Kenya: huge fish farming potential. (Countryfile).
An increasing demand for protein is spurring Kenyan fish farmers to experiment with hybrid, faster growing fish species. Unlike the crop, livestock and poultry industry however, genetic data on fish rearing is limited. This leaves Kenyan researchers having to pioneer with little or no information available from which to build on.
The fresh water fishing industry earns Kenya some Ksh5bn ($6.15m) annually, most from the water hyacinth water hyacinth: see pickerelweed.
Any of about five species of aquatic plants that make up the genus Eichhornia of the pickerelweed family (Pontederiaceae). They are native mainly to the New World tropics. choked Lake Victoria where fish catches are declining. Fish farming offers an alternative with great potential. Locally formed ponds can be established almost anywhere and by concentrating on selective breeding, Kenyan researchers are hoping to increase commercially farmed yields, and thus an increased availability of fish protein to the general population.
Tilapia tilapia (təlä`pēə) or St. Peter's fish, a spiny-finned freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae, native chiefly to Africa and the Middle East. most popular
"The current decline in catches from the wild, in addition to an increasing Kenyan population, has exacerbated the scarcity of fish, leading to a growing interest by African farmers in aquaculture aquaculture, the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. ," Permanent Secretary of Agriculture Shem Migot Adhola stated at the Sagana Fish Research station in central Kenya.
The most popular species for pond farming is Tilapia. A pleasant tasting, relatively boneless Bone´less
a. 1. Without bones.
Adj. 1. boneless - being without a bone or bones; "jellyfish are boneless" white-fish, it has found wide acceptance among the Kenyan population. Occurring naturally in inland lakes, the Tilapia holds great promise and can be genetically engineered genetically engineered adjective Recombinant, see there for skin colour, body conformation con·for·ma·tion
One of the spatial arrangements of atoms in a molecule that can come about through free rotation of the atoms about a single chemical bond. , fillet fillet /fil·let/ (fil´et)
1. a loop, as of cord or tape, for making traction on the fetus.
2. in the nervous system, a long band of nerve fibers.
1. yield and growth rate.
Messing with genes
Transgenic engineering - a more advanced form of genetic alteration - is also being used to accelerate Tilapia growth rates Growth Rates
The compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends, or other figures.
Remember, historically high growth rates don't always mean a high rate of growth looking into the future. beyond those found in the wild species. Introducing the exogenous growth hormone growth hormone or somatotropin (sōmăt'ətrō`pən), glycoprotein hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that is necessary for normal skeletal growth in humans (see protein). (GH) found in the North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. Chinook salmon chinook salmon
or king salmon
Prized North Pacific food and sport fish (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of the salmon family. The average weight is about 22 lbs (10 kg), but individuals of 50–80 lbs (22–36 kg) are not unusual. into wild Tilapia has been found to increase their growth to three times that of the non-transgenic species.
Researchers advise caution however. The introduction of the common carp into North America for aquaculture purposes had disastrous results in water quality, loss of aquatic vegetation and a sharp decline in indigenous species all across the United States and Canada.
A more recent example of the problems associated with genetic engineering is the stocking of Nile Perch into Lake Victoria for sports fishing purposes. These predatory fish have almost totally destroyed the indigenous flocks of Haplochromiine cichlids (a species of water bug) to the detriment of local fishing activities around the lake's shoreline. The bugs used to keep the growth of water hyacinth, which is choking the lake to death, within manageable limits.
Africa contributes less then one percent of the world's aquaculture output even though 43% of its land is suitable for fish farming activities. Such land availability holds great promise. Increasing production for both domestic and export consumption is possible with improved strains of faster growing fish, researchers believe.
"Ninety percent of exported Tilapia come from Egypt and Nigeria," according to fish scientists Daniel Jamu and Randall Brummett of the Cameroon Living Aquatic Resource Management company. "The potential for Africa is enormous, and already Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa export farmed Tilapia to Europe and the United States in considerable quantities."
The Kenya government has increased funding for genetic research at its renowned Sagana Aquaculture Research station. This is piquing the interest of Kenyan farmers looking to supplement their crop incomes. Commercial fish farming takes up very little land and requires a minimum of labour if support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services are available. "If stocking and re-stocking fingerlings are readily available, more farmers would consider turning a corner of their pasture into a protein producing pond," local agricultural officials contend.
Fresh water fish farming is not without its problems however. Drought, lack of financing and a scarcity of freezing facilities are issues holding the industry back. While not insurmountable, more capital investment and low interest lines of credit are required if it is really to catch on as a growth industry.
"Aquaculture investment in African countries is generally minimal," Kenya fisheries expert Aggrey Ambali laments. "More effort must be put into genetic blood-stock and into ways of reducing the effects of drought on the ponds. With only wild strains available for re-stocking, the investment in developing genetic species can be wasted without also developing methods to cope with the follow-on processes so vital to success."