Kinship as a categorical concept: a case study of nineteenth century English siblings.
The late twentieth century's post-modern culture has produced a general questioning about boundaries and categories as part of the general turning away from a "master narrative." This has been associated with growing unease about accepted hierarchies. The concepts "family" and "kinship" have been subjected to this questioning:
Is it [kinship] an empirical set of overlapping relations that are genetic, genealogical and social? Or is it the meanings of relationships that must have kin-specific content? Is it a set of symbolizing actions whose emotional charge encourages enduring and practical ends? Or is it simply a set of questions posed by Western social scientists using their own unrecognized cultural presuppositions as a basis for their models? (1)
After many years of eclipse, the last decade has witnessed a renewed intellectual interest in both the family and kinship. Anthropologists in the West have begun to apply their skills and techniques to these topics within their own societies. (2) Sociologists of the family as well as social psychologists The following is a list of academics, both past and present, who are widely renowned for their groundbreaking contributions to the field of social psychology.
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Why this has happened is complicated. Undoubtedly some of the revised interest stems from the radical political movements since the 1960s. Feminism, the campaigns of gays and lesbians, racial and ethnic minorities and the nationalism emerging in former colonial societies have opened narrowly-defined, static boundaries of familial and kin relations. Above all, changes in family life itself in the last part of the twentieth century--co-habitation, high divorce rates, women's massive entry into the work force, continued low birth rates, increased longevity and the impact of reproductive technologies--all have brought into question beliefs about the family and its natural foundations. (3) There are now suggestions for re-conceptualising family as a process, (4) as a web of lived relationships, or as categories and roles that have to be activated to be meaningful. (5)
Meanwhile, and somewhat paradoxically, recent increased knowledge of genetics has stressed the physicality of kinship ties, a position reinforced by the claims of the now fashionable neo-evolutionists. (6) The emergence of such complicated--even competing--understandings points to a recognition that kinship is basically a "categorical concept" whose content depends on beliefs and knowledge about a range of topics from physiology to the cosmos.
These revisions and reinterpretations apply forcibly forc·i·ble
1. Effected against resistance through the use of force: The police used forcible restraint in order to subdue the assailant.
2. Characterized by force; powerful. to the issue of sibling relationships. The puzzling question of why siblings have been ignored and down-played across disciplines from demography demography (dĭmŏg`rəfē), science of human population. Demography represents a fundamental approach to the understanding of human society. to psychoanalysis has only now begun to be addressed. Anthropologists point out that modern Western culture with its emphasis on forward time and the notion of progress concentrates on filiation fil·i·a·tion
a. The condition or fact of being the child of a certain parent.
b. Law Judicial determination of paternity.
2. A line of descent; derivation.
a. , especially the relationship of father to son, while those thought systems which understand time as cyclical might be more open to lateral linkages. (7) Literary scholars among others have noted the centrality of brother and sister to a wide spectrum of creation myths from ancient Egypt Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism. to modern Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. . Within many of these myths the themes of twins and doubling are particularly striking. (8) Many of these "origin" stories use the sexual union and reproduction through brother-sister incest as the foundation of society. (9)
As late as 1996, a sociologist noted that "neither friendship nor kinship has been studied very extensively" (10) but there has been something of a re-discovery of the importance of personal relationships, mainly in the context of "relationships of choice," as in the couple. (11) In literary studies, the theme of siblings has been taken up mainly in an ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. manner, from such well-known relationships as Virginia and Vanessa Stevens, Jane and Cassandra Austen Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (9 January, 1773 - 22 March, 1845 ) was an amateur English watercolourist and the older sister of Jane Austen. Childhood
Austen was born 9 January, 1773 at a rectory in Steventon, Hampshire to the Rev. , Charles and Mary Lamb Mary Anne Lamb (December 3, 1764–May 20, 1847), was an English writer, the sister and collaborator of Charles Lamb.
In 1796, Mary, who had suffered a breakdown from the strain of caring for her family, killed her mother with a kitchen knife, and from then on had to be , or William and Dorothy Wordsworth Dorothy Mae Ann Wordsworth (December 25, 1771 – January 25 1855) was an English poet and diarist. Biography
She was born in Cockermouth, Cumberland, the sister of the poet William Wordsworth. . Only recently has there been more general interest as in Valerie Sanders' book length study of brother and sister culture in English nineteenth century literature. (12) Feminists have been particularly struck by the influence of aunts in the lives of writers and women active in philanthropy and politics. (13)
Psychologists have recently admitted that even within therapeutic practice, sibling relations have been noted only in passing despite their obvious presence in everyday life. (14) But it is in the heartlands of psychoanalysis where the omissions have been most glaring. Juliet Mitchell first raised this issue in her general study of hysteria, followed by a volume devoted to the topic in 2003. (15) In the latter she sees the neglect of siblings as part of the way all relationships are subjugated sub·ju·gate
tr.v. sub·ju·gat·ed, sub·ju·gat·ing, sub·ju·gates
1. To bring under control; conquer. See Synonyms at defeat.
2. To make subservient; enslave. to vertical understandings and that this "may be a major means whereby the ideologies (including sexism) of the brotherhood are allowed to operate unseen." (16)
The object-relations analyst, Prophecy Coles, in her 2003 book on the subject, asks where our siblings have gone. "Why do they not feature as significant figures in psychoanalytic accounts of the inner world?" And one of the answers she gives is that we may "fear the power of sibling relationships" which may, in fact, be "more passionate than parental relationships." (17) Ann Shearer, a neo-Jungian, notes that "something is going on around this topic of brothers and sisters ... an increase in interest that seems more than simply coincidental co·in·ci·den·tal
1. Occurring as or resulting from coincidence.
2. Happening or existing at the same time.
co·in ." (18)
Historians, too, have begun to realize the presence and importance of sibling and cousin relationships, as well as the notion of friendship as a major component of both economic and domestic middle class life in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (19) David Sabean and his colleagues have held a series of conferences and discussions leading to the conclusion that there were hitherto unrecognized major changes in social, political and economic structures in Europe from around the mid-eighteenth century onwards in which kinship played a crucial role.
These developments entailed a shift from "clan to kindred" from ancestors, or lineage, to interlocking interlocking /in·ter·lock·ing/ (-lok´ing) closely joined, as by hooks or dovetails; locking into one another.
interlocking Obstetrics A rare complication of vaginal delivery of twins; the 1st exchanges of horizontal kin groups which accompanied the shift from closed estates and hierarchy to free floating capital and the formalizing of offices through more metritocratic criteria. Within this general transition, by the early nineteenth century across Europe sibling and cousin relationships reached a peak of intensity reflected at emotional and cultural levels, including a high incidence of cousin marriages and minority pattern of brothers from one family marrying sisters from another or brother and sister from one family marrying sister and brother from another. (20)
There remains on-going discussion about the extent and timing of these developments. For centuries, siblings had been and continued to be important nodal points for aristocrats and peasants alike. However, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries they seem to take on increased saliency sa·li·ence also sa·li·en·cy
n. pl. sa·li·en·ces also sa·li·en·cies
1. The quality or condition of being salient.
2. A pronounced feature or part; a highlight.
Noun 1. , particularly within the middle strata. Comparative work from across Europe--which hints at a similar situation in North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. and Australia--has begun to confirm what might be called the "over-determination" of sibling relationships among the late eighteenth and nineteenth century bourgeoisie from Scandinavia to Italy, and across religious cultures, Catholic, Protestant or Jewish.
