Keeping the skies clear.This supplement to our regular issue number two of 2004 provides a round-up of the major air defence systems deployed or undergoing development around the world.
This report is broken down into different categories, starting with air-to-air, and of course their inevitable complement, the airborne early warning The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW. aircraft.
The report then drops down a few feet to examine the systems that will provide protection from the ground, logically starting from the very short range air defence systems (including barrelled weapons) and all the way up to the longer range missiles.
Fighter Aircraft fighter aircraft
Aircraft designed primarily to secure control of essential airspace by destroying enemy aircraft in combat. Designed for high speed and maneuverability, they are armed with weapons capable of striking other aircraft in flight.
Most current fighters are designed from the outset as multi-role combat aircraft, although a minority (e.g., the Boeing F-15, Dassault Mirage 2000 and Lockheed Martin For the former company, see .
Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is a leading multinational aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology company formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. F/A-22) have been given outstanding 'top-end' performance (i.e., high Mach, high ceiling0 for the air defence and air superiority That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another that permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force. roles.
Another key factor in fighter design is stealth or low observability (LO), in which America undoubtedly retains a significant lead. European and Russian manufacturers are making desperate efforts to give pre-stealth configurations sufficient long-term credibility to warrant an outright purchase, but (unless some new radar development destroys the value of stealth) they may increasingly be forced to offer attractive short-term leasing arrangements.
On the other hand, it remains to be seen whether aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F-35 will be offered in an LO form that attracts widespread purchases. The degree of stealth to be proffered will be a political decision to be made by the then-current US Administration, and will presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. differ between potential customers, a situation that may bolster the hopes of non-US fighter manufacturers. At the extremes, it could give America an even more dominant position in the fighter market, or produce a repeat of the fiasco generated by the Carter Administration Noun 1. Carter administration - the executive under President Carter
executive - persons who administer the law , which attempted to restrict Third World fighter purchases to the Lockheed Martin F-16A/B A/B Airborne
A/B Afterburner (jet engines)
A/B Air Blast
A/B Air Bus
A/B Afterburning . Until that decision is made, doubts will persist over continuing the development of pre-stealth designs, and of maintaining such aircraft in production for domestic use.
Production and operating costs operating costs npl → gastos mpl operacionales are other important drivers in the selection of a fighter, which will naturally favour lightweights. The only new-generation lightweight fighter The Lightweight Fighter (LWF) Program was a U.S. Air Force technology evaluation program initiated in the 1960s by a cabal of officers and defense analysts known as the "fighter mafia". It was spurred by then Maj. in service is the Saab/BAE Systems Gripen. The baseline JAS JAS James
JAS Journal of Animal Science
JAS Jamaica AIDS Support
JAS Journal Abbreviation Sources
JAS Japan Air System
JAS Just A Second
JAS Japanese Agricultural Standard
JAS Jordanian Astronomical Society (Amman, Jordan) 39 version is already in use with four Swedish Air Force The Swedish Air Force (Swedish: Flygvapnet, literally "The Flight Weapon") is the air force branch of the Swedish Armed Forces, the military of Sweden. History fighter wings, while the export Gripen has been ordered by South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. (28 aircraft), is to he leased by the Czech Republic Czech Republic, Czech Česká Republika (2005 est. pop. 10,241,000), republic, 29,677 sq mi (78,864 sq km), central Europe. It is bordered by Slovakia on the east, Austria on the south, Germany on the west, and Poland on the north. and Hungary (each taking 14 aircraft for ten years) and has been shortlisted in Brazil for the F-X-BR programme.
The Swedish Air Force now has a squadron of JAS39s available for international deployments on European Union European Union (EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the
European Community , Nato, Nordic Defence Cooperation Pact or UN missions, to provide escort and limited reconnaissance facilities. By 2006 the squadron will have the JAS39C with colour displays, Nato-compatible IFF 1. (file format) IFF - Interchange File Format.
2. IFF - Identify friend or foe (radar).
3. (mathematics, logic) iff - if and only if, i.e. necessary and sufficient. , inflight refuelling re·fu·el
v. re·fu·eled also re·fu·elled, re·fu·el·ing also re·fu·el·ling, re·fu·els also re·fu·els
To supply again with fuel.
v.intr. capability and Imperial units instrumentation, making it more suitable for international missions. Structural components for the first South African Gripen (a two-seater) are now being fabricated, with first flight scheduled for February 2006, leading to hand-over in November 2007. The first South African single-seater is to be delivered in late 2009. It will differ from the standard export Gripen primarily in having a BAE Systems BAE Systems
British manufacturer of aircraft, missiles, avionics, naval vessels, and other aerospace and defense products. BAE Systems was formed (1999) from the merger of British Aerospace (BAe) with Marconi Electronic Systems. Cobra integrated helmet-mounted display (IHMD) derived from the Striker to be used on the Eurofighter Typhoon This article is about a fighter aircraft. For the computer game, see Eurofighter Typhoon (computer game).
“EF2000” redirects here. For the computer game, see EF2000 (computer game). .
One of the most commercially successful fighters is the Lockheed Martin F-16, production deliveries of which began in 1978. Approximately 4100 have since been delivered against orders from 24 nations, and the company has a backlog for more than 300 aircraft, with deliveries scheduled to continue until at least 2008. Recent customers include Chile, Oman, Poland and the UAE (Uninterruptible Application Error) The name given to a crash in Windows 3.0. In subsequent versions of Windows, a crash was called a "General Protection Fault," "Application Error" or "Illegal Operation." See crash in Windows and abend. . Some 123 different versions have been produced or are under development. The F-16 is one of four types shortlisted in Brazil.
In March 2003, an F-16 first flew with production conformal fuel tanks (CFT CFT complement fixation test; see under fixation.
complement fixation test. ), carrying an additional 1390 kg of fuel without the use of underwing pylons. The lead customer for the CFTs is Greece, which is receiving 60 of the Advanced Block 52 version of the F-16C/D. However, development of the CFT was launched by an order for 80 F-16E/F E/F Educator/Facilitator Block 60s, placed by the UAE in early 2000. The first Block 60 had its maiden flight Noun 1. maiden flight - the first flight of its kind; "the Stealth bomber made its maiden flight in 1989"
flying, flight - an instance of traveling by air; "flying was still an exciting adventure for him" in December 2003, powered by a 144.5 kN General Electric F110-GE-132 engine. It also features a new avionics suite with a revolutionary Falcon Edge electronic warfare Noun 1. electronic warfare - military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine or exploit or reduce or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum
military action, action - a military engagement; "he saw action in Korea" system, the Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) is an aerospace and defense conglomerate that is the result of the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. The company is the third largest defense contractor for the U.S. APG-80 active array radar and the same company's integrated flir and targeting system. Deliveries to the UAE will begin at the end of this year.
In November 2003, Lockheed Martin rolled out the first of 102 F-16Is for the Israeli Air Force The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal , equipped with the 129kN Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 Improved Performance Engine, the Northrop Grumman APG-68(V)9 multimode radar with synthetic aperture radar Synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
Radar, airborne or satellite-borne, that uses special signal processing to produce high-resolution images of the surface of the Earth (or another object) while traversing a considerable flight path. ground mapping capability and CFTs. This batch brings Israeli F-16 orders to a total of 362. The F-161 has a maximum take-off weight The maximum gross weight due to design or operational limitations at which an aircraft is permitted to take off. of 23,587 kg, the heaviest ever achieved by an F-16. In relation to a wing area of only 27.9 metres square, it almost certainly gives the highest wing loading wing loading
The gross weight of an airplane divided by the wing area. Used in stress analysis.
Noun 1. wing loading - the ratio of the weight of an airplane to its wing area ever employed on a production fighter, far greater than even that of the Lockheed F-104G Starfighter.The F-16 is now crying out for more wing area, which could be obtained through use of the 25 per cent larger wing of the Mitsubishi F-2.
The RSK RSK Ribosomal S6 Kinase
RSK Republika Srpska Krajina
RSK Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission (German: reactor safety commission)
RSK Robinson-Schensted-Knuth (combinatorial algorithm) MiG-29 began life as a classic short-range air defence fighter with a high thrust/weight ratio and low fuel fraction. It had outstanding low-speed handling characteristics, but a high-workload cockpit and short-life engines. RSK-MiG is finally dealing with these shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.
