Japan stands as a model.Byline: Winston Ross The Register-Guard
EDITOR'S NOTE Editor's Note (foaled in 1993 in Kentucky) is an American thoroughbred Stallion racehorse. He was sired by 1992 U.S. Champion 2 YO Colt Forty Niner, who in turn was a son of Champion sire Mr. Prospector and out of the mare, Beware Of The Cat.
Trained by D. : Reporter Winston Ross traveled to Japan in August and September as a World Affairs Noun 1. world affairs - affairs between nations; "you can't really keep up with world affairs by watching television"
affairs - transactions of professional or public interest; "news of current affairs"; "great affairs of state" fellow, sponsored by the International Center for Journalists. This is the last of three parts on how Japan prepares for tsunamis.
Since the year 684, the Japanese people The Japanese people (日本人 Nihonjin, Nipponjin have recorded tsunamis and the earthquakes that spawn them. Stories, statues, monuments, paintings and pictures remind people that they face a constant threat, and that the only way to survive is to race for high ground when the earth shakes.
In Oregon, when the National Weather Service issued a tsunami warning on June 14, chaos ensued. Evacuations in coastal communities were sporadic, at best. Sirens didn't work. People jumped in their cars instead of heading to high ground on foot. Or, worse: They ran to shore to watch the waves roll in. That event - along with last week's tsunami-test malfunction - was a wake-up call for emergency managers on the West Coast.
It's time It's Time was a successful political campaign run by the Australian Labor Party (ALP) under Gough Whitlam at the 1972 election in Australia. Campaigning on the perceived need for change after 23 years of conservative (Liberal Party of Australia) government, Labor put forward a , they said, for some new ideas "New Ideas" is the debut single by Scottish New Wave/Indie Rock act The Dykeenies. It was first released as a Double A-side with "Will It Happen Tonight?" on July 17, 2006. The band also recorded a video for the track. .
Japan's culture of preparedness is a worldwide model. Emulating it won't be easy. The seawalls that line its 20,000 miles of coastline would meet fierce opposition in a place like Oregon. Japan's greatest asset in preparing citizens for earthquakes and tsunamis is a past that the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. cannot replicate, and a culture very different from America's.
"Japan is a much more homogeneous society," said Solomon Yim, a civil engineering professor and tsunami expert at Oregon State University's O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Lab. "Another thing is there are big cities after big cities there, and people are used to very crowded environments. They are a lot less individualistic, and they will listen to government advisers more readily. Our population is more mobile; people from Kansas The following are people who were either born, raised, or have lived for a significant period of time in Kansas: Academics & Nobel Prize Laureates
Japan also heeds the lessons of the past, where the United States has abandoned them. In the late 1800s, Yurok Tribe members manned a plankhouse to watch for tsunamis in modern-day Crescent City Crescent City is the name of the following places:
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Oregon geologist George Priest. When white settlers arrived, they rejected the practice as "superstition." In Japan, tsunamis are a national issue, garnering attention and energy at all levels of government, taken seriously by all who know of its threats.
Here, it's a coastal problem.
"We have to create the Japanese response from whole cloth whole cloth
Pure fabrication or fiction: "He invented, almost out of whole cloth, what it means to be American" Ned Rorem. ," geologist George Priest said, "but without any of the experiences they have with tsunamis."
Although tsunamis are far less frequent here, when the West Coast's Cascadia Subduction Zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from northern Vancouver Island to northern California. Geography
The zone separates the Juan de Fuca, Explorer, Gorda and the North American Plate. decides to rattle again, the magnitude 9 earthquake it's likely to produce will cause the greatest natural disaster the United States has seen, Priest said. "In terms of loss of life, it would dwarf anything that's ever happened."
That presents emergency managers with a conundrum: How do you keep people aware of an event that hardly ever happens, but poses a greater threat to their property and their lives than any other natural disaster?
`Champions' raise awareness
Seaside and Yachats are two coastal towns well-drilled for a tsunami. But that's no accident. The towns' preparedness comes down to two people: Darci Connor and Frankie Petrick. Connor worked as Seaside's tsunami outreach coordinator for a year, her salary funded by a $50,000 grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Noun 1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - an agency in the Department of Commerce that maps the oceans and conserves their living resources; predicts changes to the earth's environment; provides weather reports and forecasts floods and hurricanes and . She recruited block captains all over the city to knock on Noun 1. knock on - (rugby) knocking the ball forward while trying to catch it (a foul)
rugby, rugby football, rugger - a form of football played with an oval ball
rugby, rugby football, rugger - a form of football played with an oval ball doors and educate their neighbors about what to do when a tsunami strikes. She organized business workshops and gave speeches at churches, civic groups and schools.
