Juvenile justice practitioners add value to communities.Community corrections agencies are often considered to include only adult probation and parole parole (pərōl`), in criminal law, release from prison of a convict before the expiration of his term on condition that his activities be restricted and that he report regularly to an officer. departments and community-based residential programs, such as halfway houses halfway house /half·way house/ (haf´wa hous) a residence for patients (e.g., mental patients, drug addicts, alcoholics) who do not require hospitalization but who need an intermediate degree of care until they can return to the community. , for adult offenders. Often, community corrections professionals minimize the impact that juvenile probation and parole practitioners can make in prevention, accountability and outcomes in community corrections. Because juvenile probation and parole departments do not supervise as many offenders as their adult counterparts, the impact they have on the community is overlooked. The success of jurisdictions supervising juvenile offenders directly impacts correctional agencies serving adult offenders. Within community corrections agencies serving juveniles, the re-engineering of current practices that has taken place may be helpful to community corrections agencies serving both juvenile and adult offenders. Some of the successes jurisdictions have had with juvenile offenders will be highlighted here, as well as how the most promising practices of these agencies are consistent with the strategies promoted by the Reinventing Probation Council. (1)
The Past Decade In Juvenile Probation
In 1997, a challenge was issued to community corrections leaders to be at the political and intellectual core of future policy-oriented efforts to promote public safety and offender rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. . The alternative to responding to this challenge was to continue to be widely devalued de·val·ue also de·val·u·ate
v. de·val·ued also de·valu·at·ed, de·val·u·ing also de·val·u·at·ing, de·val·ues also de·val·u·ates
1. To lessen or cancel the value of. , ineffective and woefully woe·ful also wo·ful
1. Affected by or full of woe; mournful.
2. Causing or involving woe.
3. Deplorably bad or wretched: underfunded un·der·fund
tr.v. un·der·fund·ed, un·der·fund·ing, un·der·funds
To provide insufficient funding for.
underfunded adj → infradotado (económicamente) to do the job of community corrections. The Reinventing Probation Council was established out of a sense that the timing was right to answer the challenge and for probation practitioners to embrace and share accountability for taking on the daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin task of re-engineering current practices. (2)
This was the same challenge that faced the juvenile justice system in the early 1990s. These practitioners were called upon to respond to horrific acts being committed by juvenile offenders and explain why the juvenile justice system was not preventing their crimes and holding them accountable after the commission of these crimes. As noted by the National Center for Juvenile Justice, "Traditional approaches to delinquency delinquency
Criminal behaviour carried out by a juvenile. Young males make up the bulk of the delinquent population (about 80% in the U.S.) in all countries in which the behaviour is reported. suffered an almost unbroken string of 'no confidence' votes in statehouses across the country during the 1990s, with lawmakers in nearly every state taking action to curtail cur·tail
tr.v. cur·tailed, cur·tail·ing, cur·tails
To cut short or reduce. See Synonyms at shorten.
[Middle English curtailen, to restrict juvenile court juvenile court
Special court handling problems of delinquent, neglected, or abused children. Two types of cases are processed by a juvenile court: civil matters, often concerning care of an abandoned or impoverished child, and criminal matters, arising from antisocial jurisdiction over serious and repeat offenders or to 'toughen up' juvenile court sanctioning sanc·tion
1. Authoritative permission or approval that makes a course of action valid. See Synonyms at permission.
2. Support or encouragement, as from public opinion or established custom.
3. to make it resemble that of the adult criminal justice system more closely.... Much of this legislative activity was unmistakably un·mis·tak·a·ble
Impossible to mistake or misinterpret; obvious: unmistakable signs of illness.
un motivated by the public's perception that the juvenile system has been too lenient le·ni·ent
Inclined not to be harsh or strict; merciful, generous, or indulgent: lenient parents; lenient rules. in dealing with past crimes, and not effective enough in deterring future ones--indictments that are clearly directed not only at the courts, but at the juvenile probation departments that oversee the majority of their dispositions." (3)
These perceptions led to major statutory changes in many juvenile justice systems, as well as an examination of the basic philosophy and goals of community corrections agencies serving juvenile offenders. Many jurisdictions were surprised that they had become closed, passive, unresponsive unresponsive Neurology adjective Referring to a total lack of response to neurologic stimuli to victims of crime and to communities, focused on the deficiencies of juvenile offenders and their families, and doing more of the same without positive results. There are many juvenile justice practitioners A Justice and Public Safety Practitioner is a local, state, tribal, or federal government employee who is in the practice of providing, administering or promoting justice and public safety services according to the laws, policies and practices of the government entity they serve. who, after having gone through this often painful self-examination, now believe that they have had quite a lot of experience with re-engineering community corrections practices--at least when the focus is on juvenile offenders and their families, victims of their crimes and the communities in which they live (and offend).
