KI and WU Polyomaviruses in children, France.To the Editor: Two new members of the Polyomaviridae family, provisionally named Karolinska Institutet Karolinska Institutet (often translated from Swedish into English as the Karolinska Institute, and in older texts often as the Royal Caroline Institute) is one of Europe's largest medical universities. virus (KIPyV) and Washington University virus (WUPyV), have been recently discovered (1,2). These new polyomaviruses were identified by screening human respiratory secretions with molecular tools. KIPyV and WUPyV are genetically related to the BK virus and the JC virus, the 2 known members of the family Polyomaviridae that affect humans.
In France, from November 2006 through June 2007, nasopharyngeal nasopharyngeal
pertaining to the nasal and pharyngeal cavities.
see nasopharyngeal meatus.
see reverse sneeze. aspirates were obtained from 537 children who were <5 years of age and who had acute respiratory tract respiratory tract
The air passages from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli, including the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
Respiratory tract disease. The aspirates were tested for respiratory syncytial virus respiratory syncytial virus (sĭnsĭsh`əl): see cold, common. (RSV RSV respiratory syncytial virus; Rous sarcoma virus.
respiratory syncytial virus
RSV 1 Respiratory syncytial virus, see there 2 Rous sarcoma virus, see there ); influenza virus influenza virus
Any of three viruses of the genus Influenzavirus designated type A, type B, and type C, that cause influenza and influenzalike infections. types A and B; parainfluenza virus parainfluenza virus
Any of five types of viruses of the genus Paramyxovirus that are associated with various respiratory infections, especially in children. types 1, 2, and 3; and adenoviruses (AdVs) by direct immunofluorescence Immunofluorescence
A technique that uses a fluorochrome to indicate the occurrence of a specific antigen-antibody reaction. The fluorochrome labels either an antigen or an antibody. assay. The aspirates were also tested for human metapneumovirus (HMPV) by an enzyme immunoassay Immunoassay
An assay that quantifies antigen or antibody by immunochemical means. The antigen can be a relatively simple substance such as a drug, or a complex one such as a protein or a virus. (HMPV EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance, Arlington, VA, www.eia.org) A membership organization founded in 1924 as the Radio Manufacturing Association. It sets standards for consumer products and electronic components. , Biotrin, Lyon, France) and for the human bocavirus (HBoV) by PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction.
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (3). Samples were placed on MRC See Maximum return criterion. 5 cell monolayers for virus isolation.
Nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. extracts were tested for KIPyV and WUPyV DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
or deoxyribonucleic acid
One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes. by PCR. KIPyV detection was performed by using a nested PCR approach that targeted the VP1 capsid capsid /cap·sid/ (kap´sid) the shell of protein that protects the nucleic acid of a virus; it is composed of structural units, or capsomers.
n. gene as described by Allander et al. (1). For WUPyV detection, primers targeted the predicted 3' end of the large T antigen T antigen
See tumor antigen.
tumor antigen. coding region as described by Gaynor et al. (2). The amplification specificity was assessed by sequencing the PCR product; sequences were deposited in GenBank (WUPyV isolates, accession no. AM778536-48; KIPyV isolates, accession no. AM849808-10).
At least 1 type of virus was identified for 271 (50.5%) children. The viruses found were RSVs in 175 (32.6%), HBoVs in 54 (10.0%), HMPVs in 50 (9.3%), rhinoviruses/enteroviruses in 11 (2%), influenza A influenza A
Influenza caused by infection with a strain of influenza virus type A.
influenza A Infectious disease An avian virus, especially of ducks–which in China live near the pig reservoir and 'vector'; viruses in 8 (1.5%), human AdVs in 6 (1.1%), and parainfluenza parainfluenza Infectious disease A virus that causes URIs–up to 50% of croup and 10–15% of bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonias in toddlers Clinical Rhinorrhea, cold-like Sx Risk factors Preschool children; by school age most children have been exposed type 3 viruses in 4 (0.7%) samples. Aspirates were not tested for coronaviruses; detection of rhinoviruses/enteroviruses was likely low because cell culture is less sensitive than molecular assays.
