Jonathan Hart. Representing the New World: the English and French Use of the Example of Spain.New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Palgrave/St. Martin's Press, 2001. xi + 351 pp. index. $65. ISBN ISBN
International Standard Book Number
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISBN n abbr (= International Standard Book Number) → ISBN m : 0-312-23070-2.
This effectively organized and dearly written study provides a thoughtful consideration of the ways in which French and English authors made use of the example of Spain as they presented their views on the Americas, particularly as they promoted the establishment of colonies there by their countries. Hart is well known for his previous works on the Renaissance and literary treatments of cultural differences. In the current book, he points out the "ambivalent am·biv·a·lent
Exhibiting or feeling ambivalence.
Adj. 1. and contradictory ways" (3) in which these writers made use of Spain's widely envied success in the Americas and its increased power and aggressive policies in Europe.
Hart restricts his choice of subjects to writers, sometimes already-well-known in their times as propagandists who overtly campaigned for their country to play an active role in the Americas. He wisely includes travel writers and translators This is primarily a list of notable Western translators. Please feel free to add translators from other languages, cultures and areas of specialization. Large sublists have been split off to separate articles. of Spanish writings among the authors he covers. Hart finds that authors from both countries often utilized similar themes and rhetorical strategies in their arguments, and that these were not decisively shaped by whether the writer was Protestant or Catholic. In general, these writers admired Spain for its success in conquering and settling the Americas, but deplored their policies and impact on the native civilizations. Given the pro-colonial orientation of all of these sources, such conclusions may not be that surprising.
The book is organized into five substantial chapters that treat sequential eras in the period from 1492 to 1713, accompanied by an appropriate introduction and conclusion. In the first era of 1492-1547, the writers commonly shared a concern over Spain's claims to preeminence pre·em·i·nent or pre-em·i·nent
Superior to or notable above all others; outstanding. See Synonyms at dominant, noted.
[Middle English, from Latin prae based on its supposed discovery of the New World and also on the papal division of the world between Spain and Portugal. The second much shorter period of 1548-66 was marked by the Spanish massacre of the French expedition to Florida and by Queen Mary's rule over England. The third period of 1567-88 is almost equally brief. It is marked by the appearance of numerous tracts denouncing Spain. These reflect England and France's heightened competition with Spain as the two countries undertook their initial serious efforts to plant colonies in the Americas. The end of the period is marked by the surprising disaster of the Spanish Armada Spanish Armada: see Armada, Spanish.
Britain supplanted Spain as master of the sea. [Br. Hist.: Harbottle, 19]
See : Turning Point . The fourth era, covering 1589-1642, is much longer and is not characterized by the sharply vituperative tone so often found among authors in the preceding one. The limitations of Spanish power in both the Americas and Europe were better understood, as French and English colonies persisted in the New World without serious threat from Spain and as the Dutch Revolt The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. prospered in the face of Spain's vast efforts to suppress it. The final era, 1643-1713, displays France and England's decreasing concern about Spain, as its power visibly waned despite its continuing control over a vast American empire For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation).
American Empire is a term relating to the historical expansionism and the current political, economic, and cultural influence of the United States on a global scale. .
Readers of Hart's lucid study are likely to find coverage of previously littleknown but significant writers and fresh treatments of such familiar figures as Richard Hakluyt Richard Hakluyt (pronounced IPA: /ˈhæklʊt, ˈhæklət, ˈhækəlwɪt/) (c. 1552 or 1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer. , Walter Ralegh, and Andre Thevet. The author does not attempt to develop a transforming vision of the subjects and writers under consideration. But he certainly provides a comprehensive and well-substantiated examination of their themes, approaches, and preoccupations.
JOHN E. KICZA
Washington State University Washington State University, at Pullman; land-grant and state supported; chartered 1890, opened 1892 as an agriculture college. From 1905 to 1959 it was the State College of Washington.