Shortcomings may also be:
The MiG-29M1/M2 series is believed to be the second favourite in the Indian Air Force The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the contest for a lightweight fighter, of which 125 are urgently required to replace some MiG-21s and MiG-23s. The front-runner in this contest is the Dassault Mirage 2000, of which around 550 have been ordered by eight air forces. It is also shortlisted in Brazil.
Although the Dassault Rafale The Dassault Rafale (or "Squall" in English) is a French twin-engined delta-wing highly agile multi-role fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Dassault uses "Omni Role" as a marketing term in an effort to differentiate the aircraft from other "multi-role" and Eurofighter Typhoon are shortlisted in Singapore, both are having problems in winning export orders. The French Government is relying on industry to fund further development of the Rafale, which needs more thrust to compete with the Typhoon typhoon: see hurricane. . Deliveries of the first production tranche of 148 Typhoons began in mid-2003, but funding for the second tranche of 236 appears to be delayed, while the four-nation group argues over work-shares and considers whether the concept is relevant to 21st Century conflicts. The third domestic tranche of 236 aircraft appears increasingly unlikely, but last August Austria became the first export customer, with a 1.98 billion [euro] order for 18 Typhoons.
The main threat to the Rafale and Typhoon is the Lockheed Martin F-35 JSF (JavaServerFaces) A standard framework of components for building rich user interfaces for Java applications. JavaServer Faces run on the server, but are displayed on the client.
JSF - JavaServer Faces (Joint Strike Fighter A strike fighter is a fighter aircraft which is also capable of attacking surface targets, including ships. It differs from an attack aircraft in that the aircraft remains a capable fighter. ), which combines an affordable price with a high degree of stealth, at least in its domestic form. If sales go as planned, spares will be available globally on a commercial basis, minimising the need for individual holdings. The Stovl version with shaft-driven lift fan remains a high-risk development.
The third fighter shortlisted by Singapore is the Boeing F-15T, a further derivative of the F-15K ordered by South Korea (40 are scheduled for delivery between 2005 and 2008, with General Electric F110-GE-129 engines), in turn based on the multi-role F-15E, which is still in low-rate initial production for the US Air Force. The F-15T is expected to have an active electronically scanned array An Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), also known as active phased array radar is a type of radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small transmit/receive (T/R) modules. version of the Raytheon APG-63 radar installed.
As Asian economies boom, sales of the Sukhoi Su-27/30/35 series continue to expand, assisted in India and Malaysia by Thales avionics. The upgraded Su-27SM made its debut at Dubai last year. A win for the Su-35 in Brazil would represent a significant breakthrough into the Latin American market.
At the top of the fighter range, the stealthy stealth·y
adj. stealth·i·er, stealth·i·est
Marked by or acting with quiet, caution, and secrecy intended to avoid notice. See Synonyms at secret. Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor is unlikely to be widely exported. The first of 276 planned for the US Air Force (which retains a requirement for 381) was delivered in September 2003. Initial operational capability The first attainment of the capability to employ effectively a weapon, item of equipment, or system of approved specific characteristics that is manned or operated by an adequately trained, equipped, and supported military unit or force. Also called IOC. is scheduled for the end of 2005.
Air-to-Air Guided Missiles
In providing air defence, the primary weapon for fighters is now the air-to-air missile Noun 1. air-to-air missile - a missile designed to be launched from one airplane at another
missile - a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives; may be ballistic or directed by remote control (AM), although fast-firing cannon still provide a useful last-ditch supplement. This type of missile is conveniently discussed in terms of short-, medium- and long-range categories, although the distinctions are sometimes blurred. Despite the ending of the Cold War, major advances are still taking place in such missiles, often inspired by Soviet developments that began over 20 years ago.
Considering firstly short-range AAMs, this type of development began as a replacement for aerial cannon, aimed at combining increased firing range with high kill probability A measure of the probability of destroying a target. , primarily to put a bomber out of control before it could release an atomic bomb atomic bomb or A-bomb, weapon deriving its explosive force from the release of atomic energy through the fission (splitting) of heavy nuclei (see nuclear energy). The first atomic bomb was produced at the Los Alamos, N.Mex. . Since a series of firings from a comparatively small fighter was envisaged, the missile had to be lightweight, the correspondingly small warhead leading to the use of infrared homing Infrared homing refers to a passive missile guidance system which uses the emission from a target of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared part of the spectrum to track it. for minimal miss distance.
First-generation weapons (such as the Sidewinder sidewinder, common name for a rattlesnake, Crotalus cerastes, found in the deserts of the SW United States. This 2-ft (60-cm), pale yellow and pink snake is named for its curious method of locomotion. AIM-9B) were designed for air defence against docile targets, and for simplicity had uncooled seekers operating on short infrared wavelengths. They could thus detect only very hot emitters, such as turbine blades, which restricted firings to small angles off the target axis. Second-generation missiles (e.g., the Rafael Shafrir) were much more manoeuvrable Adj. 1. manoeuvrable - capable of maneuvering or changing position; "a highly maneuverable ship"
mobile - moving or capable of moving readily (especially from place to place); "a mobile missile system"; "the tongue is... , increasing effectiveness in dogfights.
Third-generation missiles (e.g., Raytheon Sidewinder AIM-9L/M L/M low and moderate (income levels) ) have cooled infrared seekers operating on longer wavelengths, allowing them to home on to the target exhaust. Such seekers in principle make possible launches from all around the target (i.e., tail-chase, head-on and beam attacks). Fourth-generation missiles (e.g. the Vympel R-73 and Rafael Python 4) can engage targets at large angles off the axis of the the diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the plane of the circle.
See also: Axis launch aircraft, the pilot using a helmet-mounted sight to 'cue' the weapon seeker.
Fifth-generation missiles (e.g., the Raytheon AIM-9X, BGT BGT Busch Gardens Tampa
BGT Britain's Got Talent (TV show)
BGT Branch If Greater Than
BGT Bodenseewerk Geraetetechnik GmbH (German defense company)
BGT Be Glad To
BGT Backpack Gear Test Iris-T, Kentron A-Dater, MBDA MBDA Minority Business Development Agency (US Department of Commerce)
MBDA Michigan Broadband Development Authority
MBDA Minnesota Band Directors Association
MBDA Matra BAE Dynamics Alenia
MBDA Magnolia Ballroom Dancers' Association Asraam and Rafael Python 50) have imaging seekers, giving much better discrimination against decoy DECOY. A pond used for the breeding and maintenance of water-fowl. 11 Mod. 74, 130; S. C. 3 Salk. 9; Holt, 14 11 East, 571. flares, and (in principle) making it possible to attack a preselected part of the target, such as the front fuselage.
The earliest of the fifth-generation short-range AAMs was the Vympel R-73 (AA-11). Employed with an Urals Optical-Mechanical Plant helmet-mounted sight, it can be fired at targets up to 30 degrees off-axis, and can track them at twice that angle. It employs both thrust vectoring Thrust vectoring is the ability of an aircraft or other vehicle to direct the thrust from its main engine(s) in a direction other than parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal axis. and canard ca·nard
1. An unfounded or false, deliberately misleading story.
a. A short winglike control surface projecting from the fuselage of an aircraft, such as a space shuttle, mounted forward of the main wing and surfaces for pitch and yaw yaw, in aviation: see airplane; airfoil.
See pitch-yaw-roll. control. A new export version is expected to combine a laser fuze fuze
n. & v.
Variant of fuse1.
Noun 1. fuze - any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
fuse, primer, priming, fuzee, fusee (which is already on the Russian Air Force The Russian Air Force (Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России, transliteration: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii version) and 120-degree off-axis target acquisition capability. Maximum range is to be increased from 30 to 40 km, and reports suggest that the R-73 has potential for rear-hemisphere defence.
In view of the inferiority of the AIM-9M to the R-73, the Pentagon decided to upgrade the former in some respects, while retaining the existing motor, fuze and warhead. The resulting Raytheon AIM-9X Evolved Sidewinder has a 128 x 128 element focal plane The plane, perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens, in which images of points in the object field of the lens are focused. array seeker, and thrust vectoring to engage close targets at high angles off. It can be directed at such targets either by the aircraft radar or the Vision Systems International (Kaiser/ Elbit) JHMCS JHMCS Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System). The US services plan to buy 10,097 AIM-9Xs over a 17-year period, and Raytheon expects to produce around 5000 for export. Since November 2003, the AIM-9X has been operational on the US Air Force F-15C. Carriage on the US Navy/Marine Corps F/A-18C/D will follow shortly, and it will be on the US Air Force F-16C in 2006. Poland, South Korea and Switzerland have chosen the AIM-9X.
