Knowledge sharing, communities of practice, and Learning Asset Integration--Dau's major initiatives.The concepts of Knowledge Management (KM) and knowledge communities have matured over the past decade and are being recognized as major enablers for personal learning and job performance in achieving organizational business objectives. As a result, industry and government organizations are investing in KM, Organizational Learning Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts.
In Organizational development (OD), learning is a characteristic of an adaptive organization, i.e. (OL), and other development programs to help employees tap into knowledge resources. This article discusses the impact of KM on personal learning, job performance, and organizational learning. What follows is an overview of Knowledge Sharing through the eyes of the Defense Acquisition University, along with some new initiatives called Learning Asset Integration and Workflow Learning, which will be major support systems for the Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics workforce.
Knowledge comprises a highly significant part of the assets of any organization. The utilization and continuous creation of knowledge are the most important managerial challenges organizations face today. While the technology for collecting, storing, and accessing information continues to grow exponentially ex·po·nen·tial
1. Of or relating to an exponent.
a. Containing, involving, or expressed as an exponent.
b. , the ability to effectively and efficiently use this information to enhance job performance, as well as deliver quality products and services remains elusive. The social challenge of fostering human interaction and Knowledge Sharing (KS) to encourage thinking rather than sophisticated copying remains a constant.
The management challenge is to create an environment that truly values KS. The personal challenge--often downplayed--is to be open to the ideas of others, willing to share ideas, and maintain a thirst thirst, sensation indicating the body's need for water. Dry or salty food and dry, dusty air may induce such a sensation by depleting moisture in the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat. for new knowledge. Knowledge in organizations manifests itself in one of two forms--explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge Explicit knowledge is knowledge that has been or can be articulated, codified, and stored in certain media. It can be readily transmitted to others. The most common forms of explicit knowledge are manuals, documents and procedures. Knowledge also can be audio-visual. can be easily articulated, captured, and transferred. Tacit knowledge The concept of tacit knowing comes from scientist and philosopher Michael Polanyi. It is important to understand that he wrote about a process (hence tacit knowing) and not a form of . is intangible and not easily transferable, and therein lies the problem. How do we share and transfer the tacit knowledge that resides in an organization?
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Moreover, it is all too apparent that information alone is of little value. To be truly useful, the information must have context--applied through individuals who bring their tacit knowledge, skills, and unique experiences to a situation to better understand and affect a desired outcome. Tapping into critical pieces of information and being able to interface with other knowledge workers who can add context is at the heart of the Defense Acquisition University's (DAU's) Knowledge Management (KM) strategy.
Technologies of various kinds seem to further facilitate these transformations. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the presence of technology without a context is irrelevant. In a constantly changing knowledge economy, the only sustainable competitive advantage is the knowledge capital of an enterprise. This knowledge capital lies in the minds of the enterprise's employees in either explicit or tacit form, waiting to be reaped. We recognize the strategic importance of enterprise knowledge assets and are committed to fostering and facilitating the creation of a KS environment.
The traditional definition of KM refers to the process of creating, capturing, organizing, transferring, and using knowledge to enhance organizational performance Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives).
Specialists in many fields are concerned with organizational performance including strategic planners, operations, . Knowledge management must be a persistent agent A chemical agent that, when released, remains able to cause casualties for more than 24 hours to several days or weeks. of both business and information technology strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. . We believe creating the right environment to foster sharing and collaboration is a critical component of KM. That environment must stress the importance of leadership, people, culture, process, learning, and enabling technology. The DAU DAU - /dow/ [German Fidonet] D"ummster Anzunehmender User. A German acronym for stupidest imaginable user. From the engineering-slang GAU for Gr"osster Anzunehmender Unfall (worst foreseeable accident), especially of a LNG tank farm plant or something with similarly disastrous must focus on the many disciplines of KM--our major challenge and goal is to facilitate KS.
WHY IS KNOWLEDGE SHARING AN AT&L IMPERATIVE?
