizen-Cincom 278 Mazak 279 Mitsui Machine 283 Motch Corp 329 Okuma Machinery 288 Olofsson Corp 289 Pittler Tornos 292 Ravensburg Machine 293 Spinner Machine Tool 299 Tornos Technologies 305 Tsugami Rem Sales 308 Voest Alpine Trading 311 Wasino 312