A crucial dimension of these new insights about kinship and the sub-level of sibling relationships has been the role of gender. This absence is startling star·tle
v. star·tled, star·tling, star·tles
1. To cause to make a quick involuntary movement or start.
2. To alarm, frighten, or surprise suddenly. See Synonyms at frighten. , once the basis of kinship relations is understood to be predicated on an already assumed "gender order." (21) Within all kinship systems, gender assignment, however rigid or flexible, becomes a building block on which the edifice rests. When, as in the modern West, masculinity is associated with intense individualism, access to economic opportunity and status gained through participation in the non-domestic sphere, gender assumptions form the way the whole society operates, in public as well as more obviously within familial and kin relationships.
Unsurprisingly, concepts of siblinghood are coloured by underlying notions of gender; especially since siblings, in many cases, spend so much of their infancy and childhood together, the life-period when gender identities are being formed. Since masculinity and femininity are almost always culturally evaluated in some hierarchical pattern, siblings try out and adopt positions of power vis-a-vis each other on the basis of their gender. Since sibling position is also often aligned with age and birth order, here too, power relations are played out.
Brothers and sisters can represent models for us. We strive to be like them but they can also represent rejected traits, values and behaviours; they can repel as well as attract. There are several reasons for the inherent tension between identification and repulsion repulsion /re·pul·sion/ (re-pul´shun)
1. the act of driving apart or away; a force that tends to drive two bodies apart.
2. among siblings. High on the list is the obvious rivalry for parental time, energy, emotion and material resources. In some cases, identification with a sibling takes the form of rebellion against parents and authority figures, one young rebel following another. Or in rejecting a sibling's rebellion, the sister or brother becomes a strong conformist con·form·ist
A person who uncritically or habitually conforms to the customs, rules, or styles of a group.
Marked by conformity or convention: . In the shadow of a sister or brother, decisions are made about the most significant life choices. The emotions generated by sibling relationships are undoubtedly intense, long lasting and work at a deep psychic level. (22) However these general features are played out very differently depending on time and place.
Siblings in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century England
In this period brothers and sisters shared long-term childhood experiences within a household and formed intense relationships. Such emotional involvement inevitably raises the issue of incest, a highly complicated concept now being re-evaluated. (23) Gender assignments to rigid codes of masculinity and femininity meant that cross sex siblings experienced deeply affected senses of identity in emotional terms as well as behaviour. The comparison between the treatment of different children in a family left deep resentments and when unquestioned in terms of gender, fuelled girls' bitter feelings about the injustice of their position. Mary Wollstonecraft at the end of the eighteenth century railed that "such indeed is the force of prejudice that what was called spirit and wit in him [her brother], was cruelly repressed re·pressed
Being subjected to or characterized by repression. as forwardness in me." (24) In this milieu, the support of the family enterprise as well as family home was shared by brothers and sisters, sometimes as young adults since often marriage was delayed until their late twenties. A minority of brothers and sisters who didn't marry lived together all their lives. Siblings shared the family's inheritance as well as contributing to the family income.
Unlike the Victorian stereotype of elder brother/younger sister, until the gradual fall in the birth rate to the two child norm of the 1920s, large numbers of children in a family--up to ten or more who survived--meant that the older siblings acted as an intermediate generation between parents and younger children. The elder siblings provided care, leadership and control using a range of behaviour from autocratic bullying to loving guidance and practical help, often in lieu of ailing or dead parents. Siblings organised courtship for each other and the brothers and sisters of friends often married. Sisters' husbands became partners; brothers' partners became sisters' husbands.
As models brothers and sisters became the archetype archetype (är`kĭtīp') [Gr. arch=first, typos=mold], term whose earlier meaning, "original model," or "prototype," has been enlarged by C. G. Jung and by several contemporary literary critics. of relationships between men and women but unsullied by sexuality. As in all such modelling, a few selective features were picked out. In representations of the ideal sibling relationship, invariably in·var·i·a·ble
Not changing or subject to change; constant.
in·vari·a·bil , only one pair, the brother and the sister, is chosen. And, just as in the George Eliot's poem, "Brother and Sister," the brother is invariably the elder.
He was the elder and a little man Of forty inches, bound to show no dread, And I the girl that puppy-like now ran Now lagged behind my brother's larger tread (25)
For a provincial clockmaker's daughter, brother and sister represented not only the "winning tenderness of pure love," but also "the respect due to superiority and the sense of weakness on one part and the consciousness of power, affection and support on the other" as a "protector, a guardian and a friend" the brother will "mark the conduct, the opinions, the principles, the temper and even the little foibles of his sister," especially when it comes to choice of marriage partner. Her part is to influence him subtly through her winning, dependent femininity. (26)
What this kind of imagery leaves out is the richness and complexity of brother-sister relationships, especially in such large families and spread amongst several people, about how love, hate, jealousy, self-sacrifice, domination, service, loyalty, betrayal were melded into this highly charged tie. Significantly, in this idealisation n. 1. Same as idealization.
Noun 1. idealisation - (psychiatry) a defense mechanism that splits something you are ambivalent about into two representations--one good and one bad
idealization , seniority is equated with assumed age and the masculine with both.
In middle class families, whether their temperaments and talents fitted or not, boys were sent out into the world for education, training, work or travel as befitted a masculine identity. Their sister's lives were seen in terms of home duties and pleasures. Brothers acted as "windows on the world For the theme park in Shenzhen, China, see Window of the World.
For the novel by Frederic Beigbeder, see Windows on the World (novel).
Windows on the World was an elegant restaurant and adjoining bar that operated between 1976 and September 11, 2001 in New York City " for their sisters who were expected to look on and encourage. When the two sons of a provincial engraver left for London, their sister's verse recorded:
A sister's affections, the hopes and the fears That flutter in turns in her heart When a Brother sets out on his stormy career What magic of words can impart? (27)
Inevitably, the privileges--legal, economic and in terms of experience--of masculinity effected power relations between brothers and sisters but these were complicated by countervailing resources of age, personality and relationship to parents or other siblings on the part of sisters.
A Case Study: The Gladstone Siblings
To explore these themes more fully, it is instructive to take one family as a case study. The Gladstone siblings were typical members of the aspiring middle strata deeply imbued with the language and beliefs of their intensely felt Evangelical religion. Here was a household whose every day life was steeped in God's immediate presence, constantly aware of sin and yearnings for redemption. They have been known principally through their famous and much studied prime minister and youngest son, William Ewart William Ewart (1 May 1798 – 23 January 1869) was a British politician, born in Liverpool on 1 May 1798. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, gaining the Newdigate prize for English verse. who was raised in this atmosphere amidst the wealth of commercial Liverpool. Their father was a merchant made good with political ambitions, eventually attaining a knighthood knighthood: see chivalry; courtly love; knight. . His wife was from a prosperous Scots family with gentry connections.
Parents: [Sir] John Gladstone There are many people named John Gladstone, including:
MacKenzie worked as a newscaster between 1981 and 1997. Robertson (b. 1771-d. 1835)
Children: Anne Mackenzie b. 1802-d. 1827 Thomas b. 1804-d. 1889 Robertson b. 1805-d. 187? John b. 1807-d. 1863 William Ewart b. 1809-d. 1898 Helen Jane b. 1814-d. 1880
The couple's first child, Anne Mackenzie, born in 1802, became the eldest of six; more would have followed but their mother's health never sufficiently recovered, which was not unexpected since she began childbearing at age 30 and produced the six within the next 15 years. The family was dominated by Sir John, who was a good deal older than his ailing, invalid wife and was 45 at the time of William Ewart's birth in 1809. Thus in many ways William's elder brothers stood as buffers between him and the full impact of John Gladstone's alarming personality.