A total of 13 (2.4%) samples were positive for WUPyV; of these 4 (30.8%) were co-infected with another virus. The 13 children with samples positive for WUPyV had a median age of 11.2 (2-48) months and the male/ female sex ratio was 2.2. KIPyV DNA was detected in samples from 3 (0.6%) boys (ages 10, 18 and 30 months); 1 of those samples was co-infected with RSV and HMPV.
Sequences of WUPyV and KIPyV isolates varied little from each other and from other GenBank sequences, which suggests that these polyomaviruses are genetically conserved viruses. Clinical characteristics of children infected with WUPyV and KIPyV are retrospectively recorded (Table). All children recovered and were able to return home within 1 to 10 days, with the exception of 1 child. This child had been hospitalized since birth for congenital myopathy; nosocomial nosocomial /noso·co·mi·al/ (nos?o-ko´me-il) pertaining to or originating in a hospital.
1. Of or relating to a hospital.
2. acquisition or vertical transmission of the WUPyV is suspected.
Our data are in agreement with the 2 original reports that show that the new KI and WU polyomaviruses may be detected in respiratory secretions from patients with respiratory diseases (1,2). WUPyV was detected in 2.4% of children <5 years of age who were hospitalized with respiratory tract disease, which is in accordance with the 2% incidence reported by Gaynor et al. (2). The 0.6% prevalence observed for KIPyV PCR is also in agreement with data reported from Sweden (1) and Australia (4). A seasonal change in the presence of WUPyV was not observed; however, all KIPyV isolates were found only during January.
KIPyV and WUPyV were mainly detected in samples from children with lower respiratory tract Noun 1. lower respiratory tract - the bronchi and lungs
lung - either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood disease, such as bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis Definition
Bronchiolitis is an acute viral infection of the small air passages of the lungs called the bronchioles.
Bronchiolitis is extremely common. or atypical pneumonia atypical pneumonia
See primary atypical pneumonia.
atypical pneumonia Chest medicine A clinically 'atypical' form of pneumonia, which lacks the classic signs and Sx of pneumonia Types Chlamydia pneumonia, , and in samples from children with exacerbated asthma. These preliminary data on the likely role of these viruses as respiratory pathogens need to be interpreted with caution. Aspirates were obtained only from those with observed symptoms; no asymptomatic controls were tested. Detection of WUPyV and KIPyV in respiratory samples may simply reflect a respiratory transmission route as previously suggested for BK virus and JC virus (5). Another virus was in aspirates from 31% of the children with KI and WU polyomaviruses. Substantial rates of codetection were also reported in the initial descriptions of both WUPyV and KIPyV (1,2). More recently, Bialasiewicz et al. reported a 25% rate of codetection of KIPyV with another pathogen (4). These high rates of co-infection raise questions about the real pathogenic role of these viruses.
As with other polyomaviruses, WUPyV and KIPyV could establish persistent and latent infections with likely asymptomatic reactivations (5), and detection of these viruses could also reflect a long-term shedding from previous acute episode. Recently published studies have not shown a pathogenic role for these new polyomaviruses in respiratory tract disease (6,7); however, more comprehensive studies are needed to elucidate whether both KIPyV and WUPyV have any clinical relevance.
(1.) Allander T, Andreasson K, Gupta S, Bjerkner A, Bogdanovic G, Persson MAA MAA
macroaggregated albumin , et al. Identification of a third polyomavirus. J Virol. 2007;81:4130-6.
(2.) Gaynor AM, Nissen MD, Whiley DM, Mackay IA, Lambert SB, Wu G, et al. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PloS Pathog. 2007;3:e64.
(3.) Foulongne V, Olejnik Y, Elaertz S, Perez V, Rodiere M, Segondy M. Human bocavirus in French children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12:1251-3.
(4.) Bialasiewicz S, Whiley DM, Lambert SB, Wang D, Nissen MD, Sloots TR A newly reported human polyomavirus, KI vials, is present in the respiratory tract of Australian children. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:15-8.
(5.) Randhawa P, Vats A, Shapiro R. The pathobiology pathobiology /patho·bi·ol·o·gy/ (-bi-ol´ah-je) pathology.