South Africa's fifth-generation Kentron A-Darter is still under development, and completion may depend on its winning an export order. It has an imaging-IR seeker by Kentron, a wingless air-frame with body strakes, thrust vectoring and tail controls. It can lock on to targets after launch.
The MBDA Asraam employs the same Raytheon seeker as the AIM-9X. It is wingless and does not have thrust vectoring, its design emphasising speed and range rather than sharp turns directly after launch. Depending on launch conditions, it has up to three times the range of the AIM-9M. Production deliveries began in 2002, initially for the British RAF Tornado F3, but it will later equip British Typhoons and F-35s. The Asraam has also been selected for Australia's F/A-18. Later versions will have the ability to lock on to the target after launch.
Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Spain and Sweden are collaborating on the Iris-T, developed by a team led by Germany's BGT. It is a fully European missile, using a low-cost 128 x 4 array seeker with reduced susceptibility to laser counter-measures. Iris-T can lock on to targets at more than 90 degrees off axis, cued either by the launch aircraft radar or a helmet-mounted sight. It combines thrust-vectoring and tail controls, and can lock on after launch. Iris-T is being integrated on the F-16, F/A-18, JAS39 Gripen, the Tornado and the Typhoon. In late 2003, a six-nation Memorandum of Understanding A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is a legal document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action and may not imply a legal commitment. was signed on the series production of approximately 4000 rounds.
The current standard for medium-range AAMs was set by the Vympel RVV-AE (AA-12, reported Russian service designation R-77), which has a maximum range of 100 km and is distinguished by its lattice-type tail controls. It employs three-phase guidance; the first inertial phase being later refined by target updates from the launch aircraft prior to active radar terminal homing. Deliveries to the Russian Air Force began in 1993, and it has been exported to China, India, Malaysia and Peru. Vympel is reportedly developing an infrared-homing RVV-TE and a passive radar Passive radar systems (also referred to a passive coherent location and passive covert radar) encompass a class of radar systems that detect and track objects by processing reflections from non-cooperative sources of illumination in the environment, such as commercial homing RVV-PE.
The RVV-AE was designed to replace the Vympel R-27 (AA-10) series, which is identified by its reverse-taper ailerons. In R-27RE/TE extended-range form the missile employs semi-active radar or infrared homing respectively, and has an unrivalled maximum range of 130 km. This may well justify it being retained in service alongside the RVV-AE, as it allows a Russian-built fighter to fire first in a head-on engagement A Head-on engagement is one where a surface-to-air missile system or jet aircraft engages another aircraft while the target aircraft is flying towards the attacker. This makes engagement with infra-red homing missiles more difficult because the hot engine exhaust nozzle(s) of the with a non-stealthy Western-built fighter armed with the AIM-120.
If funded, the rocket-ramjet powered RVV-AE-PD will provide a range of 160 km. As an interim measure, Vympel is reportedly working on a version of the RVV-AE designated K-77M, using a ballistic trajectory Noun 1. ballistic trajectory - the trajectory of an object in free flight
trajectory, flight - the path followed by an object moving through space
to extend range. China is working on its own Project 129 derivative for use on the Su-30MKK MKK Hoolehua, HI, USA - Municipal (Airport Code) , using a dual-pulse rocket motor to increase range and terminal manoeuvrability Noun 1. manoeuvrability - the quality of being maneuverable
mobility - the quality of moving freely
weatherliness - (of a sailing vessel) the quality of being able to sail close to the wind with little drift to the leeward (even in a . An SD-10 export version has been seen on a mock-up mock·up also mock-up
1. A usually full-sized scale model of a structure, used for demonstration, study, or testing.
2. A layout of printed matter. of the FC-1 lightweight fighter project.
The Raytheon AIM-120 Amraam The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram), is a modern Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile (AAM) capable of all weather day and night performance. It is also commonly known as the Slammer in USAF service. employs a similar three-stage guidance system to that of the RVV-AE. It entered service in 1991, and more than 12,000 have been delivered to 25 nations. The new AIM-120C5 has an improved warhead, an extended rocket motor and cropped aerofoils to suit internal carriage. Future developments include a further lengthened rocket motor, an improved datalink and a Raytheon-funded high off-boresight capability.
Europe's most advanced medium-range AAM n. 1. A Dutch and German measure of liquids, varying in different cities, being at Amsterdam about 41 wine gallons, at Antwerp 36½, at Hamburg 38¼. is the MBDA Mica The MBDA MICA (Missile d’interception et de combat aérien, “Interception and Aerial Combat Missile”) is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire-and-forget missile system. , which is also effective at short range. It employs thrust vectoring, and is available with a dual-wavelength imaging-infrared or active radar seeker. The Mica is operational with the French and has been sold to Greece, Qatar, Taiwan and the UAE.
Some European air forces want increased firing range and more manoeuvrability in the terminal phase. Such demands have led to the MBDA Meteor Meteor is an active radar guided beyond-visual-range air to air missile (BVRAAM) being developed by MBDA to equip the Eurofighter Typhoons of the UK's Royal Air Force (RAF), Germany's Luftwaffe, Spain's Ejército del Aire and Italy's Aeronautica Militare Italiana, the Dassault , with a ducted rocket ramjet ramjet: see jet propulsion.
Air-breathing jet engine that operates with no major moving parts. It relies on the craft's forward motion to draw in air and on a specially shaped intake passage to compress the air for combustion. , multi-stage guidance and a maximum speed of over Mach 4. It is being developed by a six-nation team, which includes Eads-Casa. Eads-LFK and Saab Bofors Dynamics Saab Bofors Dynamics, located in Karlskoga, Sweden, is a subsidiary of Saab AB that specializes in defense materiel such as missile systems and anti-tank systems.
Its corporate heritage goes back to Bofors, which was founded in 1873. . The development contract was signed at the end of 2002, with this work scheduled to be completed by 2010 leading to service on the Typhoon, Rafale and JAS39 Gripen. Boeing is proposing external installation on the F-15 and F/A-18.
Work on long-range AAMs is comparatively limited, but at the 2003 Dubai Air Show Novator showed a model of its Type 172 as an inboard Built in. Inboard devices are built into the main unit. Contrast with outboard. See onboard. underwing installation for the Su-35. This dates from a Soviet requirement of the late 1980s, calling for a range of 400 km against high-value radar platforms and tankers. Reports refer to an export version with a range of 300 km, but the status of the programme is unclear.
The US-led coalition's overwhelming success in the 1991 Gulf War was due in no small part to the use of airborne early warning and Control Air surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. Also called AEW & C. See also air picket. aircraft.
The oldest of in-service AEW&C aircraft is the 25-tonne Northrop Grumman E-2C E-2C Hawkeye; Navy Airborne Warning and Control System Aircraft Hawkeye II. The current Group If standard has Lockheed Martin APS-145 radar, cruises between 25,000 and 31,000 ft, and has a maximum endurance of six hours. The E2C E2C Hawkeye; Navy Airborne Warning and Control System Aircraft is operated by the US Navy and has been exported to Egypt, France, Israel, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan.
In 1999, the US Navy's production programme for the new Hawkeye 2000 was launched, based on a planned total of 27 new-build aircraft, plus 54 Group IIs to be upgraded to the same standard. All of the service's E-2Cs will be fitted with the eight-blade Hamilton Sundstrand Hamilton Sundstrand, is a global corporation that manufactuers and supports aerospace and industrial products for worldwide markets. It was formed from the merger of Hamilton Standard and Sundstrand Corporation in 1999. NP2000 propeller introduced with the Hawkeye 2000.
The Advanced Hawkeye (AHE) is currently in the SDD (Software Design Description) The architecture of an information system. See IDD. (system development and demonstration) phase, which is to lead to initial operational capability in 2011. Its next-generation UHF (Ultra High Frequency) The range of electromagnetic frequencies from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. In the U.S., analog television has used UHF channels 52 to 69 in the 700 MHz band. radar is meanwhile being developed by Lockheed Martin, teamed with Northrop Grumman and Raytheon. L-3 Communications
L-3 Communications Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: LLL) is a company that supplies command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C3ISR) systems and is responsible for the electronically-scanned antenna and BAE Systems for the IFF system. The US Navy plans to have all of its E-2Cs (around 75 aircraft) brought to AHE standard by 2020.