What emerged from the above examination is consistent with the guiding principles used to update the Desktop Guide to Good Juvenile Probation Practice in 2000. The focus of community corrections agencies serving juvenile offenders shifted to action, collaboration and results-oriented. Many jurisdictions responded in ways that are consistent with the Desktop Guide vision statement, which reads, "We envision the role of juvenile probation as that of a catalyst for developing safe communities and healthy youth and families. We believe we can fulfill this role by:
* Holding offenders accountable;
* Building and maintaining community-based partnerships;
* Implementing results-based and outcome-driven services and practices;
* Advocating for and addressing the needs of victims, offenders, families and communities;
* Obtaining and sustaining sufficient resources; and
* Promoting growth and development of all juvenile probation professionals." (4)
This vision statement is consistent with the strategies that were adopted as the broken windows model for community corrections, as well as with the vision statement of the American Probation and Parole Association. The strategies and examples of promising juvenile probation and parole practices that are included in Transforming Probation Through Leadership: The "Broken Windows" Model, clearly identify that community corrections agencies that serve juveniles are responsive to their communities, create public value, balance the interests of the victim, community and offender, and implement promising, proven, results-driven practices. They have turned the crisis they faced in the early and mid-1990s into an opportunity that promotes both public safety and juvenile offender rehabilitation/behavior change.
Juvenile Justice System Models
While many community corrections agencies serving juveniles would say that the models they use are based on the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's comprehensive strategy, balanced and restorative justice A philosophical framework and a series of programs for the criminal justice system that emphasize the need to repair the harm done to crime victims through a process of negotiation, mediation, victim empowerment, and Reparation.
The U.S. , or community justice models, the four strategies they have all used that seem to have had the greatest impact are:
* Placing public safety first;
* Providing for strong enforcement of probation conditions and a quick response to violations;
* Supervising probationers in the neighborhood, not the office; and
* Developing partners in the community (see Table 1).
The comprehensive strategy balanced prevention for at-risk youths and graduated sanctions Sanctions is the plural of sanction. Depending on context, a sanction can be either a punishment or a permission. The word is a contronym.
Sanctions involving countries:
Current Juvenile Probation And Parole Practices
The Community Outreach Project in the 23rd Judicial Circuit in Hillsboro, Mo., is a good example of juvenile probation placing public safety first. In this project, deputy juvenile probation officers probation officer
1. An official usually attached to a juvenile court and charged with the care of juvenile delinquents.
2. An official charged with supervising convicts at large on suspended sentence or probation. work with members of the Festus Police Department to conduct evening community patrols. The evening patrols include unannounced visits to the homes of the target population (juveniles who have exhibited assaultive/violent behavior) to ensure their compliance with the conditions of probation, increasing the degree of accountability placed on the juvenile and his or her parents. Other areas within the community that receive the attention of the patrol are sites within the community where juveniles are known to frequent. The visibility of probation and public safety is enhanced through this project. Evaluation of the project is centered on the recidivism recidivism: see criminology. rate of the target population.
In Baltimore, a similar program is called Hotspots. This initiative focuses on public safety, but it also incorporates the strategies of enforcing conditions, working in the community and developing partners in the community. In essence, juvenile probation works with police, adult parole and probation, federal probation The Federal Probation Service or United States Probation Service is an agency that services the United States District Court in all 94 judicial federal districts nationwide and constitutes the community corrections arm of the Federal Court System. and community groups to supervise probationers in the neighborhood and gain the assistance of the community in oversight of behavior/compliance and service delivery. Hotspots and its partnerships have resulted in the development of Community Conferencing See teleconferencing. and Youth Courts.
In Maricopa County, Ariz., juvenile probation has placed public safety first--not only through probation supervision, but also through an investment in juvenile crime prevention. Its work was recognized by the American Probation and Parole Association in August 2002 when it was the recipient of the Excellence in Community Crime Prevention Award. Since 1997, this jurisdiction has targeted the 20 zip codes zip code
System of postal-zone codes (zip stands for “zone improvement plan”) introduced in the U.S. in 1963 to improve mail delivery and exploit electronic reading and sorting capabilities. with the highest rate of referral to the juvenile court and sought funding for community crime prevention efforts in these areas. Sixteen collaborative community-based initiatives have been funded in the targeted areas to prevent crime. The Maricopa County Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB), formerly the Bureau of the Budget, is an agency of the federal government that evaluates, formulates, and coordinates management procedures and program objectives within and among departments and agencies of the Executive Branch. conducted an analysis after the first year of the initiative and reported that the project impact was calculated as a potential cost savings of $6 million. More recently, a 33 percent reduction in referrals for violent offenses and an 11 percent reduction in nonviolent offense referrals have been documented in the targeted areas. This occurred at the same time the county experienced a 26 percent increase in its youth population.
