L'Oreal looks to advance ethnic hair & skin: researchers gather in Chicago to hear the latest news on how to treat pseudofolliculitis barbae, damaged hair, acne, hyperpigmentation and a host of other issues that are important to ethnic consumers.
SEARCHING FOR A MARKET segment with real growth potential? Consider these statistics: approximately 35% of the U.S. population is non-caucasian and by 2050, non-caucasians are expected to account for 50% of the population.
Clearly, more research into ethnic hair and skin treatments is needed. In order to gain insight into these growing segments, L'Oreal recently teamed up with Howard University to sponsor their third international ethnic hair and skin care symposium. Leading scientists and dermatologists gathered in Chicago in September to discuss a variety of hair and skin care topics. L'Oreal's Victoria Holloway Barbosa, MD, MPH and Rebat Halder, MD, Howard University, served as co-chairpersons.
In her keynote address, Mikki Taylor of Essence, insisted that the mainstream media often paints an incomplete portrait of the ethnic consumer and that there is a real need for specialized cosmetics. Her views are in sharp contrast to the practices of many cosmetics companies which, in recent years, have eliminated entire ethnic cosmetic lines. Instead, they've added darker shades to their cosmetics collections for the general population.
Alan Swift (Swift Hair Consultancy, UK) compared Asian, African and Caucasian hair, noting that there are clear differences in diameters and structural components of the keratin keratin (kĕr`ətĭn), any one of a class of fibrous protein molecules that serve as structural units for various living tissues. The keratins are the major protein components of hair, wool, nails, horn, hoofs, and the quills of feathers. composite. However, the roll of genetics, biochemistry and structural effects on curliness are still a mystery, he observed. TEM TEM
1. transmission electron microscope.
3. transmissible encephalopathy of mink. images revealed that African-American hair has orthocortical and paracortical cells in the cortex. In contrast, Caucasian hair only exhibits paracortical cells. Furthermore, African-American hair includes twisted macrofibrils that requires supercontraction to straighten it.
Of course, curly characteristics are not exclusive to African-Americans. Sebastian Thibaut (L'Oreal France) explained that the curvature of curly hair is programmed from the basal area of the follicle and is due to the intrinsic asymmetric differentiation of all bulb compartments.
The natural shape of human hair is related to the molecular organization of proteins, reported Phillip Barbarat (L'Oreal France). In his research, the macroscopic shape of the fibers was optically analyzed against cross-section variations along the fiber axis. TEM techniques allow the visualization of the cortical cell distribution and the macrofibrils conformation versus the curl pattern.
A poster by Alain Franbourg and a team from L'Oreal, France summarized the water-keratin interaction in ethnic hair. African-American hair absorbs less water, at a faster swelling rate. The differences are due to the amount and nature of lipids in the hair.
Hair orientation analysis can be accomplished by Fourier transform image analysis reported Janusz Jachowicz (ISP, Wayne, NJ). He characterized the alignment and distribution of hair fibers untreated and treated with conditioners, styling aids and relaxers. Relaxers caused disorder in the alignment in African-American hair.
Clinical Research on Hair
According to speakers at the symposium, African-American hair contains more pigment, larger melanin melanin (mĕl`ənĭn), water-insoluble polymer of various compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine. It is one of two pigments found in human skin and hair and adds brown to skin color; the other pigment is carotene, which contributes granules, elliptical follicles, smaller diameter and a spiral appearance. Caucasian hair has ovoid o·void or o·voi·dal
Something that is shaped like an egg.
Shaped like an egg; oviform.
having the oval shape of an egg.
colloid body. follicles, intermediate diameter and wavy appearance. Asian hair is characterized by straight follicles, a large diameter and straight appearance. These differences may help to understand some of the unique issues related to ethnic hair care.
A major objective of cosmetic chemists continues to be the management of pseudofolliculitis, follicular fol·lic·u·lar
1. Relating to, having, or resembling a follicle or follicles.
2. Affecting or growing out of a follicle or follicles. degeneration and traction alopecia. Dr. Fran Cook-Bolden (Columbia University, New York) summarized this area affecting the ethnic population. Dryness and fracture have long been a source of frustration for consumers, patients, stylists and health providers.