Political, economic, and social forces in conjunction with rapid technological advancements are shaping today's organizational operating environment In computing, an operating environment is the environment in which users run programs, whether in a command line interface, such as in MS-DOS or the Unix shell, or in a graphical user interface, such as in the Macintosh operating system. . These forces have accelerated the speed and frequency of change. This new reality requires the community to be innovative, adaptable, and poised to take advantage of a fast-changing environment. Coupled with the increasing lack of time and attention workers have available to commit to traditional competency-based learning, there is a deep recognition that learning methods must keep pace with the needs and expectations of the community.
One of the common knowledge gaps in our community is the lack of capturing experiential ex·pe·ri·en·tial
Relating to or derived from experience.
ex·peri·en learning for key business practices. Thus, we are often faced with the frustration of reinventing the wheel Reinventing the wheel is a phrase that means a generally accepted technique or solution is ignored in favor of a locally invented solution. To "reinvent the wheel" is to duplicate a basic method that has long since been accepted and even taken for granted. when working with these practices. There is no formalized for·mal·ize
tr.v. for·mal·ized, for·mal·iz·ing, for·mal·iz·es
1. To give a definite form or shape to.
a. To make formal.
b. process for capturing and documenting what was learned so that this knowledge can serve as an input into the next project or query.
Another gap, which we are addressing more rapidly, is the ability to locate expertise quickly. This often occurs when one needs information quickly and asks these questions. Who is the expert in this area? Who can I talk with to get that information?
The third gap is the integration of KS so that content does not manually arrive after the point of need, but rather when the work suggests it. Addressing these issues and reducing knowledge gaps are major keys to performance and effectiveness. Subsequently, the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) is broadening its support to the community by creating a continuous-presence service environment, and developing the necessary resources and infrastructure for self-service, customized/personalized learning, and KS. The ability for the Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition community to adapt to change, act rapidly, be innovative, and continuously improve upon practices requires the infrastructure and the cultural atmosphere that facilitates these attributes. The attention DAU is focusing on modularizing and integrating learning assets (see Learning Asset Integration), and cultivating a KS environment sets the stage for a more relevant and valuable learning experience for the community, tied to real-world issues.
To ensure that DAU is effective in vying vy·ing
Present participle of vie.
vying vie for the time and attention of the community, the learning focus must be targeted, personalized per·son·al·ize
tr.v. per·son·al·ized, per·son·al·iz·ing, per·son·al·iz·es
1. To take (a general remark or characterization) in a personal manner.
2. To attribute human or personal qualities to; personify. , and relevant to the worker. The acquisition worker is looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. the DAU experience to provide relevant know-how with the kind of context necessary to make faster, better-informed decisions and leverage the vast amount of knowledge that DAU--and DoD--embodies as a whole in documents, people, and processes.
We believe that KS fundamentally anchors organizational productivity for both DAU and the Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L) community. From that foundation, all of the goals noted above become derivative benefits as our methods and practices are applied to connect people, processes, and information. Based on our experience with communities of practice, we have also realized that value creation in these KS communities is a continuous cycle.
We have also found that this effect is heightened when members cross-pollinate by participating in multiple communities (e.g., program management and logistics).
The DAU's primary strategy is to capture and integrate learning assets, as well as cultivate KS environments that allow for the context building and interaction essential to move beyond piles of data and into the realm of synthesis, action, and continuous learning. A clear objective is to leverage the collective intellect of the organization to advance organizational learning and community innovation.
The DAU must take advantage of both explicit (documented) and tacit (in-our-heads) knowledge so each individual in the AT&L community can quickly draw on the total body of knowledge, within a minimum number of clicks. This concept is supported by the notion of evolving to a learner practitioner--learn as you work, work as you learn environment; analogous to the operational train as you fight, fight as you train.
The DAU continues to accomplish this objective by blurring the line between the community and the schoolhouse--encouraging the belief that learning occurs before, during, and after any competency-based learning intervention. The DAU provides the AT&L community with the tools and resources it needs to improve job performance 24/ 7. The DAU is integrating learning assets and maintaining a continuous presence to the AT&L community via online resources like the AT&L Knowledge Sharing System (AKSS AKSS AT&L Knowledge Sharing System (US DoD)
AKSS Acquisition Knowledge Sharing System ), Acquisition Community Connection (ACC See adaptive cruise control. ), the Acker Library, the Virtual Campus, and the Continuous Learning Center (CLC (The Computer Language Company Inc.) The publisher of this Encyclopedia. See About this product. ).