The AEW&C hero of the 1991 Gulf War was the 152-tonne Boeing E-3 Awacs, which is equipped with a Northrop Grumman APY-1/2 radar. It typically has 14 mission consoles, a maximum endurance of over eleven hours and a cruise altitude of around 30,000 ft. The US Air Force purchased 34 E-3s, and 18 were later ordered by Nato, five by Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia (sä`dē ərā`bēə, sou`–, sô–), officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. , seven by the UK and four by France.
In 1991 Boeing announced that, following the closure of the B707 line, further Awacs production would be based on the B767-200ER. Japan has purchased four 175-tonne E-767s, equipped with General Electric CF6-80C turbofans. The E-767 has a two-man flight deck, nine operator consoles (five more if required), a cruise altitude of 34,000 to 40,000 ft, and a 13-hour endurance at 550 km radius.
Russia's equivalent of the E-3 is the 190-tonne Beriev A-50, based on the Ilyushin Il-76MD transport and with Rybinsk D-30 turbofans. The A-50 has a four-man flight deck and eleven operator consoles. Heavy avionics restricts fuel load, limiting endurance to four hours at 1000 km radius. Cruise altitude is 26,000 to 33,000 ft. The A-50E is an export version with improved Russian avionics, and six of these have been ordered by China. Three A-50Is with Israeli (Elta Phalcon) avionics have been ordered by India.
The Elta Phalcon radar employs a series of phased array antennas attached to the fuselage, in some cases augmented by nose and tail radomes. Israel and South Africa are believed to operate Phalcon systems based on the B707. In addition, Chile has one such aircraft, designated Condor, equipped with a nose radome and two front fuselage arrays. Israel has ordered three Gulfstream G550s with Phalcon nose and tail radomes and two fuselage arrays feeding six consoles. Similar aircraft have been proposed for South Korea, which has a requirement for four units.
Australia and Turkey have selected the 77-tonne Boeing B737 AEW&C, based on the B737-700IGW IGW Increased Gross Weight (Boeing)
IGW Investment Grade Wine
IGW Integrated Gateway
IGW Integral Gateway
IGW Inter-Galactic War
IGW If God's Willing
IGW International Gateway
IGW Internet Gateway
IGW Industrial Security Gateway airframe and the Northrop Grumman Mesa (Multirole Electronically-Scanned Array) radar with dorsal-mounted linear antennas. The baseline version has a two-man flight crew and six mission specialists. Both countries have ordered four aircraft.
Dorsal-mounted linear-array antennas are also used by the Ericsson Erieye radar The Erieye radar system, is an Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) developed by Saab Microwave Systems (formerly Ericsson) of Sweden. It is based on the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). , which was first adopted by the Swedish Air Force (six aircraft), using the Saab 340B as the aerial platform An aerial platform may refer either to a:
eosin-methylene blue. 145 series. Reports suggest that by April 2004 Malaysia will have signed a contract for four EMB 145s equipped with the Erieye radar.
Very short-range air defence systems (Vshorad) may for practical purposes be defined as engaging their targets at less than ten kilometres. Operational flexbility favours very lighweight missiles, since these allow a foot soldier to become a self-contained firing unit, at least in clear weather/daylight conditions. Greater kill probability can be achieved by placing a number of such weapons on a pedestal On a Pedestal is an EP by the Swedish band Adhesive, released in 1998. Track listing
Although manpads (man-portable air defence systems) have gone through at least three generations of development, some older models (such as the KBM (Knowledge Based Manufacturing) A full-featured custom manufacturing ERP system from Acacia for the AS/400. It was originally developed by Data3, which was acquired by the ASK Group and then by Computer Associates (CA) in 1994. See Acacia. 9M32M Strela-2M or SA-7) remain a somewhat limited threat, primarily to unprotected commercial aircraft. Russia's second generation is represented by the Strela-3 (SA-14) and KBM 9M310 Igla-1 (SA-16), both with cooled seekers to suit longer infrared wavelengths and allow all-aspect engagements. The third Russian generation is exemplified by the KBM 9M39 Igla (SA-18) with a two-wavelength seeker to discriminate against decoys. The latest KBM 9M342 Igla-Super combines a heavier warhead, a laser proximity fuze proximity fuze
An electronic device for detonating a warhead as it approaches a target, used in antiaircraft shells. Also called VT fuze. and improvements to the rocket motor and flight control system.
America's equivalent of the Igla series is the Raytheon Fim-92 Stinger The FIM-92 Stinger is a man portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the US armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. The basic Stinger missile has to date been responsible for 270 confirmed kills of aircraft. , which is widely used in manpads form, and is also available in a variety of other installations, including the company's Dual Mount Stinger (DMS (1) (Document Management System) See document management.
(2) (Defense Messaging System) An X.500-compliant messaging system developed by the U.S. Dept. of Defense. ) with flir sensor and radar cueing. Eads-LFK has developed a two-round Tripod-Adapted Stinger (Tas) mount and a Pedestal-Mounted Stinger (PMS (Pantone Matching System) A color matching system that has a unique number assigned to more than 500 different colors and shades. This standard for the printing industry has been built into many graphics and desktop publishing programs to ensure color accuracy. ) system for 4 x 4 vehicles. The Stinger is also used on the US Army's AM General Hummer-based Boeing Avenger and the Bradley-Linebacker fighting vehicle. Recent sales include the Lithuanian purchase of Raytheon Lasams (Low-Altitude Sam System) with Hummer vehicles and Thales Raytheon Systems TPQ-64 Sentinel radars. In addition, Stinger forms the initial armament of the German Army's LeFlaSys, a joint venture by theinmetall Defence Electronics and Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, using the MaK Wiesel2 tracked vehicle. The LeFlaSys combines up to eight Ozelot weapon platforms (each with four ready-to-fire missiles) and a command post mounting the Ericsson Hard 3D radar and a Thales Optronics Thales Optronics is a major unit of Thales Group and has three main subsidiaries:
Designing down to a weight suitable for manpads capability restricts the effectiveness of the missile warhead. Some services prefer a somewhat heavier round, despite the consequent need for a tripod mount. A good example of this approach is the 20 kg MBDA Mistral Mis·tral , Frédéric 1830-1914.
French writer and leader in the revival of Provençal as a literary language. He shared the 1904 Nobel Prize for literature.
n. , which carries a 2.95 kg warhead, compared to the 1.2 kg of the Igla. The Mistral is available in a wide variety of ground-and naval-based installations, and more than 15,000 have been ordered by the armed forces of 25 nations.
Due to its extreme accuracy, infrared homing is perhaps the obvious choice of guidance systems. However, Saab Bofors Dynamics' man-portable RBS RBS Royal Bank of Scotland
RBS Role Based Security
RBS Rollback Segment
RBS Rare Book School (University of Virginia)
RBS Rural Business Cooperative Service
RBS Ribosome Binding Site (genetics) 70/90 system employs laser beam-riding, in combination with a very effective blast/ fragmentation warhead and an unjammable laser proximity fuze. The company's Bolide bolide: see fireball. is a further development, aimed at defeating more difficult targets, and employs a new sustainer motor, giving increased range and reduced time-of-flight. The Bolide is also used in the vehicular Asrad-R system, a joint venture by Saab Bofors Dynamics and theinmetall Defence Electronics. Finland has ordered both the RBS70 and Asrad-R.
