LAN cabling's new role: IP-based video-surveillance systems are pushing their way into data networks.It managers are discovering that their voice and data network systems are being expanded for converged applications over the same physical cabling infrastructure.
Standalone systems, such as CCTV CCTV
CCTV closed-circuit television , access control, security/intrusion, audio/visual notification and building automation systems (BAS BAS
1. Bachelor of Agricultural Science
2. Bachelor of Applied Science ), are moving from non-standard isolated systems to an integrated system over the installed network through IP-based functions. In fact, IP-based video surveillance is expected to represent 50% of the video-surveillance market by 2008 (source: Lehman Brothers Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (NYSE: LEH), founded in 1850, is a diversified, global financial services firm. It is a participant in investment banking, equity and fixed income sales, research and trading, investment management, private equity, and private banking. ).
Through IP, the migration of analog, digital and network security devices into the tipper layers of the open systems interconnection (networking) Open Systems Interconnection - (OSI-RM, OSI Reference Model, seven layer model) A model of network architecture and a suite of protocols (a protocol stack) to implement it, developed by ISO in 1978 as a framework for international standards in heterogeneous computer (OSI (1) (Open System Interconnection) An ISO standard for worldwide communications that defines a framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the ) model are creating new dynamics for the cabling infrastructure. The use of open standards Specifications for hardware and software that are developed by a standards organization or a consortium involved in supporting a standard. Available to the public for developing compliant products, open standards imply "open systems;" that an existing component in a system can be replaced allows compliant infrastructures to remain in place while other modules or components are added. Open standards encourage this modular approach to systems design, whereby components from several manufacturers can be incorporated into a common infrastructure with common protocols.
By utilizing an IP-addressable system, remote computer monitoring Recording a user's activity on the computer. Computer monitoring programs are used to determine how much time an employee spends on various tasks as well as possible illicit activities. and communication of converged applications bring centralized control 1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes direct target assignments to fire units. 2. In joint air operations, placing within one commander the responsibility and authority for planning, directing, and coordinating a military operation or group/category of of these applications to IT and facility managers. When selecting a structured-cabling system, the IT manager is now responsible for looking at the long-term return on investment, as the installed network today must be able to handle the speed, bandwidth and power requirements of these emerging applications.
There are existing standards for structured cabling Structured Cabling is defined as building or campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems. that can be applied to security applications over an IP-based system. Proven interoperability principles and standards have been formulated in IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, www.ieee.org) A membership organization that includes engineers, scientists and students in electronics and allied fields. 802.3 IP protocols and ANSI/TIA/ EIA standards Here is a list of Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) Standards...
This interoperability includes common media, connectors and topology with the voice, data and Facilities networks. This saves time and cost in material selection and installation labor, while also making the network system easily scalable, without having to recable.
An integrated digital security system over the network allows a more proactive approach to surveillance and data mining. For many years, video surveillance was accomplished by attaching an analog (CCTV) camera with coax cable to a dedicated monitor and a VCR VCR: see videocassette recorder.
in full videocassette recorder
Electromechanical device that records, stores on a videotape cassette, and plays back on a TV set recorded images and sound. for recording. This system relied on human observers, normally watching multiple screens and hours of videotape in a control center to trigger any type of response. These early video camera surveillance systems were installed by security camera contractors who did not have the knowledge of the structured cabling systems, as the LAN (Local Area Network) A communications network that serves users within a confined geographical area. The "clients" are the user's workstations typically running Windows, although Mac and Linux clients are also used. systems were kept separate and managed by the IT department.
Today's analog and digital IP cameras can be connected through structured cabling and attached to digital network storage devices. The data produced can be used for analysis through the LAN and WAN, in addition to video mining. It can also integrate with other applications, such as access control, utilizing multifactor authentication, including biometrics and BAS over the same network through the same cabling infrastructure.
Through structured cabling, today's security systems can incorporate both analog and digital cameras, which are connected via unshielded Adj. 1. unshielded - (used especially of machinery) not protected by a shield
unprotected - lacking protection or defense twisted-pair (UTP UTP (uridine triphosphate): see uracil.
(Unshielded Twisted Pair) See twisted pair.
UTP - unshielded twisted pair ) cabling to digital video recorders (DVRs) or network video recorders (NVRs) in the telecom room or data center. Multiple functions, such as power, video and data, can be delivered simultaneously on one UTP four-pair cable.
"The path to IP does not necessarily mean replacing analog cameras with IP cameras," states Mike Mahan, vice president of sales for NVT NVT Niet Van Toepassing
NVT Network Virtual Terminal
NVT Network Video Technologies
NVT Navegantes, Santa Catarina, Brazil (Airport Code)
NVT Nederlands als Vreemde Taal
NVT New Venture Theatre , a manufacturer of video transceivers and hub systems for CCTV. "IP-based video is accomplished by two methods: digitization/encoding of video by a discrete device from an analog device (camera), or deploying IP-based cameras. Since 85% of CCTV installations still support analog cameras, the convergence to IP-based video utilizes hybrid alternatives, which is a mix of analog and IP over a UTP-based structured cabling system."