Anne, seven years his senior, had a semi-maternal relationship to William. Not unusually, Anne, at age eight, became William's godmother. She took her duties seriously, both with his intellectual and religious development, an attention beyond the capacity of their mother and outside the interests of their father. For William, Anne was the embodiment of the Evangelical view of life. He always remembered her telling him as a small boy that when he arrived in heaven, St Peter would ask him to give an account of how he had spent every minute in his life. (28) Despite instilling in·still also in·stil
tr.v. in·stilled, in·still·ing, in·stills also in·stils
1. To introduce by gradual, persistent efforts; implant: "Morality . . . a life-long sense of guilt, she was deeply sympathetic to his struggling efforts to live up to the Evangelical moral order. Above all, she listened to and soothed his doubts about his faith, his view of the world, himself and his capacities.
At the age of 14 William left this sheltered and somewhat puritanical home milieu for Eton. Sir John's ambitions included sending all his sons to this most aristocratic of public schools whatever their talents and inclinations. Quite aside from the formal teaching at Eton, William had to face the rough-housing of everyday school life. In his later teens he had taken a leading part in the Literati literati
Scholars in China and Japan whose poetry, calligraphy, and paintings were supposed primarily to reveal their cultivation and express their personal feelings rather than demonstrate professional skill. Society where "the atmosphere was both friendly and competitive, with an especial es·pe·cial
1. Of special importance or significance; exceptional: an occasion of especial joy.
2. emphasis on prowess of presentation and argument ... both a game and a high art." (29) Thus William's schooling, both formal and informal, is an especially dramatic illustration of the contrast between teenage boys and the stay-at-home girls in this strata of society.
William felt Anne's values and warm personality a bulwark against the aggressive, lewd atmosphere of the public school. Her support and interest is indicated in their extensive correspondence while he was at school in which she relayed all sorts of home news including that of their grandmother's death, as the mother was too upset to do so. Intense interest was shown in all William's doings, his friends, trials and accomplishments as in his first debate at age 15: "We all congratulate you on the happy commencement of your oratorical or·a·tor·i·cal
Of, relating to, or characteristic of an orator or oratory.
ora·tor career! You may be assured of our best wishes." (30) Anne kept all her brothers up to date on each other's affairs, their comings and goings. Despite much ill health and her deep religious convictions, she comes across as a sprightly spright·ly
adj. spright·li·er, spright·li·est
Full of spirit and vitality; lively; brisk.
In a lively, animated manner.
spright , warm and loving presence in the family.
While one brother, Robertson, went into the firm the others followed their own careers, with John pulling away from the close family to go to sea. Young William was left to carve out to make or get by cutting, or as if by cutting; to cut out.
See also: Carve a place for himself. Anne listened, advised, admonished, and, against her parents' wishes, permitted card playing and alcohol but warned her young brother against being ensnared by the theatre, a pleasure he had been introduced to by an Eton tutor. Anne was instrumental in William's moral development as he prepared for his Confirmation, and especially when he was between eighteen and twenty. At that time, for example, he recorded in his diary that he had received a "long and most excellent and pious letter from my beloved sister--unworthy am I of such an one," as well as long having conversations with her when he went home for the holidays. (31) This type of moral overlooking by a home-based elder sister was by no means unusual. (32)
Above all, it was Anne whose firm belief in her younger brother's destiny and future greatness helped William through difficult decisions about a political career, decisions made more complicated by pressures from his father. But by the time such career choices became immanent im·ma·nent
1. Existing or remaining within; inherent: believed in a God immanent in humans.
2. Restricted entirely to the mind; subjective. , Anne was dead. In February 1827, just after William had begun his first term at Oxford, he was summoned home to attend her deathbed and funeral. Anne remained for William an icon of all that women could mean, a femininity coloured by unworldly grace. A few days after her death he recorded that he felt so apathetic ap·a·thet·ic
Lacking interest or concern; indifferent.
apa·thet , blaming himself for torpor torpor /tor·por/ (tor´per) [L.] sluggishness.tor´pid
torpor re´tinae sluggish response of the retina to the stimulus of light.
1. of mind and habitual selfishness: "How unworthy I had been of the love and attention which the departed saint had honoured me." (33) Into the late 1870s, he remembered Anne's birthday in his diary.
William's--and to a lesser extent the elder brothers Thomas and Robertson's--relationship with the baby of the family, Helen Jane was a complete contrast. Four years younger than William and 12 years Anne's junior, she was, in many ways, of a different generation. She was a bright and spirited, sometimes wilful wil·ful
Variant of willful.
wilful or US willful
1. determined to do things in one's own way: a wilful and insubordinate child , youngster. As she grew, William acknowledged that he saw in her many of his own difficult traits, for example, lack of self-control. While Anne lived she took charge of Helen's life, including her home-based education, recognising that her young sister had a "no common share of talent and apprehension which it has pleased God to gift her with." (34) But with Anne's increasing frailty frailty Vox populi A state of delicacy or weakness which, which encompasses age-related fragility, in particular osteoporosis. See FICSIT, Osteoporosis. she could no longer cope and Helen, in her mid-teens, was left without any formal instructors, duties or guidance.
While William's deep distress and melancholy at Anne's death is recorded in detail, Helen's loss has to be imagined. Along with Anne's clothes, Helen had inherited her position as daughter at home, aid to the timid, invalid mother, companion and "little housekeeper" to her father. Her loss was compounded by measuring herself against the much older and universally admired sister, now haloed in death that only emphasized her sense of inadequacy. "Each day teaches me how weak, how powerless I am and how sweetly bright my sister shone." (35)
William had been the baby of the family for four and a half years before Helen's birth and as such had particularly revelled in the attention of his elder sister and brothers. But, having been displaced, he then had the satisfaction of Helen's childhood worship of this older brother who played with her on his holidays from Eton and when he returned to school she missed him sorely, even calling her canary after him. (36) During Anne's final illness, Helen wrote to William that she "now cannot avoid looking to you as my principal friend, one day, perhaps my stay." (37)
In the autumn following Anne's death, when Helen was 14 and he going on 19, William proposed a covenant between himself and his young sister, that they "have a need to perform for our mutual benefit one of the most painful, one of the most profitable, and one of the most sacred offices of friendship--we have agreed to tell one another's faults, small and great, without fear or favour." This took the form of a ten-page letter, wrapped in their mutual religious justification, and in which he especially addresses her dress, her use of time and of money, first cautioning her generally: "And may you carry through all your dealings with all men the blessed principle of subordination and resignation of your own desires, and unqualified disregard of your own conventions; when they come into collision with duty." He ends by recommending again his "old nostrum nostrum /nos·trum/ (nos´trum) a quack, patent, or secret remedy.