The study or practice of pathology with greater emphasis on the biological than on the medical aspects. of polyomavirus infection in man. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;577: 148-59.
(6.) Abed Y, Wang D, Boivin G. WU polyomavirus in children, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13:1939-41.
(7.) Norja P, Ubillos I, Templeton K, Simmonds R No evidence for an association between infections with WU and KI polyomaviruses and respiratory disease. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:307-11.
Vincent Foulongne, * Natalie Brieu, * Eric Jeziorski, * Amandine a·man·dine
Prepared or garnished with almonds: swordfish amandine.
[French, from amande, almond, from Old French almande; see almond.] Chatain, * Michel Rodiere, * and Michel Segondy *
* Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France
Address for correspondence: Vincent Foulongne, Laboratory of Virology virology, study of viruses and their role in disease. Many viruses, such as animal RNA viruses and viruses that infect bacteria, or bacteriophages, have become useful laboratory tools in genetic studies and in work on the cellular metabolic control of gene expression , Hopital St-Eloi, 34295 Montpellier, Cedex 5, France; email: email@example.com
Table. Clinical findings for 13 children infected with WU polyomavirus and 3 children infected with KI polyomavirus * Sex/age, Fever, CRP, Sa[O.sub.2], mo Copathogen [degrees]C mg/L % WU polyomavirus M/2 -- 37.9 8.3 NA M/12 -- 39.2 112.0 NA F/20 -- 38.7 56.0 NA F/12 -- 37.8 15.0 96.0 M/10 -- 39.0 90.3 NA F/14 -- 38.9 20.8 95.0 F/10 RSV 38.0 14.0 NA M/6 RSV 38.0 NA 89.0 M/48 HMPV 36.8 15.0 94.0 M/24 -- 37.0 23.0 98.0 M/2 -- 38.5 38.5 70.0 M/11 HBoV 39.0 5.5 94.0 M/10 -- 37.0 10.0 97.0 KI polyomavirus M/10 RSV, HMPV 39.0 NA NA M/30 -- 39.2 -5.0 NA M/18 -- 38.9 23.0 96.0 Sex/age, WBC, x [10.sup.3] Chest radiograph mo cells/pL findings WU polyomavirus M/2 9.4 Hyperinflation M/12 18.2 Hyperinflation, interstitial infiltrate F/20 13.7 Hyperinflation F/12 12.3 Hyperinflation M/10 18.0 Normal F/14 11.0 Hyperinflation, interstitial infiltrate F/10 17.2 Hyperinflation, interstitial infiltrate M/6 NA Hyperinflation M/48 13.0 Hyperinflation M/24 13.9 Hyperinflation M/2 16.0 Normal M/11 6.2 Interstitial infiltrate M/10 18.0 Alveolar syndrome KI polyomavirus M/10 NA Hyperinflation M/30 11.0 Interstitial infiltrate M/18 14.8 Hyperinflation, atelectasis Sex/age, Clinical signs and mo Diagnosis symptoms WU polyomavirus M/2 Pneumonia Cough, dyspnea M/12 Bronchiolitis Cough, dyspnea F/20 Atypical Cough, respiratory pneumonia distress, diarrhea F/12 Bronchiolitis Cough, dyspnea, pharyngitis M/10 Idiopathic Fever fever F/14 Atypical Cough, wheezing, pneumonia dyspnea F/10 Bronchiolitis Cough, respiratory distress, dyspnea M/6 Bronchiolitis Respiratory distress, wheezing M/48 Asthma Cough, respiratory distress M/24 Asthma Cough, respiratory distress M/2 Idiopathic Cough, fever fever M/11 Atypical Cough, fever pneumonia M/10 Congenital Respiratory distress myopathy KI polyomavirus M/10 Bronchiolitis Cough, wheezing, otitis, diarrhea M/30 Influenza-like Cough, dyspnea, pneumonia otitis, sore throat M/18 Asthma Cough, dyspnea, wheezing * CRP, C-reactive protein; Sa[O.sub.2], oxygen saturation; WBC, white blood cells; NA, not available; HMPV, human metapneumovirus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus, HBoV, human bocavirus.