The Utah Juvenile Court both statutorily and philosophically subscribes to the balanced and restorative justice model for probation supervision. This is demonstrated by the work crews operated in the eight judicial districts. These crews allow for the strong enforcement of two conditions of probation that are not emphasized often enough: victim restitution In the context of Criminal Law, state programs under which an offender is required, as a condition of his or her sentence, to repay money or donate services to the victim or society; with respect to maritime law, the restoration of articles lost by jettison, done when the and community work service.
In Utah, juvenile probation officers have authority to close cases nonjudicially. Forty percent of the cases referred to juvenile court are handled in this way. Financial penalties as a result of these closures are put in a dedicated account and these funds can be used to pay victim restitution. Each judicial district has organized work crews to complete juvenile compensatory service. An hour of service is converted into money ($4 per hour in 1999) that is then used to pay restitution. One Utah work crew maintains Antelope Island Antelope Island, with an area of 42 square miles (68 km²), is the largest island in the Great Salt Lake, the largest lake in the Western United States. The island lies entirely within Davis County, in the southeastern portion of the lake and becomes a peninsula State Park. It is responsible for feeding the buffalo herd that roams the park and maintaining the park grounds. In 1999, 92 percent of the restitution ordered ($1,380,620) was collected. That means that $1,274,991 in victim restitution was paid. At the same time, 95 percent of the community work service hours that were ordered were completed (677,855 hours). There is a similar program in St. Louis called the PayBack Payback
The length of time it takes to recover the initial cost of a project, without regard to the time value of money. Program.
The Juvenile Justice and Child Protection Department of the Circuit Court of Cook County, Ill., enhances compliance with conditions by operating evening reporting centers. These centers are located in community agencies that have been targeted to supervise and provide structured social and recreational programming during the critical hours Critical Hours is that time from sunrise to two hours after sunrise, and from two hours before sunset until sunset, local time. During that time, certain American radio stations may be operating with reduced power as a result of Section 73. of 3 to 8 p.m. The program has documented a success rate--as measured by remaining arrest-free during the time of the program--of 95.1 percent.
Supervising Probationers In the Neighborhood
Typically, community corrections agencies serving juvenile offenders have supervised probationers in the neighborhood rather than from the office and more recently, many agencies have used technology to support those efforts. The Juvenile Probation Department in Maricopa County developed a plan to not only increase the productive time of individual officers within the community, but also rationally allocate the department's resources through the concept of a Virtual Office Probation Officer (VOPO VOPO Volkspolizist (German) ). These officers spend only one day each week in a traditional office. Their primary office is in the community. Their virtual office is in a briefcase In Windows 95/98, a system folder used for synchronizing files between two computers, typically a desktop and laptop computer. Files to be worked on are placed into a Briefcase, which is then transferred to the second machine via floppy, cable or network. on wheels that carries their laptop computer, cell phone and other support equipment. VOPOs have worked with the department's management information system staff to transform the Juvenile On-Line Tracking System into a field-book application. They download caseload case·load
The number of cases handled in a given period, as by an attorney or by a clinic or social services agency.
Noun information from the court's mainframe computer and then transmit their activities and contacts daily by dialing in to the computer system. The results of drug tests, restitution payments, compliance with other conditions of probation, safety alerts and scheduled court hearings are kept up-to-date and are transmitted to the field book for use by the juvenile probation officer and/or the court.
The juvenile probation staff involved in this project work as teams to establish collegial col·le·gi·al
a. Characterized by or having power and authority vested equally among colleagues: "He . . . groups within the community. The VOPO project has increased meaningful interaction between juvenile offenders and their families, allowed juvenile probation officers to develop relationships with businesses, schools, law enforcement and community organizations within specific neighborhood areas, and enhanced the quality of information provided to the juvenile court. It has also reduced the resources devoted to an increasing number of offices, office furniture and mileage to and from a central office to the field because more than 100 officers work as VOPOs. Juvenile probation officers report a high degree of satisfaction with the flexibility allowed as a VOPO in working hours and how work is conducted.
Developing Partners in the Community
The juvenile division of Ohio's Court of Common Pleas COURT OF COMMON PLEAS. The name of an English court which was established on the breaking up of the aula regis, for the determination of pleas merely civil. It was at first ambulatory, but was afterwards located. in Lucas County Lucas County is the name of two counties in the United States:
Of, relating to, or making use of several disciplines at once: a multidisciplinary approach to teaching. team staffed by various agencies throughout the county. They work together to develop treatment plans and oversee the case management of those plans. This jurisdiction has also developed a police/probation team. This collaborative effort involves not only the court and the Toledo Police Department, but also a community mental health agency in Lucas County. The result is assessment and services at the community level.