A medicine whose effectiveness is unproved and whose ingredients are usually secret; a quack remedy. " of "appropriating specific seasons to specific purposes," in fact particularly difficult for a young teenager without purpose, work or study to carry out. (38) Nevertheless, Helen, overcoming her "natural pride"' felt thankful to this adored elder brother that "I was not left alone, and suffered to stray further without being warned." She can only cast herself upon the promised strength of the Heavenly Father. Meanwhile, her darling brother is "her support, comfort and guide, from whom she can never fear anything but kindness." (39)
The roots of William's determination to guide and control Helen's moral and spiritual development are complicated. While at Oxford, he had joined a group of young men influenced by the Tractarian movement Tractarian movement: see Oxford movement. , who planned to do good in society and had drawn lots for areas of activity. William had been allotted al·lot
tr.v. al·lot·ted, al·lot·ting, al·lots
1. To parcel out; distribute or apportion: allotting land to homesteaders; allot blame.
2. rescue work with "fallen women." This developed into a life-long preoccupation that drove him to wander the streets at night to engage with prostitutes, an obsession that has bewildered commentators on his political career ever since but which has clear ties with his developing sexuality combined with sense of sin. (40) While undoubtedly some of his fascination with the sexual underworld was motivated by a genuine desire to "uplift" these women, it was extended to the use of pornography, both activities followed by self flagellation flagellation /flag·el·la·tion/ (flaj?e-la´shun)
1. whipping or being whipped to achieve erotic pleasure.
3. the formation or arrangement of flagella on an organism or surface. that hint at a typically Victorian sense of guilt. (41) Something of this is reflected in the intensity of his absorption with Helen's state of mind to the point where his parents became worried and asked Tom to write to William to desist from "religious speculations" with Helen. (42)
William's career through Oxford continued to flourish through to his election as an M.P. while Helen's early womanhood wom·an·hood
1. The state or time of being a woman.
2. The composite of qualities thought to be appropriate to or representative of women.
3. was spent at home as companion to her invalid mother and now elderly father. Five years later her mother had died and Helen had seen her father through a critical eye operation. Throughout her twenties, William continued to exhort and instruct her but with less and less effect. Helen, intelligent, high-spirited, and despite her patchy education, well read in several languages, was deeply religious, spending her energies that could be spared from the family mainly furthering Anglican causes.
Throughout this time Helen seems to have suffered from a variety of minor illnesses including hints of an eating disorder eat·ing disorder
Any of several patterns of severely disturbed eating behavior, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia, seen mainly in female teenagers and young women. . Much of her life at this time was spent travelling to be under the care of one physician or another. All the brothers, except John who was away at sea, took an intense interest in their young sister mainly in the form of anxieties about her health.
In 1838, Helen, then 24, had taken a step away from invalidism in·va·lid·ism
The condition of being chronically ill or disabled.
a condition of prolonged ill health.
See also: Disease and Illness
Noun 1. to independence by gaining her father's permission to travel--properly chaperoned--on the continent. There she met and became engaged to a Polish aristocrat. Although she significantly described him as "a stouter edition of William," it would have been a marriage entirely removing her from her family's reach. (43) However his people refused to sanction the match and she was forced to return to her father's house. There, her condition deteriorated again and bouts of illness sent her to try the ministrations of a variety of medical men. An unmarried aunt was assigned to be her companion, relaying constant bulletins about her condition as they moved from London to various spa towns The List of spa towns is a link page for any spa town.
See: List of conservation topics In Africa
After a series of attempts to find a suitable--and willing--bride, by 1839 William was married. His wife, Catherine Glynne, was the sister of one of his close student friends from a wealthy landowning family. Catherine was always uneasy about William's seemingly obsessive concern with Helen, whom she dismissed as a tiresomely hysterical young woman.
Then in the spring of 1842 came a bombshell bomb·shell
1. An explosive bomb.
2. One that is sensationally shocking, surprising, or amazing.
a shocking or unwelcome surprise
Noun 1. for William. Helen, age 27, had been received into the Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church, Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. . William's anti-Catholicism was deep-seated. Quite aside from the damage to his political prospects by the taint taint
an unpleasant odor and flavor in a human foodstuff of animal origin. Caused by the ingestion of the substance, commonly a plant such as Hexham scent, or while in storage, e.g. milk stored with pineapples, or as a result of animal metabolism, e.g. boar taint. of popery pop·er·y
The doctrines, practices, and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
Offensive Roman Catholicism
, this was anathema anathema (ənă`thĭmə) [Gr.,=something set up; dedicated to a divinity as a votive offering], term that came to denote something devoted to a divinity for destruction. In the Bible, the term is herem. to his Evangelical soul. (His beloved sister Anne, like her mother, had been bitterly opposed to Catholic emancipation Catholic Emancipation, term applied to the process by which Roman Catholics in the British Isles were relieved in the late 18th and early 19th cent. of civil disabilities. in the 1830s and considered Catholicism despicable.) To make matters worse, William only learned of Helen's apostasy apostasy, in religion: see heresy.
See also Sacrilege.
Aholah and Aholibah
symbolize Samaria’s and Jerusalem’s abandonment to idols. [O.T. from his father who told him that a priest had approached him with the news that Helen was to be received into the Church. An announcement in the press headlined, "Conversion to Popery," regretted that Miss Gladstone, the sister to the Vice-President of the Board of Trade The office of Vice-President of the Board of Trade was a junior ministerial position in the government of the United Kingdom. The office was created in 1786 and abolished in 1868. From 1848 onwards the office was held concurrently with that of Paymaster-General. , had been admitted a Member of the Roman Church (44) thus allowing the world to "read the record of our shame." (45) William's anger at Helen's move was accentuated by his awareness of many high profile Anglicans' increasing sympathy for Catholic ritual and dogma, including some in his Oxford contemporaries. (46) Helen's conversion also coincided with a period of uncertainty in his career as he had been voted out of Parliament and his financial affairs were going badly.
His mood is expressed in a ten-page letter to Helen "To Helen" is the first of two poems to carry that name written by Edgar Allan Poe. The 15-line poem was written in honor of Jane Stanard, the mother of a childhood friend. It was first published in 1831 collection Poems of Edgar A. that indicates his fury, hurt and feeling of abandonment:
The recollection that there was a time--although many years back--when we had, or seemed to have, religious union and communication, makes me feel that the event announced yesterday demands from me a few words. I AM STUNNED BY THE MAGNITUDE OF THE JUDGEMENT WHICH IT HAS PLEASED God to send upon you, and upon us: stunned but not surprised, for causes which have been very long in operation ... That which I have to testify solemnly to you, to you the fruit of my mother's womb, and the beloved associate of my earliest years is this: you have not been an inquirer: you have not endeavoured to inform and discipline yourself respecting the immense issue upon which you have found what you think to be a judgement: you have not used the faculties which God gave you in abundance for His glory ... Have you yet to learn, that it is along the path of obedience and docility, of self denial and self subjugation, that God leads His children into truth, and that it is to those, who use and walk by the light they have that he gives more light? (47)
She has claimed that "private judgement" brought her to this conclusion and that this is the right of Protestants. But, he claims, she was bred in the Church of England Church of England: see England, Church of. and where does she think this notion of private judgement is found there? The articles of the Church of England "has authority in controversies of faith; but these perhaps you have not read. You have, as it seems by some marvellous Divine ordering, been led to confess that the act you meditate med·i·tate
v. med·i·tat·ed, med·i·tat·ing, med·i·tates
1. To reflect on; contemplate.
2. To plan in the mind; intend: meditated a visit to her daughter. is one of private judgement. But I say it is even less than this. It is one of private will. You have followed instinct and bias." (48) He rhetorically admits that she will ask by what right is he to dogmatise Verb 1. dogmatise - state as a dogma
give voice, phrase, word, articulate, formulate - put into words or an expression; "He formulated his concerns to the board of trustees"
2. ? He answers himself that his smattering of inquiry although narrow is wide compared to hers. Although he knows she has acted sincerely, this very fact is the proof of her deep delusion delusion, false belief based upon a misinterpretation of reality. It is not, like a hallucination, a false sensory perception, or like an illusion, a distorted perception. .