Laser guidance is also employed by the Thales Air Defence Thales Air Defence Limited, formerly Shorts Missile Systems, is a defence contractor based in Belfast, Northern Ireland producing short-range or close air defence missiles. The company has a turnover of approximately £70m and pre-tax profits of £7m. Starstreak high velocity missile. This attained operational capability in 1999 with the British Army The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. It came into being with unification of the governments and armed forces of England and Scotland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. in Armoured Starstreak form, based on the Alvis Stormer Alvis Stormer is a modern military armoured vehicle manufactured by the British company, Alvis Vickers, now BAE Systems Land Systems, a subsidiary of BAE Systems Land and Armaments. tracked vehicle, which carries eight ready-to-fire rounds and twelve reloads. The British Army also uses the missile on the tripod-mounted, three-round Lightweight Multiple Launcher. In either case the target is tracked optically, and the system generates laser guidance signals to the three hypersonic hy·per·son·ic
Of, relating to, or capable of speed equal to or exceeding five times the speed of sound.
hy 'darts', which the missile projects toward the target. For Finland, Thales developed a vehicle-mounted automatic aiming system for Starstreak. The company has recently unveiled a new fully automatic target tracking and missile control system A system that serves to maintain attitude stability and to correct deflections. See also missile guidance system. for use with a variety of day/night sensors and a laser ranger, and suitable for ground- palletised- and vehicular-applications. A single-dart Starstreak is under consideration by Thales as more suitable for small targets such as UAVs.
The MBDA Jernas is the export version of the towed Rapier FSC FSC
See: Foreign Sales Corporation (Field Standard C), which in 1996 entered service with the British Army and Royal Air Force (RAF). A system consists of three trailers carrying a firing station with eight Rapier Mk 2 missiles, a 3D surveillance radar and a high-resolution tracking radar. Guidance is based on automatic Command-to-Line-Of-Sight (Clos). The Rapier series is in service in ten countries, some of which are upgrading to FSC
The Euromissile Roland also employs Clos guidance (based on radar, infrared or optical tracking), and was first installed on tracked vehicles for battlefield air defence. The need for easy overseas deployment led to the development of a shelter version, which can be operated on the ground, or on a trailer or truck. Over 26,000 missiles and 644 firing posts have been delivered to eleven nations. A major advance was provided by the VT-1 missile, which increased range into the Shorads area (i.e., over ten kilometres). The Enhanced Roland combines various upgrades and introduces the Glaive glaive
A sword, especially a broadsword.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin gladius; see gladiator.] optronic fire control system and the BKS BKS Barracks
BKS Best Kept Secret (gaming)
BKS Bildung, Kultur Und Sport (German)
BKS Brookside (city)
BKS Bergen Kirurgiske Sykehus (Bergen, Norway) digital management system, developed jointly by Euromissile and Eads-LFK.
Hybrid (gun and missile) systems include the KBP/Ulyanovsk Tunguska M1, which is armed with eight Fakel/KBM 9M311 (SA-19) missiles and two 30 mm cannon.
Turning to naval Vshorads, the MBDA Mistral is in service as the manually-operated twin-round Simbad and the six-round Sadral, which has a stabilised mount and day/night cameras, but can take target data from the parent vessel's radar and/or optronic system. The company has also developed the four-round Tetral, which has a stabilised mount and a thermal camera--this to suit installation on stealth vessels.
The Rafael Barak-1, developed as a joint venture with Israel Aircraft Industries, was one of the first systems to employ vertical launching and thrust vectoring, making possible 360-degree Vshorads cover from a single installation. A system typically consists of two eight-round launchers and a fire control system, which is based on a twin-band Elta EL/M-2221 tracking radar and a thermal imager, and cued by the ship's search radar. The Barak employs semi-active radar homing Semi-active radar homing, or SARH, is a common type of missile guidance system, perhaps the most common type for longer range air-to-air and surface-to-air missile systems. , and is capable of engaging targets flying as low as two metres over the sea. The missile is in service with the navies of Israel, Chile and Singapore, and with the Indian Army This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. For the Indian Army under British rule, see British Indian Army.
The Indian Army is one of the armed forces of India and has responsibility for land-based military operations. . In late 2003 the Indian Navy was reportedly about to sign an order for Barak.
The RIM-116 Ram (Rolling Airframe Missile) or Mk 31 Guided Missile Weapon System is a Sidewinder-derived Vshorads for defence against anti-ship missiles (ASM (1) (Association for Systems Management) An international membership organization based in Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1947 and disbanded in 1996, it sponsored conferences in all phases of administrative systems and management. ), developed jointly by Raytheon and Germany's Ramsys consortium. It was first deployed in 1993, and is being fitted to over 80 US Navy and 28 German Navy ships The list of Germany Navy ships includes all ships commissioned into German Navy service, since the unification of Germany in 1990.
Belonging to the very short range segment of air defence, barrelled weapons had somewhat fallen out of favour in the recent decades. This was perhaps due to the fact that guns carried an out-of-fashion connotation but the development of smart rounds and fire controls is giving the barrel a new lease on life.
Beyond question or doubt. See Synonyms at authentic.
un·question·a·bil , the Bofors 40mm is still regarded as a reference in terms of air defence artillery, primarily because of its extensive use during the second world war to the point that it is difficult to find a western country that hasn't had it in its inventory; even the Russians made their own copy of it, but as a 37mm calibre, of course while Hungary built it under the 40mm 36M designation.
To address the new threat--no longer only aircraft, but now also cruise missiles, gliding dispensers and drones--Bofors developed the programmable 3P round in the late 1980s. Initially developed for L/70 40 mm guns, the concept was also transferred to the naval 57 mm calibre, which was recently adopted by the United States. Each 3P round fuze is programmed individually when it is chambered according to the specifications received by the fire control computer and range sensors (radar and/or laser range finder). Basically, the system initiates a clock that will trigger the round at a specific distance from the gun (and therefore from the target, and will literally spray the air around it with 1100 pellets, plus the fragment produced by the casing itself. Quite clearly, a burst of four or six rounds will leave very little free space for even a small target to survive. There are six modes:
* Gated proximity (against missiles, attack aircraft, dispensers and helicopters)
* Gated proximity with impact priority (against large transport aircraft and helicopters)
* Continuous proximity (default mode for guns not equipped with the programming system)
* Time (enables the gun to fire horizontally above an area of soft targets--basically anti-personnel)
* Impact (against truck, personnel carriers, small boats)
* Armour-piercing impact (light armoured vehicles, buildings).
The time programme function of the 3P is of course immune to any type of countermeasure. The Bofors L/70 is traditionally operated in conjunction with the famous Saab Utaas fire-control system. Saab has also developed the LVS LVS Linux Virtual Server
LVS Live Vaccine Strain
LVS Las Vegas, New Mexico (Airport Code)
LVS Low Voltage Switchgear
LVS Logistical Vehicle System
LVS Laser Vibration Sensor
LVS Logistics Vehicle System fire control system more particularly as an upgrade for virtually any motor-controlled air defence gun. It is mainly made up of five modules: the target acquisition and tracking unit, the gyro, azimuth azimuth (ăz`əməth), in astronomy, one coordinate in the altazimuth coordinate system. It is the angular distance of a body measured westward along the celestial horizon from the observer's south point. transducer transducer, device that accepts an input of energy in one form and produces an output of energy in some other form, with a known, fixed relationship between the input and output. , control and display and the computer. However, a sixth module can be plugged into the system, namely the training simulator unit.
Oerlikon Contraves also has a long historical background with barrelled weapons, but is now more renowned for its 35 mm Twin Gun Systems. One of the firms forte is its outstanding ability to upgrade virtually any of its customer's older systems to enable them to exploit the latest state-of-the-art fire control systems. Oerlikon might have been taken over by Rheinmetall, but the almost stubborn Swiss quest for quality and impeccable service has remained.
The latest addition to the firm's catalogue in terms of barrels is the 35 mm revolver cannon. Associated with Oerlikon's latest air defence radar and fire control system, this modular and palletised system is known as the Skyshield 35. What is best, the Skyshield 35 can also be mated to a missile launcher for longer range defence, a typical candidate being the Adats from Oerlikon Aerospace.
In fact, the Skyshield 35 system includes four distinct components: the gun, the radar/fire control, command post, and the Ahead munition.
The revolver gun itself is known as the 35/1000, which in fact indicates the weapon's calibre and its rate of fire. Once set up (levelled, fed with 228 rounds and its precise co-ordinates optically fed into the fire control system), the gun rests unattended on its 1SO pallet.
The sensor suite is also palletised and consists of an X-band multiple-beam search radar and tracking radar. Upon detection, the target is automatically handed over to the tracking sensors consisting of a TV, laser and infrared module located in the command post shelter.
Less than 4.5 seconds will have elapsed e·lapse
intr.v. e·lapsed, e·laps·ing, e·laps·es
To slip by; pass: Weeks elapsed before we could start renovating.
n. from target acquisition to fire.