The Oakland County Youth Assistance Program in Michigan was recognized in 1999 as the American Correctional Association's Program of the Year. It is a stellar example of court/community collaboration, which has been in existence for half a century. Primary and secondary prevention services are provided to juveniles and families through the Youth Assistance Program. The types of services provided include casework case·work
Social work devoted to the needs of individual clients or cases.
casework services, family education, mentors, skill-building, recreation, youth recognition and youth involvement. This program also conducts evaluations by measuring community trends and perceptions, volunteer mobilization mobilization
Organization of a nation's armed forces for active military service in time of war or other national emergency. It includes recruiting and training, building military bases and training camps, and procuring and distributing weapons, ammunition, uniforms, and program effectiveness.
While the transformation experienced in the juvenile justice system has often focused on making the system more like the adult system, juvenile justice practitioners continue to believe that some things are unique about their practice and that they must incorporate the strategies promoted by the broken windows model. The successful practices highlighted above demonstrate that juvenile justice practitioners must focus on families, schools, informal networks and adolescent development in addition to the strategies themselves.
Whether they are called community corrections professionals or juvenile justice practitioners, these individuals are, to use the words of Lord Norman Warner Norman Melvin Warner (born 23 December 1943 in Ottawa, Ontario) was a Progressive Conservative party member of the Canadian House of Commons. He was an insurance broker by career. , former chairman of the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales England and Wales are both constituent countries of the United Kingdom, that together share a single legal system: English law. Legislatively, England and Wales are treated as a single unit (see State (law)) for the conflict of laws. , "traveling hopefully." Community corrections professionals are not perfect, but they have many examples of exceptional practice, results and continual improvement Continual Improvement (also called incremental improvement or staircase improvement) is a process or productivity improvement tool intended to have a stable and consistent growth and improvement of all the segments of a process or processes. . They are moving their agencies toward the creation of public value. And, in fact, many juvenile justice practitioners are embracing the key strategies for a rational probation system. Those involved in the revision of the Desktop Guide referred to juvenile probation as a catalyst. They said, "It makes things happen. It does not act by itself, but stimulates others to act." This does not relieve, community corrections professionals of responsibility but gives them many partners in building and continually improving a system that is considered legitimate in mission and in results.
Table 1 Strategies of Place Supervise Rationally Strong the Broken Public Probationers Allocate Enforcement Windows Model Safety in the Resources of Conditions; of Probation First Neighborhood, Quick Not the Office Response to Violations Comprehensive Strategy Strengthen the xx xx family Support core xx social institutions Promote xx xx delinquency prevention Intervene xx xx xx immediately and effectively when delinquent behavior occurs Identify and xx xx xx control serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders Balanced and Restorative Justice Accountability xx xx xx Competency xx Skill-Building Community xx xx Safety Community xx xx xx xx Justice Strategies of Develop Establish Cultivate the Broken Partners Performance- Strong Windows Model in the Based Leadership of Probation Community Initiatives Comprehensive Strategy Strengthen the xx family Support core xx social institutions Promote xx delinquency prevention Intervene immediately and effectively when delinquent behavior occurs Identify and control serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders Balanced and Restorative Justice Accountability xx Competency xx Skill-Building Community Safety Community xx xx xx Justice
(1) The Reinventing Probation Council was initially facilitated by John H. Dilulio Jr., former director of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives The White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives (OFBCI) is a department under the Office of the President of the United States that was established by President George W. . The work of the council was funded under the auspices of the Center for Civic Innovation at the Manhattan Institute The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research is a self-described "free market think tank" established in New York City in 1978, with its headquarters on Vanderbilt Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , Public/Private Ventures in Philadelphia and the Fox Center at the University of Pennsylvania (body, education) University of Pennsylvania - The home of ENIAC and Machiavelli.
Address: Philadelphia, PA, USA. .
(2) Reinventing Probation Council. 2000. Transforming probation through leadership: The "broken windows" model. New York: Center for Civic Innovation at the Manhattan Institute with the National Association of Probation Executives, American Probation and Parole Association, and Robert A. Fox Leadership Program at the University of Pennsylvania.
(3) National Center for Juvenile Justice. 2000. FOCUS. Pittsburgh. (November).
(4) National Center for Juvenile Justice. 2002. Desktop guide to good* juvenile probation practice, eds. P. Griffin and P. Torbet. Pittsburgh.
Cheryln K. "Cherie" Townsend is director of juvenile court services in Phoenix and chairperson chairperson Chairman The head of an academic department. See 'Chair.', Cf Chief. of the American Probation and Parole Association's Juvenile Justice Committee.