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Japanese duo, US scientist win Nobel for particle physics

Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa of Japan and Yoichiro Nambu of the United States won the 2008 Nobel Physics Prize Tuesday for groundbreaking theoretical work in fundamental particles.

The three were lauded for their work in explaining anomalies in concepts of the nature of matter and the origins of the Universe, created in the "Big Bang big bang

Model of the origin of the universe, which holds that it emerged from a state of extremely high temperature and density in an explosive expansion 10 billion–15 billion years ago.
" 14 billion years ago.

Nambu, 87, won one half of the prize for work in the 1960s for discovering the mechanism of "spontaneous broken symmetry" in sub-atomic physics, the Nobel committee said.

The duo received the other half "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry," the jury said.

Nambu was hailed for developing a concept called "spontaneous symmetry-breaking" in superconductivity superconductivity, abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.2°K;.  and in basic particles.

These theories are a keystone of the so-called Standard Model of physics, which explains in a unified way three of the four fundamental forces of nature -- strong, weak and electromagnetic. The fourth is gravity.

"Spontaneous broken symmetry conceals nature's order under an apparently jumbled surface," the Nobel panel said.

"It has proved to be extremely useful, and Nambu's theories permeate the Standard Model of elementary particle physics.

"The Model unifies the smallest building blocks of all matter and three of nature's four forces in one single theory."

In the 1970s, Kobayashi and Maskawa went on to explain this broken symmetry. Their theory required that the Standard Model be enlarged by three novel families of sub-atomic particles called quarks.

Their hypothesis was borne out nearly three decades later in experiments.

Kobayashi, 64, is a professor emeritus at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation in Tsukuba, while Maskawa, 68, holds the same title at the Yukawa institute for Theoretical Physics The Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (基礎物理学研究所   at Kyoto University.

Nambu is a professor emeritus at the Enrico Fermi Institute The Institute for Nuclear Studies was founded September, 1945 as part of the University of Chicago with Samuel King Allison as director. On November 20, 1955 it was renamed The Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies.  at the University of Chicago.

Underpinning the theory of asymmetry is the discovery that immediately after the "Big Bang," much more matter was created than its deadly opposite, antimatter antimatter: see antiparticle.
antimatter

Substance composed of elementary particles having the mass and electric charge of ordinary matter (such as electrons and protons) but for which the charge and related magnetic properties are opposite in sign.
.

This excess of matter became the seed of the Universe, filling it with galaxies, stars and planets -- and eventually life.

What lies behind this mysterious symmetry violation has sparked a massive field of research.

The most ambitious experimental step was taken last month, with the unveiling of the the Large Hadron Collider This article or section contains information about an expected future scientific facility.
It is likely to contain information of a speculative nature and the content may change as the facility approaches completion.
 (LHC LHC Large Hadron Collider
LHC Lahore High Court
LHC Lonely Hearts Club
LHC Lake Havasu City (Arizona, USA)
LHC Log Homes Council
LHC Left-Hand Circular
LHC Les Horribles Cernettes (band) 
), the world's biggest particle smasher, in Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva.
.

Maskawa said he was delighted that his forerunner, Nambu, had become a laureate.

"I am happy that Mr. Nambu has won it. I thought there was a bigger chance this year," Maskawa said, as quoted by Jiji Press.

Kobayashi meanwhile said he was stunned to get the news from the Nobel committee.

"It's a great honour. I couldn't believe it," he told Swedish Radio in an interview, adding that he "didn't expect it."

The High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK See CEC. ) near Tokyo, where Kobayashi works, saluted the winners.

"It's great news for KEK as well. Professor Kobayashi, Professor Maskawa and Professor Nambu have all made great contributions," KEK spokesman Yohei Morita told AFP (1) (AppleTalk Filing Protocol) The file sharing protocol used in an AppleTalk network. In order for non-Apple networks to access data in an AppleShare server, their protocols must translate into the AFP language. See file sharing protocol. .

French physicist Yves Sacquin, of the Institute for Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe in Paris, said the "Kobayashi-Maskawa (theories) are the template for our daily work."

He said: "As soon as Kobayashi and Maskawa predicted there must be novel quarks, all the physicists in the world started to look for these new particles."

On Monday, French and German scientists credited with the discovery of the viruses behind AIDS and cervical cancer Cervical Cancer Definition

Cervical cancer is a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors.
 won the Medicine Prize, the first of the prestigious awards to be announced To be announced (TBA)

A contract for the purchase or sale of an MBS to be delivered at an agreed-upon future date but does not include a specified pool number and number of pools or precise amount to be delivered.
 this year.

The Chemistry Prize laureates will be announced on Wednesday, followed by the Literature Prize on Thursday and the Peace Prize on Friday.

The Economics Prize will wrap up the awards on October 13.

Laureates receive a gold medal, a diploma and 10 million Swedish kronor (1.42 million dollars, 1.02 million euros) which can be split between up to three winners per prize.

The formal awarding of the prizes will take place in Stockholm on December 10.

  1. The Nobel Physics Prize

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Author:AFP
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Date:Oct 7, 2008
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