This bring us to the round, known as the Ahead, this is also a programmable round, but pushes the art a step further than the Swedish 3R as it is programmed once it has left the muzzle of the gun, meaning that the actual speed of every single round is used into the programming equation. To do this, the barrel of the gun is equipped with three induction coils: the first detects the outgoing round and starts the computer's timing clock, the second stops the clock as it detects the passing round and allows the computer to work out the exact round speed while the third then injects the timing information into the fuze (see diagram herewith here·with
1. Along with this.
2. By this means; hereby.
Formal together with this: ) based on the range and closing speed of the target as well as the speed of the round which always varies slightly. This degree of accuracy is necessary if one wants to 'organise' the moment and position in the air at which the rounds of a same burst are to explode--either in a 'string', as would be suited for an anti-personnel salvo, or in a same plane in the case of an aerial target, for example. One Ahead round radially expels 152 razor-edged cylindrical tungsten subprojectiles able to cut through any light alloy airframe and wreck havoc on anything hiding internally.
On the purely naval application, there is also the famous Phalanx close in weapon system from Raytheon. Based on the six-barrel M61A1 Gatling gun, it fires 20 mm rounds at a rate of 4500 rounds per minute. Since its inception in the 1970s, the Phalanx has undergone a number of improvements and upgrades, the latest being the Block 1B. It was successfully tested in this guise by the US Navy in 2002 onboard the Navy's Self-Defense Test Ship and against a supersonic sea-skimming missile. Configurations on the SDTS SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Standard
SDTS Self Defense Test Ship
SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Specification
SDTS State Diplomatic Telecommunications System fully integrate the Phalanx sensors and weapon with Raytheon's Ship Self-Defense System (SSDS SSDS SQL Server Data Services
SSDS Ship Self Defense System
SSDS Space Science Data System (NASA)
SSDS Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome
SSDS Secure Software Distribution System
SSDS Sexual Self-Disclosure Scale ) Mk 1 combat suite. During this test the Phalanx search radar passed missile detection data to SSDS which in turn designated the Phalanx CIWS to engage the incoming missile. Post-test analysis reveals the target missile was hit by one of the first projectiles fired by Phalanx with subsequent target destruction occurring at a range double that of previous testing.
The former Soviet Union has generated a plethora of gun-based air defence systems, the better known being the Shilka and the Tunguska from the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant. The Shilka--also well known as the ZSU-23-4 is mounted on a tracked vehicle and is almost self contained (it carries its own radar and fire control system) if one excludes the Sborka-M1 surveillance radar and command post unit. Ulianovsk has come up with a modernisation programme generally aimed at digitising the computer and fire-control suite of the weapon system as well as installing modern data-links. Thus equipped the four-barrel Shilka can engage aircraft flying at altitudes comprised between 25 and 1500 metres and at ranges of 2500 metres.
The Tunguska-M1 is also mounted on a tracked vehicle, but combines two 30 mm guns and missile launchers. The Tunguska can be very unhealthy for any object flying in its vicinity. It detects at a range of 18,000 and tracks at 16,000 and automatically reacts within eight seconds to either launch one or several of its four ready-to-fire KBP kbp
kilobase pair; for double-stranded nucleotides, a thousand nucleotide base pairs. 9M311-1M missiles to a range of 10,000 metres or cause its two canon to belch belch
To expel stomach gas noisily through the mouth; burp. fire at a combined rate of 5,000 rounds per minute. The Tunguska has a range of no less than 500 km.
The somewhat heavier Shorad guided missiles fill the gap between Vshorads and medium-range systems that provide engagements beyond 20 kilometres. However, as illustrated by the Euromissile Roland, which has developed from the Vshorad to the Shorad category, the distinction between the two is sometimes blurred.
The Rafael Python 5 air-to-air dogfight missile is now proposed for the Shorads role, with a range of approximately 20km. Rafael has offered the Indian Army a surface-to-air Python and Derby air defence system (designated Spyder), based on a four-canister trainable launcher on a 6 x 6 truck. A second vehicle will carry a mast-mounted Elta search radar, and the complete system is designed to be deployed in an Il-76 transport. Fitted with a boost motor from the company's Barak missile, the Derby (basically a medium-range air-to-air missile) is estimated to have a maximum range of 40 km. The first launches from a Spyder vehicle are to take place in June 2004.
Russia's hybrid KBP/Ulyanovsk Pantsir-S1, based on an 8 x 8 vehicle, is armed with twelve Fakel/KBM 9M335 missiles and two 30 mm cannon.
The Raytheon Aim-120 Amraam is employed in the airfield Shorad role in Kongsberg's Norwegian Advanced Surface-Air Missile System (Nasams), which combines six-round towed firing units and Raytheon MPQ-64 surveillance and TPQ-36A tracking radars; the latter augmented by thermal imaging cameras. Kongsberg has also supplied four Nasams to Spain. Nasams II is a mid-life upgrade by Kongsberg and Raytheon, mainly of the sensors and fire control system. The US Marine Corps Claws (Complementary Low Altitude Weapon System) places four Aim-120s on a Hummer vehicle, to complement the Stinger-armed Avenger. The Claws is scheduled to be operational by 2005, and the US Army has a comparable requirement, designated Slamraam (Surface-Launched Amraam).
The Saab Bofors Dynamics RBS23 Bamse system appears to have been developed to provide better altitude coverage than existing Shorads, and to intercept smaller targets. The Bamse battery consists of a surveillance co-ordination centre (SCC SCC - strongly connected component ) with a telescopically mounted Ericsson Giraffe radar, and up to four firing units, each with four ready-to-fire missiles. The firing units are towed by cross-country vehicles, which carry reloads and an Ericsson tracking radar, and are typically positioned ten kilometres from the SCC. The tracking radar also provides Clos guidance for the missile, which is launched by a large tandem booster.
Russia's first significant mobile Shorad system was the Antey 9K33 Romb or Osa (SA-8), which first appeared in 1974 and is based on a 6 x 6 amphibious vehicle. The initial drawback was that a whole battery could be put out of action by attacking the vehicle carrying the search radar, but each launch vehicle was later given its own complete fire control system. The Antey 9K330 Tor (SA-15) is based on a tracked vehicle, and each firing vehicle carries eight vertically launched Fakel 9M330 missiles, plus search and tracking radars. The later Tor-M1 introduced the improved 9M331 missile with a more effective warhead, and an automatic tracker was added to the electro-optical channel.
The missiles used in the Tor system are employed in the naval Klinok, using three or four under-deck eight-round modules. The system is also able to control the fire from 30 mm gun mounts.
The Raytheon RIM-7P Nato Sea Sparrow Missile System has progressed through a multitude series of stages, including the vertical-launch Sea Sparrow and the RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM ESSM European Society for Sexual Medicine
ESSM Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile
ESSM Exercise Science and Sports Medicine
ESSM Emergency Ship Salvage Material
ESSM Enterprise SQL Server Manager (Sybase) ). The latter is a kinematic kin·e·mat·ics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of mechanics that studies the motion of a body or a system of bodies without consideration given to its mass or the forces acting on it. upgrade, with a larger diameter motor, a new tail control section and thrust vectoring. The ESSM also wears an upgraded warhead.
Other naval Shorads include the MBDA Vertical Launch Seawolf and Mica. The former has demonstrated its ability to intercept 4.5-inch shells. The vertical-launch Kentron Umkhonto-IR is being integrated on South Africa's Mekoclass corvettes and has been ordered for Finland's Squadron 2000 vessels. It employs an infrared seeker derived from that of the U-Darter air-to-air missile.
Medium range Missiles
Between Shorad and long-range missiles, engagements in the 20 to 75 km category are provided by medium-range weapons. Europe is now entering the scene with the Aster-based family of missile systems
The classic Western example is the Raytheon Mim-23 Hawk, which entered service in 1960. It is currently used by the US Army and Marine Corps, and the services of 20 other nations. The Hawk is a semi-active radar homing weapon that is fired from a wheeled trailer. The system has gone through a series of upgrades, leading to the present day Phase III, which can also provide some capability against short-range ballistic missiles. Future plans centre on combining the Hawk with the Amraam, to retain the longer range and higher altitude performance of the former, while exploiting the enhanced capability of the latter against multiple high-speed low-level targets. The Hawk-Amraam programme is a joint effort by Raytheon and Kongsberg.