Because analog cameras utilize coax cable connections, UTP CCTV transceivers are connected to the camera's video output and the horizontal cabling, which convert an unbalanced 75-ohm signal to a balanced UTP 100-ohm signal. The first of two hybrid alternatives incorporates an analog camera, which is connected to the DVR (1) (Digital Video Recorder) A device that records video onto a hard disk from one or more ceiling mounted video cameras. Part of a security system, the DVR typically supports 4, 8 or 16 separate camera channels. in the control center where the video is stored and reviewed by security personnel. Through the network, the DVR is connected to an IP output.
The second hybrid alternative connects the video signal from the camera cabled directly into an encoder, which is connected to an NVR NVR Never
NVR Network Video Recorder
NVR Novgorod (Russia)
NVR Naval Vessel Register (US Navy)
NVR Nene Valley Railway (UK)
NVR Non Volatile Residue
NVR Non-Volatile RAM via the IP network. An NVR acts like a server with direct network video connection, and utilizes storage capacity through the network. In contrast, the DVR has a separate hard drive for storage and connects to cameras using traditional analog signals.
All connections from cameras to the DVR or NVR utilize the structured cabling infrastructure through patch panels in the telecom room. Connecting the DVR and NVR directly to the network allows users on the network to access the video output through the same cabling infrastructure.
"The benefit of the hybrid models is that you can still take advantage of legacy analog camera technology, which offers a clearer picture and does not require any network bandwidth, as analog transmission only utilizes Layer 1 of the OSI model until it is converted to digital by the DVR or encoder," explains Mahan.
"The next logical progression is to carry the digital signals over a structured cabling system through IP or network cameras," states Paul Koebbe, national market manager, security, for Graybar Electric Co. "IP-addressable cameras can be placed anywhere on the infrastructure, as electronics that are handling other IP traffic can easily be integrated with the security system."
Network cameras contain the optic, imaging system and encoder to capture and transmit live images via an Ethernet port over an IP network, such as LAN, intranet or Internet. This enables users to remotely view and/or manage the camera from a Web browser The program that serves as your front end to the Web on the Internet. In order to view a site, you type its address (URL) into the browser's Location field; for example, www.computerlanguage.com, and the home page of that site is downloaded to you. on any computer, including pocket PCs and PDAs, from anywhere, at any time.
A major concern in selecting an efficient structured-cabling solution is to ensure that the system will be scalable to handle the additional bandwidth and electrical requirements of these converged applications. Once IP cameras replace existing analog cameras, the UTP-based cabling will need to provide high-bandwidth IP data, as well as sufficient power and control for applications such as pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ PTZ Pan-Tilt-Zoom (camera)
PTZ Photo Zenith Tube
PTZ Poisson Truncated At Zero Model
PTZ Point Zero ). In addition, the structured-cabling solution should be upgradeable to integrate with future applications, such as access control and other BAS functions.
Fiber is the preferred media for backbone connectivity between closets and for long-distance horizontal cabling for cameras located more than 290 feet from the patching fields, such as out to guard shacks. Horizontal distribution of data, video signal and power to cameras within the 290-foot limit via the network can be accomplished with Category 5e for today's applications. Network integrators and IT managers, however, need to be aware of the bandwidth required in the future for high-resolution megapixel images and disk space for storage, as well as the added heat generated when using the same cable for power over Ethernet Power over Ethernet or PoE technology describes a system to transmit electrical power, along with data, to remote devices over standard twisted-pair cable in an Ethernet network. (POE) over UTP.
Currently, IEEE 802.3af specifies Ethernet-delivered power at 12.95 watts. Evolving applications will require greater power to run PTZ cameras at up to 30 watts and access control systems up to 25 watts. The next-generation standard, IEEE 802.3at, or PoE Plus, is being designed to operate over Category 5e or Category 6, and will increase the powered device load to a minimum of 30 watts.
Installing a higher grade of cable, such as enhanced Category 6, will provide more headroom for extended bandwidth capabilities, lower insertion loss for stronger signals, improved crosstalk immunity for better picture quality, and improved resistance to higher temperatures for PoE. Through an Ethernet/IP platform, the convergence of multiple systems over a reliable UTP-based cabling solution will mean lower construction costs, lower cost per port, reduced maintenance costs and centralized management.
Carol Everett Oliver is the marketing analyst for Berk-Tek, a Nexans Company, in New Holland, Pa.
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