The two major knowledge repositories and access systems developed for DoD by DAU are the AKSS and ACC systems. These two systems have different functions, but complement each other to provide the AT&L community with the whole package of explicit and tacit knowledge.
The AKSS is the central repository and gateway for acquisition policy and reference materials, and it replaced and improved upon the legacy Defense Acquisition Deskbook system by employing a strategy that leverages valued sources of explicit knowledge developed and constantly maintained by Office of the Secretary of Defense The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is part of the United States Department of Defense and includes the entire staff of the Secretary of Defense. It is the principal staff element of the Secretary of Defense in the exercise of policy development, planning, resource (OSD (1) (On-Screen Display) An on-screen control panel for adjusting monitors and TVs. The OSD is used for contrast, brightness, horizontal and vertical positioning and other monitor adjustments. ), the military services, and agencies. The AKSS includes comprehensive libraries of policy/reference documents, AT&L web sites, guidebooks, handbooks, software tools, glossaries/acronyms, and online knowledge communities. A high-end search engine allows users to choose among the various libraries and search within results to find knowledge quickly. The AKSS also includes the legacy Ask a Professor function and database of frequently asked questions and a professor's answers (see Figure 2).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The ACC is the collaborative tool for the AT&L community, where members can contribute local knowledge and interact with other practitioners. The ACC provides discretionary practices, whereas the AKSS's major function is to provide mandatory policy and references. The ACC's goal is to connect practitioners with know-how across all DoD organizations and industry, conveying and capturing tacit knowledge--the knowledge in people's heads gained from experience. The ACC is still in its early stages, but it promises to be a significant force in stimulating collaborative thought among acquisition practitioners and promoting more collaborative ways of doing business. It is also proving to be a major facilitator for joint, OSD, Service, and agency integration and sharing, thus minimizing costly knowledge development and duplication in stovepipes. Presently the ACC houses and facilitates 25 major knowledge communities (for public access) and over 250 private workspaces. Many of the private workspaces are public communities in development. See more on DAU communities of practice and community practice development (see Figure 3).
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WHAT KNOWLEDGE SHARING MEANS TO DAU
Utilizing online resources such as ACC as a means to facilitating knowledge sharing within the acquisition community can result in:
* Facilitating AKSS across DoD.
* Automating discovery, collection, and adoption of best practices.
* Managing the idea-vetting process (i.e., innovation).
* Dealing with information overload--finding vs. searching.
* Making processes and knowledge workers more efficient, more effective, and better problem solvers.
* Automating expertise location and sharing.
* Improving customer satisfaction.
* Improving product development.
* Enhancing research and development.
* Capturing tacit information held by knowledge workers, enabling others to leverage it.
* Promoting better collaboration and information sharing See data conferencing. .
* Fostering an environment of collaboration and knowledge transfer that provides fertile ground for business process innovation.
TOP 10 CONSENSUS BEST PRACTICES FOR IMPLEMENTING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES
Amongst acquisition professionals there is a consensus of best practices for the implementation and management of KM initiatives (in rank). The top 10 consensus best practices are listed below in rank order of importance to success:
1. Prototype and start small (versus investing in a large, one-size-fits-all system).
2. Start with believers (i.e., people who are interested in sharing and leveraging knowledge around a common goal or job function).
3. Plan for cultural change (as well as information structure and technology change).
4. Leadership must provide support, resources, and a clear mandate that encourage and foster KS.
5. Start at the end-users' level of understanding and not how others think end-users should use knowledge.
6. Involve end-users from start to finish, from design to implementation to continuous improvement.
7. Assign a single point of responsibility for system maintenance.
8. Use open-technology architecture that allows easy cross-community access to and transfer of information.
9. Knowledge should only need to be captured once when first entered. This will allow real-time visibility and avoid additional work of reentering re·en·ter also re-en·ter
v. re·en·tered, re·en·ter·ing, re·en·ters
1. To enter or come in to again.
2. To record again on a list or ledger.
v.intr. for the user.