Mark again my words. This delusion is not your first. It is the completion of a web, which for many years you have been weaving around you, and which by progressive degrees has enveloped all your faculties and deprived you of true vision. Not in religion alone, This last step was not needed to prove, but merely illustrates the fact, that you are living, and have long been living, a life of utter self deception. Not in religion alone--but in all bodily, in all mental habits--in all personal and in all social relations.... For a very long time you have not known what study is; the whole action of your naturally powerful mind has been dissipated and relaxed ... of the subtle and wayward will which has for so long distorted your life and destroyed its liberty, its peace and usefulness--alas!... is the latest [delusion] born of a whole family of delusions, pervading your life from the highest concerns of your soul down to your very diet and clothing. (49)
He will now open to her the "sealed book sealed book
symbolic of impenetrable secrets. [Christian Symbolism: Appleton, 13]
See : Concealment " of his opinion of her, that is "that five years have now elapsed e·lapse
intr.v. e·lapsed, e·laps·ing, e·laps·es
To slip by; pass: Weeks elapsed before we could start renovating.
n. since, in discussing matters relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc your health, I told my Father that I regarded you as morally beside yourself, and urged upon him that the only way to restore you to yourself ... was to put constraint and coercion upon you." (50)
The almost sadistic sa·dism
1. The deriving of sexual gratification or the tendency to derive sexual gratification from inflicting pain or emotional abuse on others.
2. The deriving of pleasure, or the tendency to derive pleasure, from cruelty. impetus behind William's attitude to this younger sister are evident in his diary entry for the day following writing the letter: "I write, as one would drag a woman by the hair, to save her from drowning. The best I can hope for is that she should find the words keen and piercing; such ills as these are not curable cur·a·ble
Capable of being cured or healed. except by searching pain." (51) He then became even more incensed when Helen's persistent illnesses, including partial paralysis, were miraculously cured by the ministrations of a Catholic priest.
Fortunately for Helen, her father, while extremely anxious about her condition, including her increasing use of laudanum laudanum (lôd`ənəm), tincture, or alcoholic solution, of opium, first compounded by Paracelsus in the 16th cent. Not then known to be addictive, the preparation was widely used up through the 19th cent. to treat a variety of disorders. and alcohol, took her conversion seriously. Sir John refused William's demands that she should be banished from the family home and allowed her to receive priests in his house and agreed that she should not be boarded in a convent. (52)
The year 1845 was one of crisis. In July Helen, now aged 31, once again had escaped to Germany but was followed by William, despite the fact that, being out of office, his political career needed nursing and Catherine had very recently given birth to another daughter. There he trailed after her from town to town. To an extent, his heavy-handed concern is understandable as Helen's addiction to opium was growing but the intensity of his punitive hostility still seems out of proportion. In his pursuit, William was later joined by their brother Thomas and had extracted a letter from their father giving him authority to fetch her home as well as from her English priest telling her to obey her father's wishes. (53) By October, Sir John had threatened to cut off her funds. For days she locked her door against the brothers and the doctor, drinking any opiates Opiates
Analgesic, pain killing drugs, such as heroin and morphine that depress the central nervous system.
Mentioned in: Withdrawal Syndromes she could get hold of. If William forced his way in, he might find her paralysed in both arms and speechless. While in this extremity his father pleaded with him to treat her with "mildness and consideration." But William was writing to Catherine that nothing "except the expedient we have so often talked of--an engagement to universal obedience" would be of any use and that "the channels of common interest and feeling between a brother and sister are frozen up." (54)
During this period, Thomas kept a record of Helen's condition. Clearly she was in a state of breakdown. Once he found her squatted on the ground with nothing on but her night shift, eating on the floor. Pitifully she had told the doctor that she feared people would think she was going mad. She gave a letter to her German doctor giving him full power to restrain her for her health, even against her own will, but she hoped he would not enable force by others (obviously William if not Thomas). The doctor gave her an ultimatum ultimatum (ŭl'tĭmā`təm), in international law, final, definitive terms submitted by one disputant nation to the other for immediate acceptance or rejection. that she see her brother and return home or go to Italy with him. At this, Helen effectively dismissed him. Thomas felt that she "will dislike anyone whom she cannot influence and rule over." (55) A note from Helen in January 1846 states lucidly and firmly: "My dear Tom--my answer is given, and to my father directly. I must beg to decline any personal discussion with yourself or with William and I do so from no want of right feeling to either you or him." (56)
By December, doctors were advising against the proposal that Helen be given a limited income from her father and left to her own devices but should be "committed to the command of herself entirely to others appointed by her father." If the former course were taken, the fear was that she would get into debt and "a great many misfortunes" might happen to her if she was allowed to act independently. (57) Pushed to extremes, Helen made a bid to escape. The exact order of events is not clear but it seems that by January 1846 she tried to go to some of her own Catholic friends. William had had a note from a Roman Catholic lawyer asking for an interview about Helen "which he very properly declined." (58) Thomas discovered that, through the offices of her maid, Helen was trying to sell some jewellery to finance this plan. He immediately took steps to dismiss the servant telling Helen that he would personally settle her wages, also chiding his sister "not to allow your fire and candles to remain burning late at night as has latterly been the case." (59)
The bewildered Thomas noted that Helen "says it would be death for her to stay where she is but where will she go ... she is fierce against all of us--told Estelle (the maid) that she would bring her brothers to their knees to her before a month." (60) To his chagrin, she insisted on going out unaccompanied un·ac·com·pa·nied
1. Going or acting without companions or a companion: unaccompanied children on a flight.
2. Music Performed or scored without accompaniment. by a manservant man·ser·vant
n. pl. men·ser·vants
A male servant, especially a valet.
pl menservants a male servant, esp. a valet
Noun 1. or let a cab be sent for--and in an "especially sulky sulky
horse-drawn, ultra-lightweight, single-seater, two-wheeled vehicle used by Standardbreds in races. Called also bike, gig. and haughty haugh·ty
adj. haugh·ti·er, haugh·ti·est
Scornfully and condescendingly proud. See Synonyms at proud.