There are diseases affecting ethnic hair and scalp related to grooming habits or other etiologies including but not limited to alopecias caused by physical/chemical agents (traumatic, follicular degeneration--hot comb, central centrifugal, traction) and infectious/inflammatory (acne keloidalis, folliculitis Folliculitis Definition
Folliculitis is inflammation or infection of one or more hair follicles (openings in the skin that enclose hair).
Folliculitis can affect both women and men at any age. , dissecting cellulites, pustular pus·tu·lar
Of, relating to, or consisting of pustules.
pertaining to or of the nature of a pustule; consisting of pustules. dermatosis dermatosis /der·ma·to·sis/ (der?mah-to´sis) pl. dermato´ses any skin disease, especially one not characterized by inflammation. , tinea capitis, alopecia areata). The practice of evidence-based medicine can provide effective treatments and improve the overall well being.
The Latest in Hair Care Research
Black consumers can often go years without needing a haircut because regular combing often causes many fractures and breaks in the hair shaft, according to Nonhlanhla Khumalo (University of Capetown, South Africa). Using SEM techniques, his team found that Black consumers often have 10-16% more knots than European consumers.
Psychologist Angel Neal-Barnett (Kent State University, Ohio) detailed her experiences with trichotilomania, a compulsive pulling out of one's hair, which produces a pustular dermatosis of the scalp. Dr. Neal-Barnett studied the psychological impact of the malady on a group of female pullers before and after these episodes and learned that the pulling episode is related to a tension-reduction cycle and other emotions.
According to Douglas Shander (Gillette, Needham, MA) a major cause of pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB PFB
Pseudofolliculitis. ) is that hair is only partially cut or totally missed during shaving. As a result, consumers end up with ingrown hairs and inflammatory lesions. Eflornithine seemed to affect the proportion of paracortical cells and cell proliferation by yielding an asymmetrical keratinization keratinization /ker·a·tin·i·za·tion/ (ker?ah-tin?i-za´shun) conversion into keratin.
The conversion of squamous epithelial cells into a horny material, such as nails. pattern in the follicle compartments, and further allowing to modify the curly hair shape. Dr. Shander and his team found that eflornithine (13.9% active in cream form) was an effective PFB treatment.
Dr. Susan Taylor (Society Hill Dermatology, Philadelphia, PA) presented another PFB treatment that involves a triple combination cream containing fluocinolone acetonide (0.01%), hydroquinone hydroquinone /hy·dro·quin·one/ (hi?dro-kwi-non´) the reduced form of quinone, used topically as a skin depigmenting agent.
n. (4%) and tretinoin tretinoin /tret·i·noin/ (tret´i-noin?) the all-trans stereoisomer of retinoic acid, used as a topical keratolytic in the treatment of acne vulgaris and disorders of keratinization and administered orally in the treatment of acute (0.05%). The treatment reduced inflammatory lesions, released ingrown hairs and lightened hyperpigmentation Hyperpigmentation Definition
Hyperpigmentation is the increase in the natural color of the skin.
Melanin, a brown pigment manufactured by certain cells in the skin called melanocytes, is responsible for skin color. .
The speakers concluded that hair loss should remain an important topic for future research. Combing regimens and genetics both play a role in hair damage. Interestingly, David Cannell (L'Oreal USA) told the audience that South Africa is not a model for Afro hair due to a lack of proper product usage as well as limited access to warm water.
Advances in Skin Care
African skin is delicate and suffers under environmental stresses, including extreme temperatures and sun exposure. Pigmentation alterations are typical and a natural result of the body's UV defense mechanism. African skin, due to its high melanin content, provides natural SPF (1) (Stateful Packet Firewall) See stateful inspection.
(2) (Sender Policy Framework) An e-mail authentication system that verifies that the message came from an authorized mail server. 13. Yet, pigment disorders are very common. Also, men suffer from razor bumps, a consequence of close shaving. Depilation depilation /dep·i·la·tion/ (dep?i-la´shun) epilation; removal of hair by the roots.
removal of hair by the roots. creams are popular with consumers, but over time scarring is apparent.