As mentioned earlier, the Rafael Derby is another medium-range AAM that is now being developed for the Sam role, in this case its large tandem booster giving a range of 40 km.
Russia's Ulyanovsk-built 9K12 Kub (SA-6) is comparable to the Hawk, but based on tracked vehicles. The missile employs rocket and ramjet propulsion, and command guidance followed by semi-active radar homing in the terminal phase. Although it first appeared in 1967, the Kub remains in service with over 20 armed services The Constitution authorizes Congress to raise, support, and regulate armed services for the national defense. The President of the United States is commander in chief of all the branches of the services and has ultimate control over most military matters. , and Ulyanovsk is still marketing upgrades, including the 3M9M3 missile, which provides up to 25 per cent more range and doubles the intercept ceiling to 46,000 ft.
In 1979 Ulyanovsk switched production from the Kub to the 9K37 Buk (SA-11), which also replaced the even older 9K8 Krug (SA-4). The improvements provided by the Buk included the installation of an illumination and tracking radar on each firing unit. The missile for the 9K37M1 Buk-Ml is the 9M38M1, designed by the Dolgoprudny Research Production Enterprise (DNPP DNPP Director of Navy Plans & Programs ), and boasting a peak velocity of Mach 3.5. The 9K37M1-2 or Buk-M1-2 (SA-17) that was fielded by the Russian Army in 1998 combines the DNPP-designed 9M317 missile and a new fire control system, giving some capability against anti-radiation and tactical ballistic missiles.
An important advancement in the land-based medium-range category is represented by the Eurosam (MBDA/ Thales) Samp-T (Sol-Air Moyenne Portee--Terrestre), a member of the Franco-Italian Future Surface-to-Air Family (FSAF FSAF Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival
FSAF Future Surface-to-Air Family (of close missile systems) ) of ADS. It is a truck-mounted, air transportable system based on the vertical-launch MBDA Aster 30 missile and the Thales Arabel and AMS AMS - Andrew Message System Zebra radars. The command module controls up to six launch units, each with eight missiles. The Aster 30 has a large tandem booster that launches a 'dart' with a blast-fragmentation warhead. The dart employs inertial guidance, updated by datalink, and active radar terminal homing. The Block 1 Aster 30 has some capability against 500 to 600 km ballistic missiles such as Scud (SS-1), and Block 2 is being studied to counter missiles in the 1000 to 2000 km category.
In late 2003 the Italian Senate approved the commencement of Phase 3 for the FSAF programme, which will provide the Italian Army with six Samp-T systems and 288 Aster 30s to equip two air defence regiments. Later production batches will be shared with France.
Approved at the same time were two naval system programmes: the point defence Saam (Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile) and the area defence Paams (Principal Anti-Air Missile System). The Saam combines the Aster 15 in an eight-round Sylver vertical launcher with the Thales Arabel or AMS Empar radar, while the Paams (for the French, Italian and UK navies) employs both the Aster 15 and Aster 30 in Sylver launchers, and either the Empar or the AMS Sampson radar. The first application for the Saam was aboard the French nuclear carrier Charles de Gaulle, but the same system has also been adopted for the Saudi Sawari II frigates. Initial Paams production will go to Royal Navy Type 45 and French Navy Horizon frigates, with the Italian Orizzonte class to follow. It has also been adopted under the name Raven (with Thales Celia radar) for an unidentified Asian navy.
Beyond 75 km, engagements require a very heavy missile with multi-stage guidance, a system supported by surveillance radars of extreme range. Perhaps because of its immense size and the perception that it was surrounded by enemies, the Soviet Union led in the development of long-range air defence missiles, and in many respects is maintaining that lead today.
The classic example of Soviet long-range developments was the Almaz-developed S-200 Angara (SA-5), a massive seven-tonne weapon with four wrap-around boost motors and a range of approximately 250 km. Although initially aimed at defending key cities, it was later deployed with passive radar terminal guidance as a counter to the Nato E-3 Awacs, and was sold to Syria for use against Israeli E-2Cs. Both active and passive radar versions have command guidance for the mid-course phase.
Soviet designations sometimes appear to have been allocated with a view to confusing Western intelligence, as illustrated by the case of the S-300 family, which was used for army, air defence forces and naval systems, and expanded from medium- to long-range operation. The Almaz S-300P (SA-10) for Soviet air defence forces was based on wheeled vehicles, and appeared in 1978 in the form of the trailer-mounted S-300PT and the self-propelled S-300PS. They employed the vertically launched, command-guided Fakel 5V55K missile, and later the long-range 5V55R with semi-active radar guidance. Following the 1991 Gulf War, Almaz developed the S-300PMU PMU Project Management Unit
PMU Power Management Unit
Pmu Pasteurella multocida
PMU Pregnant Mare Urine (aka premarin)
PMU Pick Me Up
PMU Purdue Memorial Union (Purdue University) (SA-10C) with the 5V55U round, using track-via-missile guidance to produce a limited capability against theatre ballistic missiles. The further improved S-300PMU1 with the Fakel 48N6E missile has been sold to China, Cyprus and India (and possibly else where). The S-300PMU2 was unveiled at Maks '97, and uses the Fake148N6E2 missile with a range of 200 km. The S-400 Triumph system (scheduled for use around Moscow) is believed to combine the medium-range 9M96E and the long-range 9M96E2 missiles.
The Antey S-300V was designed for army use over the battle area and is transported using tracked vehicles. It employs the Novator 9M83 (SA-12A) missile against manoeuvring targets, and the company's 9M82 (SA-12B) against theatre ballistic missiles and docile aircraft. Both have inertial mid-course guidance with datalinked target updates and semi-active radar terminal homing. The S-300VM represents a major upgrade. with extended range 9M82M and 9M83M missiles and improved radars. The export version is designated Antey-2500.
The Antey-2500 is marketed as a rival to the Raytheon MIM-104 Patriot, which has been exported to nine countries. The current Pac-2 missile was fielded in early 1991, in time for the Gulf War, and it is being superseded by the Pac-3. The Pac-3 Configuration 3 introduces the Lockheed Martin Vought Systems hit-to-kill missile, a much smaller round, which allows the existing Patriot launcher to carry 16 (rather than four Pac-2s).
The Lockheed Martin Pac-3 missile has also been adopted for the Meads (Medium Extended Air Defence System) programme, which is being jointly developed by the US, Germany and Italy, represented by Lockheed Martin, Eads-LFK and MBDA. As things stand, production of the Meads (which is intended to be much more easily deployed than Patriot) will not start until 2012, which is regarded by Italy as undesirably late. Another problem is that it is intended to deal with a wide range of targets, which suggests the need for a less expensive missile to complement the Pac-3.
The third form of the S-300 is the Altair 3M41 S-300F Fort (SA-N-6), which is exported under the name Rif. In essence, this is a maritime derivative of the Almaz S-300P, based on the Fakel 5V55 missile. The upgraded S-300FM or Rif-M employs the long-range Fakel 48N6.
The US equivalent of the S-300F is the Raytheon Rim-66 Standard Missile series, which is operational with 13 navies. The latest air defence version is the Rim-67D SM-2 (ER), employing semi-active radar guidance.
