Japan Since 1945: The Rise of an Economic Superpower.By the late 1980s, Japan has emerged on the word scene as a great power, not perhaps in military and political terms but certainly in economic sense. As the homology homology (hōmŏl`əjē), in biology, the correspondence between structures of different species that is attributable to their evolutionary descent from a common ancestor. of the Soviet empire fell apart and the prima donna imprint of the American know-how and productivity began losing its luster, the economy of Japan became indisputably the second largest in the world with a capita income that, by 1987, has overtaken over the U.S.A. and any country of the OECD OECD: see Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. . Despite the international oil shocks of 1973 and 1979-80 and some other political and financial flickering convulsions Convulsions
Also termed seizures; a sudden violent contraction of a group of muscles.
Mentioned in: Heat Disorders , Japan continues to enjoy a very high economic growth rate to the present day: the five largest banks in the world belong to Japan; the Tokyo Stock Exchange Tokyo Stock Exchange
Main stock market of Japan, located in Tokyo. It opened in 1878 to provide a market for the trading of government bonds newly issued to former samurai. had grown into one of the major world's financial markets; the three largest security houses in the world are Japanese; iron, steel and automobile productions surpassing that of the U.S.A. is something unheard of Not heard of; of which there are no tidings.
Unknown to fame; obscure.
See also: Unheard Unheard in the postwar era; and no nation is ever owed so much from abroad.
Although Japan today is not a military and political power in the circle of great nations, it certainly becomes a major player in the current world's strategic equation, especially with regard to the Pacific arena. Japan since 1945 is an historical overview of the various processes by which postwar Japan was transformed into an economic power which impinges upon almost all of us. This is the work of an historian from the University of Ulster The University of Ulster (UU; Irish: Ollscoil Uladh ) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal , who directs his focus toward the political, economic, and financial developments in Japan, although not to the exclusion of the other social and cultural dimensions Cultural dimensions are the mostly psychological dimensions, or value constructs, which can be used to describe a specific culture. These are often used in Intercultural communication-/Cross-cultural communication-based research.
See also: Edward T. of the enormous change which has taken place since the Japan's surrender of August 15, 1945.
Structurally all the six chapters of this small volume can be grouped into three basic parts. The author uses the first part, (chapters 1-2), to retrace the present spectacular economic rise of Japan to its vital past some centuries ago. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , Japan's today economic success and power is merely a natural extension of a long, continuous trend of Japan's history from its feudal times to present days. Thus an analysis of Japan's history would reveal the vital lines of continuity running across three principal historical fissures: (a) the victory of the Tokugawa family in 1600 ending a prolonged period of civil war and setting up an unprecedented era of peace and openness to the outside world; (b) the Meiji Restoration Meiji restoration, The term refers to both the events of 1868 that led to the "restoration" of power to the emperor and the entire period of revolutionary changes that coincided with the Meiji emperor's reign (1868–1912). in 1868 bringing down the shogunate proved to be the beginning of a thorough reform of Japanese life and the establishment of a solid foundation for the successful modernization of Japan; (c) the "guided revolution" brought about by the American occupation of 1945-52, which resulted in the dissolution of the zaibatsu zaibatsu (zī`bäts) [Jap.,=money clique], the great family-controlled banking and industrial combines of modern Japan. (industrial monopolistic conglomerates), and the land and labor reforms. In the second part, (chapters 3-5), the reader will find a detailed and lively discussion of Japan's quest for Verb 1. quest for - go in search of or hunt for; "pursue a hobby"
quest after, go after, pursue
look for, search, seek - try to locate or discover, or try to establish the existence of; "The police are searching for clues"; "They are searching for the political stability and economic growth during the postwar recovery stage of 1952-60. Professor Dennis Smith Dennis Smith may refer to:
v. in·dus·tri·al·ized, in·dus·tri·al·iz·ing, in·dus·tri·al·iz·es
1. To develop industry in (a country or society, for example).
2. , rich nations grew, so did criticism from others. Yet, there are dark clouds in the economic sky of Japan. "Japan bashing The term Japan bashing, or Japan-bashing, was first coined in the early 1980s by Robert Angel, a paid lobbyist for the Japanese government. At the time, Angel was president of the Washington-based Japan Economic Institute, an organization financed and overseen by Japan's " has become a popular activity in the U.S.A. - a prime example of various possible forms of international tension between friendly partners.