Dermatologist Henry Lim (Henry Ford Hospital Henry Ford Hospital is a hospital located in Detroit, Michigan a few blocks from Wayne State University and the New Center area, near the Fisher Building and Cadillac Place. The hospital was founded in 1915 by Henry Ford as a philanthropic project. , MI) provided insight into pigment variations between consumer groups. While melanocytes Melanocytes
Skin cells derived from the neural crest that produce the protein pigment melanin.
Mentioned in: Malignant Melanoma, Skin Pigmentation Disorders
melanocytes are constant for all races, melanosomes are large and dispersed in keratinocytes Keratinocytes
Cells found in the epidermis. The keratinocytes at the outer surface of the epidermis are dead and form a tough protective layer. The cells underneath divide to replenish the supply. in Afro-Americans, they are small and aggregated in Caucasians and well-dispersed in Asians. He also told the audience that protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a valuable marker related to the skin color phenotype. Acute effects of UV include erythema erythema (ĕr'əthē`mə), more or less diffuse redness of the skin due to concentration of an abnormally large amount of blood within the small vessels of the skin (hyperemia), as in burns. , immediate and persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning.
Sunlight-induced vitamin D production also varies by ethnic group. For example, production is high in Caucasians and low in African-Americans. The lack of this vitamin is associated with bone fractures and other ailments.
According to Dr. Stephane Diridollou (L'Oreal, USA) aging signs like skin roughness and anisotropy anisotropy /an·isot·ro·py/ (an?i-sot´rah-pe) the quality of being anisotropic.
anisotropy (an´āsôt´r are more pronounced in Caucasians than Hispanic, Asian and African-American. A non-invasive in-vivo capacitance imaging instrument was used to determine the skin topography in ventral and dorsal forearms.
Imaging methods were presented by Dr. Bernard Querleux (L'Oreal, France). Using ultrasound scanners and optical coherence tomography Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric, non-invasive optical tomographic imaging technique offering millimeter penetration (approximately 2-3 mm in tissue) with micrometer-scale axial and lateral resolution. , researcher are able to measure morphological and physiological properties, including skin thickness and dermal/epidermal textures.
Dermatologist Abena Ofori (University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. , MI) explained how a high dose of UVB/[A.sup.2]) (290-340nm) may be used to induce collagen remodeling in skin. From birth to old age, collagen begins to degrade, leading to increasing amounts ofmetalloproteinases (MMPs) and the inhibition of procollagen synthesis. It has been shown that this antifibrotic treatment is of great value for improving slerosing disorders of the skin including scleroderma scleroderma
or progressive systemic sclerosis
Chronic disease that hardens the skin and fixes it to underlying structures. Swelling and collagen buildup lead to loss of elasticity. The cause is unknown. and morphea.
According to dermatologist A. Paul Kelly (King Drew Medical Center; Los Angeles, CA) for years, African-Americans and other ethnic groups were excluded from pharmaceutical-sponsored research, and most clinical trials were conducted on Caucasian males. He discussed clinical diseases including mast cells/keloids, acne keloidalis, seborrheic dermatitis, basal cell carcinoma basal cell carcinoma
A slow-growing, locally invasive, but rarely metastasizing neoplasm of the skin derived from basal cells of the epidermis or hair follicles. Also called basal cell epithelioma. in Hispanics, melasma and warts.
Dr. Jean P. de Rigal (L'Oreal, France) explained that sebum sebum: see sebaceous gland. excretion and the number of sebaceous glands is lower in Asians and Hispanics and higher in Caucasians and Afro-Americans. The normal decrease during aging is linear in Asians and drops at age 50 in the other groups.
A poster by Dr. Shahrzad Bakthian (L'Oreal, USA) summarized the effect that 5% vitamin C formula had on facial skin texture, pigmentation, skin complexion, enlarged pores and sallowness. All improved after the eight week treatment.