[From Middle English haut, from Old French haut, halt " manner went off to her friends and had not returned by 10 p.m. (61) The next week she was still trying to sell her jewels going out "quite alone and ordered a cab to drive to the Auction Rooms" although Thomas suspected this might be a blind designed to cover up her real purpose in searching for the dismissed Estelle, her ally against the family. (62)
By mid-January, now firmly back in England, Helen had been confessed by her English priest, who the brothers disgustedly learned was backing her up in her present course. And she was meeting Estelle at the home of the Catholic lawyer. They learned she intended to go to Bath with him and his family accompanied by Estelle. But all this was gleaned from servants and other informants since she refused any communication with her family. At this point, Helen seems to have several doctors on her side who the brothers believed had been completely taken in by her and they did not trust a word she is supposed to have said. They also suspect she has sold family valuables, although trusting not their "Mother's pearls or diamonds." At last on January 19, Thomas heard from his father that Helen had really written to him--but only "with sheets of grievances." William had also had a note announcing her departure "after she was gone with a friend by the advice of her Doctors," having said again that she could not endure life in the London family home. (63) But eventually some compromise was reached and Helen agreed to go back with her father. Gradually her health and peace of mind began to return
At the end of 1846, Helen wrote to William from the Gladstone family home in London, saying she felt she should "no longer delay to express my feelings towards you ... I do, distinctly and earnestly, beg you to forgive me, in the first place, all my offences towards yourself ... I believe that I have done you great injustice and even if I had not been mistaken in my sentiments respecting you, I should equally regret my own conduct towards you.... I can now only say that my thoughts and feelings concerning you are of unmixed respect for the past and for the future, anxious wishes that you know how much in the depths of my heart I value your love and your esteem; how painfully I have felt any barrier between us. I feel that I have no other claim upon you, than that of our common blood and of your charity and if these may so far avail I ask you to try and not regret my father's great and unhoped for fondness towards me ... I have to thank you for the kindness, with which during these two days you have as it were, taken me on trust--If my father, who has so much to forgive, can pardon, may I not hope from you?" (64)
Despite such approaches, William remained convinced that Helen's whole life commitment via her conversion was not genuine. He told their father that she was not "a convinced Roman Catholic" but "under a thirst, rather than acting on a distinct idea," that her feelings were "emotional and superficial" and he begged Sir John that the priests be kept away. Only a month after Helen's conciliatory con·cil·i·ate
v. con·cil·i·at·ed, con·cil·i·at·ing, con·cil·i·ates
1. To overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease.
2. letter, William had approached one of his fellow members of the Carlton Club Carlton Club, British political and social club (founded 1832). Located in London, it was long the center of the Conservative party organization. Since World War II the club has been primarily social. who was one of the Commissioners for Lunacy lunacy: see insanity. and "arranged matters quietly with him" having Helen placed under restraint and sending someone to examine her. Meanwhile he continued to berate what he saw as his father's mild policy. (65)
Under her father's protection, Helen held fast to her religious commitment but continued as an invalid. She was now in her mid-thirties, yet her life was dominated by the men around her: father, brothers, doctors, priests. Two years after her enforced return from the Continent found her in Leamington Spa, companioned by elderly Aunt Joanna, and under the ministrations of several doctors. A Dr. Miller reported that he had called on Helen at 1 p.m. "and found that she had left home at 7 a.m. for the nunnery and had not returned. This is so flagrant an infraction Violation or infringement; breach of a statute, contract, or obligation.
The term infraction is frequently used in reference to the violation of a particular statute for which the penalty is minor, such as a parking infraction.
INFRACTION. of everything like medical subordination" that he would not continue attendance "without a distinct understanding on the part of Miss Gladstone that she will be at least somewhat obedient to my advice." He then spoke to her Catholic spiritual advisor about the injury already done to her health "by these early visits to the convent, and he promised to absolve ab·solve
tr.v. ab·solved, ab·solv·ing, ab·solves
1. To pronounce clear of guilt or blame.
2. To relieve of a requirement or obligation.
a. To grant a remission of sin to. her from them." Nevertheless, Dr. Miller suggest that "measures be taken, as soon as convenient to remove her to Fasque (her father's home in Scotland) away from temptation to such imprudence im·pru·dence
1. The quality or condition of being unwise or indiscreet.
2. An unwise or indiscreet act.
Noun 1. ." (66)
Helen did, indeed, return to Fasque, and in attending to her father's decline into old age, seems to have acquired some purpose in her life congruent con·gru·ent
1. Corresponding; congruous.
a. Coinciding exactly when superimposed: congruent triangles.
b. with her religious beliefs that eased her recovery from both her symptoms and use of opiates. After their father's death, the main contact between Helen and her brothers was over business affairs as they had control over her finances. She was convinced that because she had never married, she should have received the equivalent to their marriage portions, [pounds sterling]150,000 each, from their father's estate. In the struggles over this issue, the brothers were particularly annoyed at her delay in answering queries or signing documents, a typical delaying tactic for those with little power to influence affairs. The fundamental issue at stake was their recognition of her as an adult woman. Her dilemma was that in the ethos of her time and class, this could only be fully claimed if she had married and had children. With dignity she put her case centered on a plea for autonomy: "I do not seek to increase my own wealth from any wish to possess or enjoy it; I have wished simply to act on what I was told was justice. I should be perfectly willing to waive all rights that I have been informed are mine at once and forever if it were agreed to place me in something like the position which marriage would place me; that is to say, removal of the forfeiture provided by the will, thereby leaving me free to follow what my conscience might dictate, and with regard to the capital at my death, giving me that control over it, which children of mine would, unhesitatingly enjoy." (67)
Helen spent most of the rest of her life in a Continental convent. Based in that safe haven 1. Designated area(s) to which noncombatants of the United States Government's responsibility and commercial vehicles and materiel may be evacuated during a domestic or other valid emergency.
2. , relations were restored to the point where she came for visits to William's home and came to be familiar to his and Catherine's seven children. Yet William had refused to name one of his daughters after his wayward sister until Sir John had chided him that Helen's religion was her own affair. William only relented by saying he would use the name Helen after an elderly aunt who had just died, not his sister. (68)
Over the years, William continued to carp at Helen in his correspondence. Once again, in 1874, on a visit to the continent, in his "rescue mode" he tried to persuade Helen to give up her Roman Catholicism Roman Catholicism
Largest denomination of Christianity, with more than one billion members. The Roman Catholic Church has had a profound effect on the development of Western civilization and has been responsible for introducing Christianity in many parts of the world. and return with him to his countryseat coun·try·seat
An estate or mansion in the country.
Noun 1. countryseat - an estate in the country
acres, demesne, landed estate, estate, land - extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the , Harwarden. He warned her of the "paralysing effects of inertia," although, in fact, she led an active life of good works within the convent community. During the visit he asked for her help in writing a pamphlet against her Church. Although she no longer feared him, this visit worried her until she felt ill while Gladstone, rather spitefully spite·ful
Filled with, prompted by, or showing spite; malicious.
spiteful·ly adv. , wrote his wife that the day following the interview, Helen was fine and able to walk 29 miles in the mountains. Catherine, again bemused and possibly somewhat jealous, begged William to leave Helen alone and come home. (69)
As late as 1878, when Helen had failed to repay a loan of [pounds sterling]20 and to send a promised [pounds sterling]50 for a charity, William wrote: "A parcel arrived from you a few days ago. It contains I have no doubt a gift or gifts kindly intended by you for me, or for us." But he informs her, it would remain unopened. He has paid the charge on it "but I can have no other concern with it while matters remain as they are." (70)
Helen had clearly slipped away from the control of her male relatives, especially William, yet at a terrible personal cost. Although her life in the convent appears to have been peaceful and she was able to give up the dependency on opiates, she still remained emotionally involved with the family in England, harbouring reserves of resentment and envy mixed with longing for recognition.
These complicated feelings are illustrated in one tragic-comic episode in 1848. William, on a visit when Helen was back living with her father at Fasque, discovered some Protestant texts from the library with pages torn out in the water closet next to Helen's bedroom "under circumstances which admit of no doubt as to the shameful use to which they were put ... You have no right to perpetrate per·pe·trate
tr.v. per·pe·trat·ed, per·pe·trat·ing, per·pe·trates
To be responsible for; commit: perpetrate a crime; perpetrate a practical joke. these indignities against any religion sincerely held." He threatened to tell their father unless she promised never again to tear up to rip up; to remove from a fixed state by violence; as, to tear up a floor; to tear up the foundation of government or order s>.