10. Retain the best elements of existing systems.
LEARNING ASSET INTEGRATION
The DAU provides career-long professional support through the products and services offered in the AT&L Performance Learning Model (PLM (Product Life cycle Management) A comprehensive information system that coordinates all aspects of a product from initial concept to its eventual retirement. Sometimes called the "digital backbone" of a product, it includes the requirements phase, analysis and design )--24/7 learning assets for the classroom, the workplace, and most important ... closely linked to achieving senior leadership goals. A major near-term DAU strategy is to integrate and leverage our learning assets generated by the elements of the PLM, maximizing the value of all assets to the AT&L knowledge worker. A major goal within this strategy is to be a continuous and desired presence to our community by enabling its members to reach back to DAU learning assets that are continuously updated to maintain accuracy and context.
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WHAT ARE LEARNING ASSETS?
Learning assets range from small objects, like a graphic representation of an acquisition process, to a large online career field community of practice and its body of knowledge. Learning assets cover the full spectrum of internal and external sources:
* Learning objects and courses developed by DAU's authoring tools.
* Classroom course presentations and information artifacts artifacts
see specimen artifacts. .
* Continuous learning modules/courses.
* Rapid deployment training materials.
* Targeted training materials.
* Performance support materials used in consulting support.
* DAU and DoD guidebooks and handbooks.
* Policy and reference documents.
* Case studies, best practices, lessons learned, automated templates, and tools.
* Knowledge communities, subtopic sub·top·ic
One of the divisions into which a main topic may be divided. areas, and contributed objects.
* Student-developed studies, reports, and lessons learned.
* Faculty business cards with identified areas of expertise.
* Assets in the Advanced Distributed Learning Distributed Learning means a method of instruction that relies primarily on indirect communication between students and teachers, including internet or other electronic-based delivery, teleconferencing or correspondence; (British Columbia, School Act, 2006). (ADL) digital repositories of DoD-sharable learning objects.
WHAT IS LEARNING ASSET INTEGRATION AND WHY IS IT OF VALUE TO THE AT&L COMMUNITY?
Learning Asset Integration (LAI LAI Leaf Area Index
LAI Lean Advancement Initiative (MIT)
LAI Lean Aerospace Initiative
LAI Long-Acting Injection
LAI Lambda Alpha International (honorary land economics society) ) is the capturing, organizing, life-cycle management, and open access to a broad spectrum of learning assets in one or more central digital repositories. The DAU will integrate its learning assets to help AT&L practitioners:
* Leverage and maximize the value of all PLM products and services.
* Provide the most accurate and current knowledge available in all PLM products and services.
* Enrich the activities and content in courses and course modules.
* Minimize the cost of development and maintenance through asset reuse reuse - Using code developed for one application program in another application. Traditionally achieved using program libraries. Object-oriented programming offers reusability of code via its techniques of inheritance and genericity. .
* Develop career qualifications and competencies.
* Maintain professional currency.
* Do their jobs more efficiently in real time.
* Make smart business decisions.
* Support DAU's Learning Vision and support new competency-based training.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF DAU FACULTY AND STAFF?
The heart of integration resides with the learning asset owners who will help develop, maintain, and update DAU-controlled learning assets described above. Contractor personnel will support faculty and staff with the different tools involved, especially with the learning asset repository, but faculty Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) are critical to ensuring accuracy, quality, relevance, and timeliness. Since so many different access systems and the entire AT&L community will be counting on these assets, faculty and staff will be given time for training on the processes and tools involved to ensure the repository of learning assets is complete, stable, and up-to-date.
WHAT ROLE DOES TECHNOLOGY PLAY?
The DAU is planning the development of a central Learning Asset Digital Repository (LEADR LEADR Lawyers Engaged in Alternative Dispute Resolution
LEADR Leaders Engaged in Alternative Dispute Resolution
LEADR Law Enforcement and Development Report ) that will serve as a central database of learning assets that are principally developed and managed by DAU, but also house other DoD assets that DAU is specifically responsible for managing. The repository will form the principal knowledge base of the AKSS. Other systems, like the ACC and its knowledge communities, DAU's Internet-accessible home page, DAU's Intranet, and the Acker Library, will draw heavily upon the various learning assets in the repository.