Aircraft Saab/BAE LM RSK-MiG Eurofighter Gripen F-16C -29SMT Typhoon Block60 Powerplant Volvo GE Klimov Eurojet RM12 F110-GE-132 RD-33 EJ200 Thrust [kN] 80 145 2 x 81.4 2 x 90 Span [m] 8.40 10 11.36 10.95 Length [m] 14.10 15.02 17.32 15.96 Height [m] 4.50 5.09 4.73 5.28 Wing Area n/a 27.87 38 50 [[m.sup.2]] Empty Wt [kg] 7400 9750 11,000 10,995 Intern Fuel [kg] 2400 3105 3555 4000 Clean TOW [kg] 10,000 13,175 15,300 15,000 Ext Load [kg] 5300 7225 4500 8000 Max TOW [kg] 14,000 22,680 21,000 23,000 Max Mach 2 2 2.3 2 Ceiling [ft] n/a 50,000+ 59,000 n/a Ferry Range [km] n/a n/a 3500 n/a Aircraft Dassault LM Boeing Sukhoi Rafale F-35 F-15E Su-27SK Powerplant Snecma P&W P&W Saturn M88-2 JSF119 F100-229 AL-31F Thrust [kN] 2 x 73.62 180 2 x 129.50 2 x 122.50 Span [m] 10.8 9.1 13.05 14.7 Length [m] 15.30 13.7 19.45 21.90 Height [m] 5.30 n/a 5.63 5.40 Wing Area 45.70 54.4 56.49 62.04 [[m.sup.2]] Empty Wt [kg] 9500 10,000 14,515 16,380 Intern Fuel [kg] n/a n/a 6037 9400 Clean TOW [kg] n/a n/a n/a 23,140 Ext Load [kg] 9500 7700 11,000 8000 Max TOW [kg] 24,500 24,500 36,740 33,000 Max Mach 1.80 1.80 2.5 2.35 Ceiling [ft] 55,000 n/a 60,000 60,700 Ferry Range [km] n/a n/a 5740 3680 Aircraft LM F/A-22 Powerplant P&W F119-PW-100 Thrust [kN] 2 x 157.50 Span [m] 13.56 Length [m] 18.93 Height [m] 5 Wing Area 78.04 [[m.sup.2]] Empty Wt [kg] 14,515 Intern Fuel [kg] 11,340 Clean TOW [kg] 27,250 Ext Load [kg] 9080 Max TOW [kg] 36,350 Max Mach 2 Ceiling [ft] 50,000+ Ferry Range [km] 3250 Missile Raytheon MBDA Kentron Vympel MBDA Rafael Aim-9X Mica A-Darter R-73 Mica Derby Launch Wt [kg] 85.3 88 89 105.0 112.0 118.0 Warhead [kg] N/A N/A N/A 7.4 N/A N/A Length [m] 3.0 2.9 2.98 2.9 3.1 3.62 Diameter [m] 0.127 0.166 0.166 0.17 0.16 0.16 Span [m] 0.445 N/A 0.488 0.51 0.49 0.64 Range [km] N/A N/A N/A 30 55+ N/A Missile Raytheon Vympel Vympel Aim-120C5 RVV-AE R-27RE Launch Wt [kg] 156.8 225.0 350.0 Warhead [kg] 22.0 22.0 39 Length [m] 3.65 3.70 4.7 Diameter [m] 0.178 0.20 0.26 Span [m] 0.445 0.39 0.80 Range [km] N/A 100 130 Aircraft Embraer Northrop Boeing B737 EMB 145 Grumman E-2C AEW&C Powerplant Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce CFM Int AE3007A T56-A-427 CFM56-7 Max TOW [kg] 23,400 25,000 77,000 Thrust [kN]/Power [kW] 2 x 31.32 2 x 3800 [kW] 2 x 101 Span [m] 20.04 24.56 34.32 Length [m] 29.87 17.60 33.63 Height [m] 6.75 5.58 12.55 Wing Area [[m.sup.2]] 51.18 65.03 124.5 Antenna Dia/Length [m] 8 7.32 10.7 Altitude [ft] 30,000 25 to 30,000 n/a Max endurance [h] 9.00 n/a n/a Time on station n/a 5.3 @ 370 8.0 @ 550 [h@km] Max range [km] 2650 2855 5560 Aircraft Boeing E-3 Boeing E-767 Beriev A-50 Awacs AEW&C Powerplant CFM Int General Electric Rybinsk CFM56-2A-2 CF6-80C D-30KP Max TOW [kg] 152,000 175,000 190,000 Thrust [kN]/Power [kW] 4 x 106.80 2 x 273.60 4 x 117.70 Span [m] 44.42 47.57 50.50 Length [m] 46.61 48.51 46.60 Height [m] 12.73 15.85 14.80 Wing Area [[m.sup.2]] 273.40 283.4 301.20 Antenna Dia/Length [m] 9.14 9.14 10.50 Altitude [ft] 25 to 30,000 34 to 40,000 26 to 33,000 Max endurance [h] 11 n/a n/a Time on station n/a 13 @ 550 4.0 @ 1000 [h@km] Max range [km] 9250 10,370 5000 Missile Launch Wt Warhead Length Diameter [kg] [kg] [m] [m] KBM Strela-3 (SA-14) 9.80 1 1.42 0.072 KBM Igla 10.60 1.15 1.67 0.072 (SA-18) KBM Igla-S 12.60 2.50 1.67 0.072 Raytheon Stinger-RMP 10.40 1 1.524 0.07 MBDA Mistral 18.70 3 1.86 0.09 Saab Bofors Dynamics 16.50 n/a 1.32 0.106 RBS 70/90 Thales Starstreak 13.60 n/a 1.40 0.127 KBM 9M311 (SA-19) 42 9 2.632 0.076 MBDA Jernas 43 n/a 2.24 0.13 Euromissile Roland 3 65 n/a 2.40 0.163 Rafael Barak-1 98 22 2.134 0.183 Raytheon Rim-116A Ram 73.48 11.36 2.80 0.127 Missile Max range Max Alt [m] [ft] KBM Strela-3 (SA-14) 4000 10,000 KBM Igla 5200 11,500 (SA-18) KBM Igla-S 6000 11,500 Raytheon Stinger-RMP 4500 11,500 MBDA Mistral 6000 n/a Saab Bofors Dynamics 8000 16,500 RBS 70/90 Thales Starstreak 7000 n/a KBM 9M311 (SA-19) 10,000 20,000 MBDA Jernas 8000+ n/a Euromissile Roland 3 8000 13,000 Rafael Barak-1 10,000 n/a Raytheon Rim-116A Ram n/a n/a Missile Launch Warhead Length Diameter Max Range Wt [kg] [kg] [m] [m] [m] Euromissile 76 13 2.60 0.17 11,000 Roland VT-1 KBM 9M335 71 20 3.20 0.09 18,000 (Pantsir-S1) Raytheon 88 n/a 2.90 0.166 n/a AIM-120 Saab Bofors Dynamics n/a n/a 2.50 0.11 15,000+ RBS23 Bamse Antey Osa-AKM 128 15 3.14 0.21 10,000+ (SA-8) Antey Tor-M1 167 14.80 2.90 0.235 12,000 (SA-15) Raytheon Aim-7P 231.50 38.60 3.66 0.203 20,000 Sea Sparrow MBDA VL Mica 112 n/a 3.10 0.16 10,000+ Kentron 127 23 3.32 0.18 12,000 Umkhonto-IR Missile Max Alt [m] Euromissile 0,000 Roland VT-1 KBM 9M335 33,000 (Pantsir-S1) Raytheon n/a AIM-120 Saab Bofors Dynamics 50,000 RBS23 Bamse Antey Osa-AKM 16,500 (SA-8) Antey Tor-M1 20,000 (SA-15) Raytheon Aim-7P n/a Sea Sparrow MBDA VL Mica n/a Kentron 33,000 Umkhonto-IR Missile Launch Warhead Length Diameter Max Range Wt [kg] [kg] [m] [m] [m] Raytheon MIM-23B 635 n/a 5.03 0.37 40,000 Hawk NIIP 2K12 Kub 580 n/a 6.19 0.33 24,000 (SA-6) NIIP 9K37M 690 70 5.55 0.40 42,000 Buk-1M (SA-11) NIIP 9K40 Ural 710 70 5.55 0.40 48,000 (SA-17) MBDA Aster 15 310 n/a 4.10 0.18 30,000+ MBDA Aster 30 445 n/a 4.80 0.18 100,000 Almaz * (SA-10D) 1800 145 7.50 0.50 200,000 S-300PMU1/48N6E2 Antey * (SA-12A) 1000 150 4.69 0.80 75,000 S-300V/9M83 Antey * (SA-12B) 1500 150 6.10 0.80 100,000 S-300V9M82 Missile Max Alt [ft] Raytheon MIM-23B n/a Hawk NIIP 2K12 Kub n/a (SA-6) NIIP 9K37M 72,500 Buk-1M (SA-11) NIIP 9K40 Ural n/a (SA-17) MBDA Aster 15 n/a MBDA Aster 30 n/a Almaz * (SA-10D) 90,000 S-300PMU1/48N6E2 Antey * (SA-12A) 82,000 S-300V/9M83 Antey * (SA-12B) 100,000 S-300V9M82 * Almaz and Antey are now combined in the Almaz-Antey Air Defence Concern.