See also: Tear the works of Protestant theologians for use as toilet paper. (71)
In a final attempt to bring his sister back to the fold, after her death, William, insisted on bringing her body to England to be buried in the family vault, convincing himself through tortuous tor·tu·ous
Having many turns; winding or twisting.
tortuous adjective Referring to complexly twisted thing. Cf Tortious. reasoning that she had reverted to the Anglican Church. His self-delusion is expressed in almost wistful wist·ful
1. Full of wishful yearning.
2. Pensively sad; melancholy.
[From obsolete wistly, intently. terms: "Is not all this most extraordinary and a perfect and substantial proof that she lived and died in unity with us?... It is my conviction that in loyalty to her we are absolutely bound, when we take her remains to England, to exclude any interposition in·ter·pose
v. in·ter·posed, in·ter·pos·ing, in·ter·pos·es
a. To insert or introduce between parts.
b. To place (oneself) between others or things.
2. by a Roman Catholic." (72)
As in so many of these struggles between family members, issues over control and recognition lie at the root of Helen's relationships with her brothers, especially William. His angry, punitive attempts to control her display a side of his character that historical commentators have found highly troubling. Yet the brother and sister's intense interaction is characteristic of close sibling bonds "Sibling Bonds" is an episode of the Disney Channel TV Series Lizzie McGuire. Plot/Summary
The episode begins with Matt performing magic tricks which annoys Lizzie who is doing homework. The two end up arguing. generally, but here moulded by their particular historical world and expressed through the medium of a deeply personal religious, highly moralised idiom. In his early twenties, in a letter to Helen, William was disarmingly frank about the characteristics in himself that he later excoriated in her. "The one thing I dread is the fierceness of internal excitement, and that from experience as well as anticipation, I do dread. May God pour on it his tranquillising influence. It is very painful to feel myself mastered by turbulent emotions which one can condemn but not control." (73)
Catherine Gladstone Catherine Glynne Gladstone, née Catherine Glynne (January 6 1812 – June 14 1900) was the wife of British Prime Minister William Gladstone for 59 years, until his death in 1898. recognised that for all his formidable controlled energy, sense of purpose and high-minded morality, William had a darker side. She perceptively described his duality Duality (physics)
The state of having two natures, which is often applied in physics. The classic example is wave-particle duality. The elementary constituents of nature—electrons, quarks, photons, gravitons, and so on—behave in some respects : "impetuous im·pet·u·ous
1. Characterized by sudden and forceful energy or emotion; impulsive and passionate.
2. Having or marked by violent force: impetuous, heaving waves. , impatient, irrestrainable, the other all self-control--able to dismiss all but the great central aim. Able to put aside what is weakening or disturbing--self-mastery achieved with great struggle, partly through prayer." (74) Alas, for Helen, circumstances, especially her gender, deprived her of any "great central aim."
For William, as for many Victorian middle and upper class men obsessed ob·sess
v. ob·sessed, ob·sess·ing, ob·sess·es
To preoccupy the mind of excessively.
v.intr. with a sense of sin, it was good women's role in life to be the helpmeet help·meet
[From misunderstanding of the phrase an help meet for him, a helper suitable for him (Adam), in Genesis 2:18, referring to Eve.]
Noun 1. to flawed masculinity in keeping such disturbing urges within the bounds of morality. A woman like Helen Gladstone, independent of spirit but driven to a frenzy by frustration and lack of opportunity for action, represented the other side of the equation, too close to the character of the "fallen women" who so fascinated as well as repelled upright citizens. For William, women were inherently Madonna or Whore. His mother and to an even greater extent his sister Anne, who had so early 'ascended to Heaven', were the prototype of this vision. These feelings were compounded by age and position in the family: Anne as older guide and protector, Helen as the younger, dependent but refusing proper subordination. The intense ambivalence of both siblings was also exacerbated by their continued grief over Anne's death and William's jealousy of Helen's relationship with their father.
Given the way historical records are handed down, we know an immense amount about William but very little of Anne or Helen. But even the detailed and numerous studies of his life and character have given scant attention to the sisters' influence. A case study such as this, set in historical context, can both give voice to the silences of the historical past and shed light on the more generally neglected place of siblings--a central element in active kinship.
Department of Sociology Noun 1. department of sociology - the academic department responsible for teaching and research in sociology
academic department - a division of a school that is responsible for a given subject
Colchester, United Kingdom
1. Leonore Davidoff, Worlds, Between: Historical Perspectives on Gender and Class (Cambridge, 1995): 207.
2. David Schneider, A Critique of the Study of Kinship (Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, city (1990 pop. 109,592), seat of Washtenaw co., S Mich., on the Huron River; inc. 1851. It is a research and educational center, with a large number of government and industrial research and development firms, many in high-technology fields such as , 1984); Janet Carsten, "Introduction: cultures of relatedness" and Janet Carsten and Marilyn Strathern Dame Ann Marilyn Strathern, DBE MA, PhD, FBA, (born 6 March 1941) is a British anthropologist, currently William Wyse Professor of Anthropology at Cambridge University and Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge. , "Including our own" in Janet Carsten, ed., Cultures of Relatedness: New Approaches to the Study of Kinship (Cambridge, 2000).
3. Elizabeth B. Silva and Carol Smart, eds, The New Family? (London, 1999).
4. David H.J. Morgan, Family Connections: An Introduction to Family Studies (Cambridge, 1996).
5. L. Davidoff, M. Doolittle, J. Fink and K. Holden, The Family Story: Blood, Contract and Intimacy 1830-1960 (London, 1998).
6. Marilyn Strathern, After Nature: English Kinship in the Late 20th Century (Cambridge, 1992); Andrew Brown Andrew Brown may refer to:
7. Carsten in Cultures of Relatedness.
8. Penelope Farmer, Two or The Book of Twins and Doubles (London, 1996).
9. Ann Shearer, "Sisters and Brothers--Brothers and Sisters: Intimate Relations and the Question of 'Incest'," paper delivered at the European University Institute The European University Institute (EUI) in Florence (Italy) is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by the European Community member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in , September 2000, by permission of the author.
10. Graham Allan, Kinship and Friendship in Modern Britain (Oxford, 1996): 3.
11. Anthony Giddens Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. He is considered to be one of the most prominent modern contributors in the field of sociology, the author of , The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality, Love and Eroticism Eroticism
novel of Alexandrian manners by Pierre Louys. [Fr. Lit.: Benét, 783]
Ovid’s treatise on lovemaking. [Rom. Lit. in Modern Society (Cambridge, 1992); Lynn Jamieson, Intimacy: Personal Relationships in Modern Society (Cambridge, 1998).
12. Valerie Sanders, The Brother-Sister Culture in Nineteenth-Century Literature Nineteenth-Century Literature is a literary journal published by University of California Press, in Berkeley, California, dealing with British and American literature of the 19th Century. from Austen to Woolf (London, 2002).
13. Virginia Blain blain
A skin swelling or sore; a blister; a blotch. , "Thinking Back Through Our Aunts: Harriet Martineau Harriet Martineau (June 12, 1802 – June 27, 1876) was an English writer and philosopher, renowned in her day as a controversial journalist, political economist, abolitionist and life-long feminist. and Tradition in Women's Writing," Women: A Cultural Review, Vol 1, No 1 (1990); Margeret Allen, "Thinking Back Through our Aunts: Emily and Matilda Sturge," Lilith: A Feminist History Feminist history refers to the re-reading and re-interpretation of history from a female perspective. It is not the same as the history of feminism, which outlines the origins and evolution of the feminist movement. Journal, Vol 10 (2001).