The AT&L community will be able to access these knowledge objects anytime and anywhere in support of a classroom course, as job aids at work, or in support of continuous-learning activities. The reusable re·use
tr.v. re·used, re·us·ing, re·us·es
To use again, especially after salvaging or special treatment or processing.
re·us knowledge objects in the digital repository will also be accessible through other mechanisms, such as integrated performance support tools, formal learning modules, and communities of practice (CoPs).
Although the people factor and commitment by DAU faculty and staff will be the major element in a successful learning asset integration initiative, technology plays a major role in facilitating the efficient capturing, organizing, managing, and broad but controlled access to learning assets.
* Learning Content Management System (LCMS LCMS Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
LCMS Learning Content Management System (Docent, Inc.)
LCMS Living Conditions Monitoring Survey
LCMS Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences
LCMS Lindero Canyon Middle School ). The DAU's new LCMS will play a major role in developing content and learning assets, in addition to providing a user-friendly learning asset repository used to organize, capture, describe, and manage DAU's learning assets throughout their life cycle. The asset development tools will allow faculty and staff to be able to fully manage assets without relying on technical support personnel. Advanced technology in the form of automated templates and process wizards will help support this requirement.
* DAU Web Sites. The DAU's various Web sites support about two million page views per day, arguably ar·gu·a·ble
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.
2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law. the busiest educational site on the Web. Existing and new integrated tools (content contribution in CoPs, discussion groups, search, online group systems, voice-over IP, instant messaging Exchanging text messages in real time between two or more people logged into a particular instant messaging (IM) service. Instant messaging is more interactive than e-mail because messages are sent immediately, whereas e-mail messages can be queued up in a mail server for seconds or , etc.) will be the access windows and collaboration tools A collaboration tool is something that helps people collaborate. The term is often used to mean collaborative software, but collaboration tools were being used before computers existed, a piece of paper can for example can be used as collaboration tool. for the AT&L community. Advanced technology will be used to personalize per·son·al·ize
tr.v. per·son·al·ized, per·son·al·iz·ing, per·son·al·iz·es
1. To take (a general remark or characterization) in a personal manner.
2. To attribute human or personal qualities to; personify. support to the community and minimize the time necessary to find needed knowledge and expertise.
One example of how LAI will leverage assets and improve efficiency and effectiveness in classroom-based courses, course managers will launch their course materials from the DAU learning asset repository (see Figure 5). Many details are available through other assets other assets
Assets of relatively small value. For financial reporting purposes, firms frequently combine small assets into a single category rather than listing each item separately. in the repository such as policy and reference documents, tutorials, continuous learning modules, DAU guidebooks, handbooks, best practices, lessons learned, product development tools, and online discussions on a specific topic/issue, etc. If an appropriate online knowledge community exists--in the ACC system or a Service/ Defense Agency community--students are made aware of this community and invited to join or participate in collaborative activities.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Students will be able to develop assigned research papers using the extensive DAU online resources available to them and their knowledge communities. Appropriate student-generated research papers will be later captured in the learning asset repository by the course manager and contributed to the knowledge community for sharing between other students or community members at large. Students will use collaborative Web workspaces to work specific learning activity assignments, mine appropriate knowledge, capture threaded discussions A running commentary of messages between two or more people in a discussion group. See message thread and discussion group. , analyze case studies, and prepare presentations for class discussions.
When a new course is being considered for development, the learning asset repository is searched by the Course Development Team for previously developed course content, either entire courses or parts of courses (objects). A search of all learning assets is made to determine what supplemental assets are available that would preclude developing new content.
After course completion, minor changes to course materials are made by course managers through the LCMS authoring tools, and updated courses or modules are stored in the learning asset digital repository. Alumni and currently registered students can reach back for job performance support to access formal course materials and other assets in the repository through many different web site channels.
Countless scenarios exist where LAI pays off for other forms of professional development training, continuous learning, rapid deployment training, targeted training, performance support consulting, personalized learning, and organizational learning.
