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Fallow fallow

a pale cream, light fawn, or pale yellow coat color in dogs.
, G. O. & Johnson, W.B. (2000)

Mentor relationships in secular and religious professional psychology programs Vol. 19(4), 363-376

The authors of this article researched the prevalence and nature of mentor-protege relationships in religiously oriented and secular professional psychology programs. Fallow and Johnson note that mentor relationships have been known to have several benefits for both the mentor and the protege pro·té·gé  
One whose welfare, training, or career is promoted by an influential person.

[French, from past participle of protéger, to protect, from Old French, from Latin
 involved in the relationship. Yet, they noticed that there is a lack of empirical evidence to support these beliefs. The relative paucity of research revealed that only half of psychology graduates are mentored, and PsyD graduates were less likely to be mentored than PhD graduates.

In this study, Fallow and Johnson surveyed 286 students who graduated from religiously oriented, PsyD graduate programs, specifically Rosemead School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary Through its three schools, Theology, Psychology, Intercultural Studies, and the Horner Center for Lifelong Learning, the seminary offers university-style education leading to 13 different degrees accredited by the Association of Theological Schools[1] and the Western , and George Fox University George Fox University (GFU) is a Christian university of the liberal arts & sciences, and professional studies. It is ranked by U.S. News & World Report as a “Best Value” and as a top-tier master's-level university in the West. . They also surveyed 373 PsyD graduates from secular schools, randomly selected from the APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.

APA - Application Portability Architecture
 Research Office. The survey packet each participant received contained a review of the mentoring literature, a definition of mentoring, and a few questions regarding whether they had a mentor, the nature of the mentor relationship, and satisfaction of their doctoral program.

Fallow and Johnson discovered that approximately half of the students in both religious and secular programs were mentored during their studies. Further, the highest traits found in both secular and religious mentors were intelligence and knowledge, and religious mentors received higher ratings on warmth and caring than mentors in secular programs. Additionally, students in religious programs were more likely to socialize so·cial·ize  
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.

2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable.
 with faculty outside the academic setting and consider their mentor a friend, which stirred ethical questions for Fallow and Johnson as they suggested religious programs consider the potential for harm in dual relationships.

The authors also found that mentor relationships were usually initiated by the protege or mutually initiated by the protege and mentor. The highest rated reason for forming the relationship was the mentor's personality; but secular program respondents were drawn to similar professional and research interests with their mentor, while religious respondents were drawn to faculty with similar religious beliefs or commitment.

In regards to negative aspects of mentor relationships, 22% of the respondents felt their mentor was not as available as they would have liked, and 16% had a difficult time terminating the relationship. A small percentage of respondents also endorsed items such as doing things for the mentor they felt uncomfortable doing or feeling their mentor engaged in unethical unethical

said of conduct not conforming with professional ethics.
 and/or sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life.  within the relationship.

Overall, the results displayed that mentor relationships are seen as extremely positive, and most respondents felt mentor relationships were extremely important in the PsyD programs. Further, mentored students were significantly more satisfied with their doctoral program than nonmentored students. Those whom did not have mentors indicated that they felt mentors were not encouraged by the program and that faculty did not have time to mentor.

This study seemed to be well-donein its ability to discuss clearly the differences and similarities between religious and secular programs, which are relevant for all faculty and students considering mentor relationships. Additionally, this article challenges the structure of clinical psychology programs regarding how available mentors are in each school. The authors conclude with a sobering commentary on the impact of mentoring: "When graduate students are not mentored by a faculty member, we hypothesize hy·poth·e·size  
v. hy·poth·e·sized, hy·poth·e·siz·ing, hy·poth·e·siz·es
To assert as a hypothesis.

To form a hypothesis.
 that they are less likely to develop strong professional identities, and they this may ultimately weaken the health of the profession broadly" (p. 374).


Belzen, J. A. (2001). The introduction of the psychology of religion to the Netherlands: Ambivalent reception, epistemological e·pis·te·mol·o·gy  
The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity.

[Greek epist
 concerns, and persistent patterns. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences behavioral sciences, those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior.
, 37(1), 45-62.

Drodge, E. N. (2000). A cognitive-embodiment approach to emotioning and rationality, illustrated in the story of Job. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(3), 187-199.

Ellis, A. (2000). Can rational emotiive behavior therapy behavior therapy or behavior modification, in psychology, treatment of human behavioral disorders through the reinforcement of acceptable behavior and suppression of undesirable behavior.  (REBT REBT Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
REBT Reglamento Electrotécnico de Baja Tensión (Spanish: Electrotechnical)
REBT Real Estate Business Technologies LLC (Los Angeles, California) 
) b effectively used with people who have devout beliefs in God and religion? Professional Psychology, 31(1), 29-33.

Foskett, J. (2001). Soul space: The pastoral care of people with major mental health problems. International Review of Psychiatry, 13(2), 101-109.

George, L. K., Larson, D. E., Koenig, H. G., er al. (2000). Spirituality and health: What we know, what we need to know. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 102-116.

Greggo, S. P. (2001). Practitioner attitudes regarding managed health care: A survey of Christian Association for Psychological Studies (CAPS) members. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 20,66-79.

Hall, M. E., &Johnson, E. L. (2001). Theodicy theodicy

Argument for the justification of God, concerned with reconciling God's goodness and justice with the observable facts of evil and suffering in the world. Most such arguments are a necessary component of theism.
 and therapy: Philosophical/theological contributions to the problem of suffering. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 20,5-17.

Helminiak, D. A. (2001). Treating spiritual issues in secular psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. . Counseling and Values, 45(3), 163-189.

Hill, J. (2000). A rationale for the integration of spirituality into community psychology. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(2), 139-149.

Mansager, E. (2000). Individual psychology and the study of spirituality. Journal of Individual Psychology, 56(3), 371-388.

Picken, W. E. (2000). A whisper of salvation: American psychologists and religion in the popular press. American Psychologist, 55(9), 1022-1024.

Reinert, D. F., & Bloomingdale, J. R. (2000). Spiritual experience, religious orienrarion and self-reported behavior. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(3), 173-180.

Rose, E. M., Westefeld, J. S., & Ansely, T. N. (2001). Spiritual issues in counseling; Clients' beliefs and preferences. Journal of Counseling Psychology Counseling psychology as a psychological specialty facilitates personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span with a focus on emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. , 48(1), 61-71.

Schimmel Schimmel is a German surname and may refer to:
  • Dr. Annemarie Schimmel (1922-2003), German Islam scholar
  • Hendrik Jan Schimmel
  • Jason Schimmel
  • Michael Schimmel
  • Robert Schimmel
  • Wilhelm Schimmel, Piano manufacturer
  • William Schimmel
See also
, S. (2000). Vices, virtues and sources of human strength in historical perspective. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 137-150.

Sloan, R. P., & Bagiella, E. (2001). Religion and health. Health Psychology, 20(3), 228-228.

Tan, S. Y. (2001). Integration and beyond; Principled, professional, and personal. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 20, 18-28.

Zondag, H. J. (2001). Involved, loyal, alienated and detached: The commitment of pastors Pastoral Psychology, 49(4), 311-323.
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Title Annotation:mentor relationships
Publication:Journal of Psychology and Theology
Article Type:Statistical Data Included
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2001
Next Article:Contemporary Psychoanalysis.

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