14. See Robert Sanders, Sibling Relationships: Theory and Issues for Practice (London, 2004).
15. Juliet Mitchell, Mad Men and Medusas: Reclaiming Hysteria and the Effects of Sibling Relations on the Human Condition (London, 2000).
16. Juliet Mitchell, Siblings: Sex and Violence (Cambridge, 2003), xi.
17. Prophecy Coles, The Importance of Sibling Relationships in Psychoanalysis (London, 2003): 1-2.
18. Ann Shearer, "Sisters and Brothers": 1.
19. Leonore Davidoff, "Where the Stranger Begins"; David Sabean, Kinship in Neckerhausen 1700-1800 (Cambridge, 1998); Naomi Tadmor, Family and Friends in 18th Century England: Household, Kinship and Patronage (Cambridge, 2001).
20. Leonore Davidoff and Catherine Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class (London, 2002); this practice as followed by Sigmund Freud and his sister, Anna, see Leonore Davidoff, "The Legacy of the Nineteenth Century Bourgeois Family and the Wool Merchant's Son," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th Series, Vol. XIV (December 2004).
21. This is explored in detail in L. Davidoff, M. Doolittle, J. Fink and K. Holden, The Family Story: Blood, Contract and Intimacy 1830-1960 (London, 1998).
22. Francine Klagsbrun, Mixed Feelings: Love, Hate, Rivalry and Reconciliation Among Brothers and Sisters (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , 1992).
23. Leonore Davidoff, "Eins sein zu zweit": Geschwisterinzest in der englishchen Mittelschicht des spaten 18. und fruhen 19. Jarhunderts," L'Homme: Zeitschrift fur Feminishtische Geschichtswissenschaft, Vol 13, No. 1 (2002).
24. quoted in Barbara Taylor, Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination (Cambridge, 2003): 6.
25. George Eliot, "Brother and Sister," Spanish Gypsy (Edinburgh, 1901): 579.
26. Mary Anne Hedge, "On the Reciprocal Duties of Brother and Sister," My Own Fireside (Colchester, 1832): 116-118.
27. Jane Taylor, "To a Brother on His Birthday" in I. Taylor (ed.) Memoirs, Correspondence and Poetical po·et·i·cal
2. Fancifully depicted or embellished; idealized.
po·eti·cal·ly adv. Remains (1831).
28. Richard Deacon For the actor Richard Deacon, see .
For the popular historian Donald McCormick, who also wrote under the pseudonym Richard Deacon, see .
Richard Deacon CBE (born 15 August 1949) is a British sculptor. , The Private Life of Mr. Gladstone (London, 1965): 29.
29. H.C.G. Matthew, Gladstone: 1809-1898 (Oxford, 1997).
30. Letter from Anne M. to William E., November 1, 1825, Flintshire Record Office, Gladstone Collection, No 605.
31. M.R.D. Foot, ed., The Gladstone Diaries, Vol I (Oxford, 1968): 53.
32. See for example, Judith Flanders, The Circle of Sisters: Alice Kipling, Georgiana Burne-Jones, Agnes Poynter and Louisa Baldwin (London, 2001): 51.
33. Foot, The Gladstone Diaries, 228.
34. Letter from Anne M. to William E. March 30, 1824, Gladstone Coll. No 605.
35. S.G. Checkland, The Gladstones: A Family Biography 1764-1851 (Cambridge, 1971): 230.
36. Ibid, p. 165.
37. Letter from Helen Jane to William E., February 2, 1829, Gladstone Coll. No 629.
38. Letter William E. to Helen J. November 10, 1829 Gladstone Coll. No 751.
39. Letter Helen J. to William E. November 18, 1829 Gladstone Coll. No 629.
40. Matthew, 91-93.
41. See Leonore Davidoff, "Class and Gender in Victorian England: The Case of Hannah Cullwick Hannah Cullwick (1833-1909) was a Victorian era diarist and domestic servant, born and raised in Shropshire.
Cullwick's childhood was unremarkable, except that a lady arranged for her to attend a charity school, where she learned to read (mainly the Bible) and write, unlike and A.J. Munby" in Worlds Between: Historical Perspectives on Gender and Class (Cambridge, 1995).
42. Richard Shannon This article is about the writer. For the U.S. Representative from New York, see Richard C. Shannon.
Richard Shannon (born 17 April, 1954) in Three Rivers, Texas, is a writer, performer and speaker currently living in Yoakum, Texas. , Gladstone, Vol I 1809-1865 (London, 1982): 25.
43. Checkland, 290.
44. Clipping from Birmingham paper sent to William E. by a friend. Gladstone Coll. No 630.
45. Letter of William to his father quoted in Philip Magnus Philip Magnus may refer to:
46. Matthew, 92-93.
47. Letter of William E. to Helen J. May 30, 1842, Gladstone Coll. No. 751.
51. M.R.D. Foot and H.C.G. Matthew, eds, The Gladstone Diaries Vol. III (Oxford, 1974), 202.
52. Magnus, 82.
53. Ibid, p. 71.
54. Ibid, pp 74-75.
55. Papers of Sir Thomas Gladstone Sir Thomas Gladstone, 2nd Baronet (25 July 1804 – 20 March 1889) was a Tory (later Conservative) politician in the United Kingdom.
He was Member of Parliament (MP) for Queenborough from 1830 to 1831, for Portarlington from 1832 to 1835, , 1844-46, Gladstone Coll. No. 1304.
56. Ibid, December 5, 1846.
58. Ibid, January 8, 1846.
59. Ibid, January 7, 1846.
60. Ibid, January 9, 1846.
62. Ibid, January 11, 1846.
63. Ibid, January 13, 16, 18 and 19, 1846.
64. Letter of Helen to William, May 12, 1846, Gladstone Coll. No 630.
65. Magnus pp 81-82; for the practice of controlling women through incarceration Confinement in a jail or prison; imprisonment.
Police officers and other law enforcement officers are authorized by federal, state, and local lawmakers to arrest and confine persons suspected of crimes. The judicial system is authorized to confine persons convicted of crimes. in lunatic asylums, see Elaine Showalter Elaine Showalter (born January 21, 1941) is an American literary critic, feminist, and writer on cultural and social issues. She is one of the founders of feminist literary criticism in United States academia, developing the concept and practice of gynocritics. , The Female Malady malady /mal·a·dy/ (-ah-de) disease.
A disease, disorder, or ailment.
a disease or illness. : Women, Madness and English Culture 1830-1980 (London, 1987).
66. Letter from Dr. Miller November 8, 1848, Gladstone Coll. No. 360.
67. Letter Helen Jane to William, July 24, 1853, Gladstone Coll. No. 629.
68. Magnus, 60.
69. Ibid, 234.
70. Matthew, 329.
71. Letter from William to Helen Jane, November 24, 1848, quoted in Magnus, p. 84.
72. Magnus, 268.
73. Deacon, 179.
74. John Morley, The Life of Gladstone (London, 1927): 44.
By Leonore Davidoff
University of Essex The University of Essex is a British plate glass university. It received its Royal Charter in 1965. The university's main campus is located at Wivenhoe Park on the outskirts of Colchester (the oldest recorded town in Britain) in the English county of Essex, less than a mile from