Petrick is the chief of the Yachats Rural Fire Protection District. She's gone door-to-door to talk to people about the threat, and personally organized a drill this spring in which 80 percent of Yachats residents participated.
"They had people on walkers who were able to get where they were supposed to go," Priest said.
These "tsunami champions" are Oregon's best hope of mirroring Japan's approach to educating citizens about earthquakes and tsunamis, Priest said. That's why a consortium of emergency managers called on Congress earlier this year to permanently fund a program that would pay every city on the coast $30,000 per year to hire its own champion.
A more difficult task may be infusing disaster preparedness into the school curriculum, as Japan does, but it is possible. Oregon Coast The Oregon Coast is a geographical term that is used to describe the coast of Oregon along the Pacific Ocean. Stretching 362 miles from Astoria to the California border, the Oregon Coast is unique in that the whole coastline is public land. schools are required to conduct emergency drills for fires, earthquakes and tsunamis, and state standards include "unintentional injury unintentional injury Accidental injury Public health Any injury caused by an accident. See Injury. prevention" at the third-, fifth- and eighth-grade levels, said Gene Evans, a spokesman for the Oregon Department of Education The Department of Education of the U.S. state of Oregon is responsible for implementation of state policies with respect to public education at the kindergarten through community college level, including academic standards and testing, credentials, and other matters not reserved to .
The fictional version of the story of `Inamura no-hi,' in which a Japanese villager set fire to his own rice stacks to help his neighbors flee from an oncoming tsunami, is available in English. In fact, the Oregon Department of Geology has an English-language video version of the tale. Sharing stories like this are a good way to capture students' attention, Evans said.
Similarities and differences
As warnings go, Japan and the United States both have dense networks of seismographs in earthquake-prone areas, and the technology they use is similar and shared between the two countries, said Paul Whitmore, director of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center in Palmer, Alaska Palmer is a city in and the borough seat of the Matanuska-Susitna Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city was 4,533. 2005 Census Bureau estimates give the city a population of 6,920. .
The main difference between the systems is that Japan issues expected tsunami arrival times before it actually registers the wave on tide gauges or with pressure-monitoring cable. The United States waits until its tide gauges or ocean-bound buoys detect a wave.
"They're a little more aggressive about issuing an expected impact," Whitmore said of the Japanese. But in some cases, he added, that rush leads to underestimates. "We don't do it because there's a significant number of earthquakes where the tsunami is far bigger than what you'd expect based on magnitude."
After the Sumatra quake, Oregonians learned that half of the six buoys the weather service operates in the Aleutian Islands Aleutian Islands (əl`shən), chain of rugged, volcanic islands curving c.1,200 mi (1,900 km) west from the tip of the Alaska Peninsula and approaching Russia's Komandorski Islands. don't work (they've since been repaired), prompting the U.S. Senate in July to pass a Tsunami Preparedness Act that will add 30 more buoys on the Pacific, Gulf and Atlantic coasts by the end of 2007, if signed by the president. The bill provides grants for universities to conduct regional assessments of tsunami-vulnerable areas - a task Oregon has completed.
Japan pledges to warn its citizens within three minutes "Three Minutes" is the 46th episode of Lost. It is the twenty-second episode of the second season. The episode was directed by Stephen Williams, and written by Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz. It first aired on May 17, 2006 on ABC. of a quake, night or day - which is feasible in that country because most people get their information from the same source: the Japan Broadcasting Corp. In the United States, the goal is five minutes during the daytime and 10 at night, when there's no one staffing the Alaska warning center, which covers the West Coast. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration will add enough staff for a 24-hour presence by April 2006, which should improve U.S. warning times, Whitmore said.
The media buy-in is a tougher question, Whitmore acknowledged. Different radio and television stations carried conflicting reports about the West Coast tsunami warning on June 14, for example.
Also, since Japan operates six regional centers, compared to the one that covers the West Coast, it can more specifically tailor warnings to a particular region.
"They do have this very robust system of warnings," Priest said. "But there are some geological differences that make that system less applicable for our coast. They have two or three big subduction zone subduction zone, large-scaled narrow region in the earth's crust where, according to plate tectonics, masses of the spreading oceanic lithosphere bend downward into the earth along the leading edges of converging lithospheric plates where it slowly melts at about 400 faults that tend to rupture on relatively short lengths. They don't get the big magnitude 9 ruptures, and as a result, what generally happens is a relatively short segment of the coastline gets the direct impact of the local tsunami. The rest comes from a distant source, so they really benefit from a fast warning system. In a Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunami, there's absolutely no time for that kind of warning system to make a difference."
What Whitmore would like to see the United States imitate is Japan's regular, "end-to-end" tests of the warning system. While U.S. weather service officials frequently test communications at the Palmer center, the practice alerts don't make it all the way to first responders in local communities. The June 14 event exposed alarming gaps in preparedness at all levels - including conflicting bulletins from the weather service. End-to-end tests could smooth out some of the kinks, he said.
