LUNG GROWTH TRACKED AMONG KIDS LANCASTER CHILDREN REPRESENT THE AVERAGE.Byline: Karen Maeshiro Staff Writer
LANCASTER - More than halfway through a decade-long study on lung development, Lancaster children are ``in middle of the pack'' when compared with other children in Southern California Southern California, also colloquially known as SoCal, is the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. Centered on the cities of Los Angeles and San Diego, Southern California is home to nearly 24 million people and is the nation's second most populated region, , early results show.
Since 1993, several hundred Lancaster schoolchildren schoolchildren school npl → écoliers mpl;
(at secondary school) → collégiens mpl; lycéens mpl
schoolchildren school have been participating in a 10-year study by the University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission to learn how children's lungs are affected by such factors as heredity heredity, transmission from generation to generation through the process of reproduction in plants and animals of factors which cause the offspring to resemble their parents. That like begets like has been a maxim since ancient times. , events during pregnancy and birth, and exposure to air pollution, tobacco smoke and cooking fuels.
``We are tracking how lungs are growing and how they are growing from the time (children) are in the fourth grade to the time they are in high school,'' said Ed Avol, assistant director of the study.
``In terms of lung-function growth, it looks like Lancaster is pretty much in the middle.''
The study - considered the first of its kind - will calculate breathing capacity, youngsters' activity levels, their classroom absences due to respiratory illness, and air quality inside and outside homes and classrooms, researchers said.
About 300 youngsters in fourth, seventh and 10th grades in Antelope Valley schools were selected to participate in the study when it began, along with 300 pupils from other Southern California communities, researchers said. The communities are Atascadero, Santa Maria, Lompoc, Lancaster, Long Beach, San Dimas, Upland, Mira Loma, Riverside, Lake Arrowhead, Lake Elsinore and Alpine.
About 200 children in Lancaster are still being followed in the study, Avol said.
Lancaster's air quality - measured by the presence of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particles and acids - also has been rated average among the 12 cities, said Avol, an associate professor at the USC An abbreviation for U.S. Code. Keck School of Medicine.
During the annual lung tests, youngsters take a deep breath and exhale exhale /ex·hale/ (eks´hal) to breathe out.
1. To breathe out.
2. To emit a gas, vapor, or odor. forcefully into a spirometer spirometer /spi·rom·e·ter/ (spi-rom´e-ter) an instrument for measuring the air taken into and exhaled by the lungs.
n. , which measures lung capacity. The test helps determine how clear the lungs are and how well air can move through the organs.
Children with slower lung function growth rates Growth Rates
The compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends, or other figures.
Remember, historically high growth rates don't always mean a high rate of growth looking into the future. are from communities in Riverside and San Bernardino counties, where it is smoggier, and there are higher particle measurements and emissions from cars, Avol said.
``The issue is the kids that live in more polluted communities, their lungs don't seem to be growing as fast as kids that are living in clean communities,'' Avol said. ``That raises a couple of points. It may be there's a growth spurt growth spurt Pediatrics A period of rapid growth in middle adolescence; ♀ ↑ ±8 cm/yr ±age 12; ♂ ↑ ±10 cm/yr ± age 14; GS is orderly, affecting acral parts–ie, hands and feet grow before proximal regions, later on and they catch up. Maybe they never catch up.''
Measurements of air pollutants between 1994 and 1996 indicate Lancaster averaged about 33 parts per billion for ozone, and that average was fairly consistent from year to year, Avol said.
The other communities in the study varied from a low of about 20 parts per billion to a high of about 65 parts per billion, with most communities in the range of 25 to 35 parts per billion, Avol said.
For PM10, or particles smaller than ten microns in diameter, Lancaster averaged about 25 micrograms per cubic meter, compared to a range of about 15 to 70 micrograms per cubic meter in other communities, Avol said.
The PM10 average for all 12 communities was about 30 micrograms per cubic meter.
For nitrogen dioxide, the Lancaster average was about 18 parts per billion, compared to a community range of five to 41 parts per billion, with the 12-community average being about 18 parts per billion, Avol said.
The state, through the California Air Resources Board California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the "clean air agency" of the state of California in the United States. Established originally in 1967, it is a part of the California Environmental Protection Agency, an organization which reports directly to the California , has granted USC a $2 million contract for the first two years of the study. Local and federal air quality agencies have contributed to the project.