The most impressive aspects of this small volume are the concise and up-to-date treatments of postwar Japan to stimulate critical thought about the conceptual historical apparatus underlying the interpretation of Japan's postwar recovery and its emergence as an economic super-power. The book contains much worthy information. The author's main point is that Japan's spectacular economic recovery and powerful economic growth and development are not a phenomenon of "economic miracle The terms "economic miracle," "tiger economy" or simply "miracle" have come to refer to great periods of change, particularly periods of dramatic economic growth, in the recent histories of a number of countries:
Process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. The changes that took place in Britain during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th century led the way for the early industrializing nations of western Europe and and trade. This liberal international environment in an age of worldwide trade expansion did help greatly Japan to import the latest technology from abroad without having to pay for the full costs of research and development. High levels of investment enabled a number of Japanese industries to reach and remain at the cutting edge of technology. Fourth, the keiretsu keiretsu: see zaibatsu.
In Japan, a strong alliance of related organizations that shares knowledge and cooperates to control its sector of the business, including the supply chain and distribution. system or huge conglomerates with extraordinarily effective methods of management provides relationships between financial institutions and manufacturing industries manufacturing industries npl → industrias fpl manufactureras
manufacturing industries npl → industries fpl de transformation
, resulting in higher levels of investment. Fifth, an important ingredient to the sustained economic success of Japan is its long-term political stability. Between 1955 and 1993, the same conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP LDP - Linux Documentation Project ) practically monopolized government leadership and control in Japan. Sixth, the framework of cooperation and industrial relations industrial relations
Relations between the management of an industrial enterprise and its employees.
the relations between management and workers between state government bureaucracy and private business enterprises is perhaps a factor in high-speed economic growth of Japan. In the 1950s, the Ministry of International Trade (MITI) and the Ministry of Finance had available means to influence business decisions significantly. However, this "administrative guidance" delivered to the private sector could never be all-powerful, and in many instances, was completely ignored. Nevertheless, relations between large-scale businesses and government bureaucracy remained usually close. On balance, no significant conflict between "government guidance" and the interests of private companies and industries existed.
On a purely technical level, the author has, for me at any rate, done a wondrous thing. His book provides a vital key to the understanding of the momentous transformation and rise of Japan to international political and economic prominence by giving the readers a clear historical account of the process of Japan's economic, political, and social change since August 1945.
The problem with this book is its great emphasis on historical continuity to explain Japan's postwar economic prominence. No opportunity is lost for the author, a professor of history, to point up the influence of Japan's past upon the present. The author's main points could have been even more cogently presented with the addition of professional graphics and revealing data tables to accentuate the political or economic evolution of Japan during the post World War II era. For a professional economist searching for deep insights in the manner in which the tools of his or her trade can be applied to Japan's postwar economic transformation and high-speed growth will find little help in this book. And certainly those of us who hope and believe that economic development theory and industrial management theory coupled with an analysis of the global market competition might suggest deep-rooted causes for the Japanese postwar economic miracle are doomed to disappointment. Indeed, the book suffers from a lack of any clear line of analysis from any serious economic source.
On the whole, however, this is a thoughtful historical analysis of postwar Japan. The author seeks to assist those who are either embarking on the study of postwar Japan, or who are anxious to add to their knowledge of that country. This book should bring some of Japan's central themes and problems confronting students and teachers of recent politics and international affairs into sharper focus than the regular textbook writer alone could provide. This special blend requires the author to write contemporary history of Japan that is both readable and easily understood but also accurate and scholarly. Thus, this book proves worthwhile for students, teachers, and business leaders interested in today Japan's market and society.
Dominique N. Khactu University of North Dakota