Another important piece of tsunami preparedness is hazard mapping. Geologists use computer programs to simulate tsunamis, taking into account not only the size of a quake and force of a wave but the undersea geology and shape of the land it would hit, which can change the shape of a tsunami drastically and alter the best escape routes.
Both countries use the software to prepare hazard maps for vulnerable cities, but the effort is expensive. Emergency managers in Oregon have asked Congress for $7.8 million to continue mapping coastal areas and for public education. But they worry now that the Pacific Coast could wind up with less than it had before, because senators from Eastern states Eastern States can refer to several locations:
Extent and Seas
tsunamis are far less likely.
Japan has the edge when it comes to tsunami prediction, said Brian Yanagi, deputy director of the International Tsunami Information Center in Hawaii, because it has more historical data to plug into the computer models.
"Our history is only a few hundred years old," Yanagi said. "They have a lot more data to work with, to use scientifically in tsunami models that forecast the inundation INUNDATION. The overflow of waters by coming out of their bed.
2. Inundations may arise from three causes; from public necessity, as in defence of a place it may be necessary to dam the current of a stream, which will cause an inundation to the upper lands; and wave run-up."
Hardware that can help
Seawalls clearly aren't the best idea for the United States, for aesthetic and environmental reasons, experts agree. But there's plenty of other "hardware" Japan uses that could work well here, including rotating sirens, solar-powered lighting along evacuation routes, alarms in houses, and shelters built to withstand tsunamis and store emergency supplies.
In a report on the shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.
Shortcomings may also be:
Sirens also are being considered in Oregon State Parks that lie in tsunami-prone areas. The emergency managers' request to Congress includes a plea for $1.3 million annually for grants to build shelters along the coast with stockpiles of food, medical supplies, power generators, shovels and an emergency communications network The transmission channels interconnecting all client and server stations as well as all supporting hardware and software. .
State agencies are now negotiating with the developers of an eight-story, 250-condo-
minium minium: see red lead. complex in Seaside - "built like a bomb shelter," according to earth sciences information officer James Roddey - to use in emergencies, because evacuations there are difficult, thanks to the low-lying landscape and abundance of flood-prone rivers. The building has a five-story parking garage and enough space in safe areas to hold every resident in town, Roddey said.
Many coastal residents own portable weather radios that can alert them of approaching tsunamis, although many of them didn't work on June 14. The National Weather Service allows people to sign up on its Web site to receive tsunami alerts via e-mail and text messages on their cell phones, and a private system called "Connect and Protect" offers similar options. Some counties, including Lane, have installed a "reverse 911" system that will call every resident in danger within minutes of a tsunami warning.
In August, Gov. Ted Kulongoski Theodore R. "Ted" Kulongoski (born November 5 1940, in rural Missouri) is an American Democratic politician. Since 2003, he has served as the Governor of Oregon. He was re-elected in 2006. signed Senate Bill 2, which directs the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries to assess the earthquake safety of schools, colleges, police and fire stations and hospitals statewide. Three other yet-to-be-signed bills would establish state grants and authorize the sale of bonds to strengthen those buildings. And a bill sponsored by state Sen. Bill Morrissette, D-Springfield, requires hotels and restaurants on the coast to provide tsunami information to their customers and that the state develop a uniform tsunami warning system A tsunami warning system is a system to detect tsunamis and issue warnings to prevent loss of life and property. It consists of two equally important components: a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation . But it's an unfunded mandate An unfunded mandate is a statute that requires government or private parties to carry out specific actions, but does not appropriate any funds for that purpose. Examples
Disaster kits aren't prominent in American department stores This is a list of department stores. In the case of department store groups the location of the flagship store is given. This list does not include large specialist stores, which sometimes resemble department stores. . But there are plenty of supplies available for people to prepare an emergency backpack. The quake in Indonesia and hurricanes Katrina and Rita, closer to home, have provided Americans with horrifying pictures of natural disasters in recent months. Whether that will be enough to galvanize gal·va·nize
tr.v. gal·va·nized, gal·va·niz·ing, gal·va·niz·es
1. To stimulate or shock with an electric current.
2. the public into a culture of preparedness remains to be seen.
Winston Ross can be reached at (541) 902-9030.
SIGN UP FOR TSUNAMI WARNINGS
Both the National Weather Service and a private service, called "Connect and Protect," offer ways for residents to be alerted via e-mail or text messages on cell phone when a tsunami alert is issued.
National Weather Service site: wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov. Click "Get it by e-mail."
Connect and Protect: www.rainsnet.org/ programs/ connect_protect/index.asp
Rescue workers carry a dummy in a disaster preparedness drill in Yaizu, Japan, on Sept. 1.