Workflow Learning and workflow learning tools are the new big resources from DAU on the horizon. Workflow learning differs from workshops, reference manuals, computer-based training See CBT.
(application) Computer-Based Training - (CBT) Training (of humans) done by interaction with a computer. The programs and data used in CBT are known as "courseware." , and classroom courses, which have been the staples of training. The goal of workflow learning is to optimize business performance. It employs smart software to guide, inform, and assist workers to do their jobs better. Workflow Learning is characterized by:
* Task and work support embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. in real-time workflow.
* Real-time collaboration with people and systems.
* Learning and performance nodes modeled with business process modeling tools.
* Short, granular granular /gran·u·lar/ (gran´u-lar) made up of or marked by presence of granules or grains.
1. Composed or appearing to be composed of granules or grains.
2. bursts of learning and performance support embedded at specific nodes of a business process.
* Dynamic generation of on-the-fly tasks as work evolves.
* Continuous performance improvement and automated performance measurement.
* Personalized delivery, management, and routing of tasks and task support.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
Workflow Learning will reduce the time needed for tasks and business processes, thereby increasing productivity and cutting costs. Embedding 1. (mathematics) embedding - One instance of some mathematical object contained with in another instance, e.g. a group which is a subgroup.
2. (theory) embedding - (domain theory) A complete partial order F in [X -> Y] is an embedding if learning into the workflow can reduce the time needed for both training and informal learning. Workflow learning applications integrate with enterprise applications--for example, Human Capital Management (HCM HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ) systems--to link performance with organizational data, business intelligence, and productivity metrics metrics Managed care A popular term for standards by which the quality of a product, service, or outcome of a particular form of Pt management is evaluated. See TQM. . Often, the combination of these applications takes the form of a personalized portal See personal portal. or dashboard--one computer screen that will give AT&L learners access to various application functions. Instead of every learner using the same set of software, the functions offered will be job-based or role-based. There is no learning transfer--learning will take place as a result of a learner interacting with the DAU-based system. Work and learning will be simultaneous. By leveraging workflow learning and Web Services (1) Loosely, any online service delivered over the Web. Such usage appears in articles from non-technical sources, but not in IT-oriented publications, because definition #2 below describes the correct use of the term. , DAU learners will increasingly be unleashed from the classroom and even the desktop, as learning becomes available though a variety of on-the-job informal processes, such as mobile and handheld devices that account for 90 percent of how people really learn in the enterprise.
The first workflow learning tool that DAU will develop in 2005 will provide program managers and logistics managers with step-by-step processes and readily available resources to support the design and implementation of Performance-Based Logistics (PBL PBL Problem-Based Learning
PBL Phi Beta Lambda
PBL Performance Based Logistics
PBL Planetary Boundary Layer
PBL Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (Australia)
PBL Philippine Basketball League
PBL Peripheral Blood Leukocyte ) strategies. The tool will be developed in the ACC community of practice Simplify application and will greatly leverage relevant resources and expertise in the Logistics CoPs, continuous learning modules, and PBL course assets.
Captain John Hickok, USN (Ret) is the director for knowledge management for the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) and Executive-In-Residence at the Defense Systems Management College. As the course director for the Executive Program Manager's Course, he developed the first extranet at DAU as a course support and job performance support tool for his senior students and graduates. Hickok has a bachelor's degree in nuclear physics from the U.S. Naval Academy and a master's degree master's degree
An academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete at least one year of prescribed study beyond the bachelor's degree.
Noun 1. in aeronautical engineering aeronautical engineering: see engineering.
That branch of engineering concerned primarily with the special problems of flight and other modes of transportation involving a heavy reliance on aerodynamics or and an MBA MBA
Master of Business Administration
Noun 1. MBA - a master's degree in business
Master in Business, Master in Business Administration in material management from the Naval Postgraduate School The Naval Postgraduate School is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy. Located in Monterey, California, it grants primarily master's degrees plus some doctoral degrees to its students, who are mostly active duty officers from U.S. and foreign military services. . (E-mail address See Internet address.
e-mail address - electronic mail address : email@example.com An Internet address domain name for a military agency. See Internet address.
(networking) mil - The top-level domain for entities affiliated with US armed forces. )