The incidence of skin cancer within the ethnic population was presented by dermatologist Ella Toombs (Dupont Circle PLLC; Washington, DC). Data suggests that, within the general population, 1 in 50 individuals will be diagnosed with melanoma by 2010. Yet, risk factors for non-caucasians remain unclear--the incidence of melanoma in African-Americans is just 7 in 100,000.
An Update on R&D
Karl Lintner (Sederma, France) provided details on diacetyl-nor-aporphines, novel molecules that inhibit melanogenesis in ethnic skin. These materials decrease the calcium flow in and out of the cell. Their performance is similar to kojic acid, without affecting cell viability, he insisted.
Relaxers are used by 70% of African-American women. But according to Dr. Robert Tackey (L'Oreal, USA), lye and no-lye types can induce the expression of some inflammatory mediators like cytokines and other neurogenic neurogenic /neu·ro·gen·ic/ (-jen´ik)
1. forming nervous tissue.
2. originating in the nervous system or from a lesion in the nervous system. irritants.
Dr. Harold Bryant (L'Oreal, USA) reviewed sodium hydroxide and guanidine guanidine /gua·ni·dine/ (gwah´ni-den) the compound NHdbondC(NH2)2, a strong base found in the urine as a result of protein metabolism and used in the laboratory as a protein denaturant. , two actives found in lye and non-lye relaxers, respectively. To reduce levels of irritation, stylists suggested that lye-based products may be better than no-lye products because contact time is shorter.
According to Dr. Rob Comber comb·er
1. One, such as a machine or a worker, that combs something, such as wool.
2. A long wave that has reached its peak or broken into foam; a breaker. (Croda, USA) hair is weakened by repeated use of relaxers and permanent hair colors. His team measured hair strength in a flexabrasion experiment using a protein/polisiloxane polymer.
For patients of color, common skin conditions are difficult to treat with conventional methods, said dermatologist Maritza Perez (St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center). She described how lasers were used to treat Inflammatory acne (1540nm Erbium); acne scar with Cutera Genesis (14J/[cm.sup.2], 300ns, 5Hz); Lentigines lentigines /len·tig·i·nes/ (len-tij´i-nez) plural of lentigo. , Melasma and Photodamge with StarLux pulsed-light system; Skin laxity and Loss of volume with Titan (40J/[cm.sup.2]).
Daily hair combing and styling can lead to the development of centrifugal alopecias, said Valerie Callender (Howard University; Washington, DC). The most common treatment is cortiscosteroids, but hair transplant surgery is also an option.
Dermatologist Melissa Bogle (Laser/Cosmetic Surgery; Houston, TX), detailed the benefits of using a 1540nm Erbium laser treatment for facial acne. She insisted that this method is superior to 1320nm Nd:YAG 1450nm laser with reduced hyperpignmentation risk from cryogenic cooling.
Dr. Karen Kim (Laser & Skin Surgery; New York, NY), a dermatologist, reviewed how fractional phototermolysis (Fraxel laser) improves acne scars by inducing collagen remodelling. Dermatologist Fasahat Hamzavi (Henry Ford Hospital; Detroit, MI), explained how the Nd:YAG laser is used to treat dissecting cellulites, a chronic inflammatory scalp condition and cicatricial alopecia. The procedures results in less pus, pain and dyspigmentation, and increases hair re-growth.
Cherie Young (Callender Skin/Laser Center; Mitchellville, MD), a dermatologist, reviewed how the combination of Nd:YAG laser/eflornithine and HC1 (13.9%) can be used to remove excess facial hair. The procedure also improved pseudofollicullitis barbae, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and hirsutism Hirsutism Definition
Excessive growth of facial or body hair in women is called hirsutism.
Hirsutism is not a disease. The condition usually develops during puberty and becomes more pronounced as the years go by. .
About the Author
Maximo Panitch is managing director of Max Panitch Inc., a consulting company that provides development and communication services to the cosmetics industry. The company specializes in the Latin American markets. More info: Max Panitch Inc., 7434 Lowell Avenue, Skokie, IL 60076 (USA), Tel/Fax: 847-675-5231, E-mail: MPaniLEJON@AOL.COM