Isolation of Two Strains of West Nile Virus during an Outbreak in Southern Russia, 1999.From July to September 1999, a widespread outbreak of meningoencephalitis meningoencephalitis /me·nin·go·en·ceph·a·li·tis/ (me-ning?go-en-sef?ah-li´tis) inflammation of the brain and meninges.
toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis associated with West Nile virus West Nile virus, microorganism and the infection resulting from it, which typically produces no symptoms or a flulike condition. The virus is a flavivirus and is related to a number of viruses that cause encephalitis. (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) occurred in southern Russia, with hundreds of cases and dozens of deaths, Two strains of West Nile virus isolated from patient serum and brain-tissue samples reacted in hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests with patients' convalescent-phase sera and immune ascites Ascites Definition
Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Rapidly developing (acute) ascites can occur as a complication of trauma, perforated ulcer, appendicitis, or inflammation of the colon or other fluid from other strains of West Nile virus.
From July to September 1999, a widespread outbreak of meningoencephalitis occurred in southern Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan Astrakhan, city, Russia
Astrakhan (ăs`trəkăn, Rus. ä`strəkhənyə), city (1990 pop. 521,000), capital of Astrakhan region, SE European Russia. , and Krasnodar regions). Approximately 1,000 cases with at least 40 deaths were reported. Natural foci of arbovirus arbovirus
Any of a large group of viruses that develop in arthropods (chiefly mosquitoes and ticks). The name derives from “arthropod-borne virus.” The spheroidal virus particle is encased in a fatty membrane and contains RNA; it causes no apparent harm to the infections have been reported in southern Russia (1-5). Clinical and epidemiologic investigations indicated that this outbreak could be associated with West Nile virus; preliminary serologic testing of patient samples confirmed the presence of the virus (6). We report further virologic testing of patient isolates from this outbreak.
For virus isolation, we tested serum samples from 25 patients on days 4 to 6 of febrile illness, 18 samples of cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue samples taken from 5 patients at autopsy. The tissue and cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed for evidence of West Nile virus genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR RT-PCR
reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. See PCR1. ) primers on the basis of published NS5 and E genes (7,8). Virus was isolated by infection of 3-to 4-day-old suckling mice. Mice were injected intracranially with 0.01 mL of patient tissue, and blind passages were made on days 6 to 7 after inoculation. The suspension of brain tissue from previously injected, asymptomatic mice was inoculated intracranially into new mice. When mice began to show signs of illness, the brain tissue was examined for West Nile virus by hemagglutination hemagglutination /he·mag·glu·ti·na·tion/ (he?mah-gloo-ti-na´shun) agglutination of erythrocytes.
n. (HT) and hemagglutination inhibition tests (HIT). A 10% suspension was prepared in 0.15 M NaCl and diluted fivefold with borate borate /bo·rate/ (bor´at) a salt of boric acid.
A salt or ester of boric acid.
any salt of boric acid. buffer solution to suppress nonspecific inhibitors. The suspension was then titrated ti·trate
tr. & intr.v. ti·trat·ed, ti·trat·ing, ti·trates
To determine the concentration of (a solution) by titration or perform the operation of titration. at pH 6.4 with goose erythrocytes Erythrocytes
Red blood cells.
Mentioned in: Bartonellosis
n.pl red blood cells. (9). Identification of the virus antigen in brain suspension of infected mice was also done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
A diagnostic blood test used to screen patients for AIDS or other viruses. (ELISA ELISA (e-li´sah) Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay; any enzyme immunoassay using an enzyme-labeled immunoreactant and an immunosorbent.
n. ) with the direct sandwich method (9).
Immune ascitic fluids (IAF) of mice and convalescent-phase sera of patients in the current outbreak were used for identification of these strains and viruses by HIT, neutralization neutralization, chemical reaction, according to the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases, in which a water solution of acid is mixed with a water solution of base to form a salt and water; this reaction is complete only if the resulting solution has neither acidic nor , and ELISA testing. Neutralization testing (NT) was done by the micro method in pig kidney cells with a single dilution of IAF in 10-fold dilutions of virus (Table 1). The results were assessed according to a neutralization index calculated by the Reed and Mench method (9).
Table 1. Neutralization index of strain LEIV LEIV Leipziger Verlag (Leipzig Publishers, Germany) 27889 Vlg in neutralization test with immune ascitic fluid
Strain Neutralization index WNF 2266Ig (India) 6.5 WNF 22886G (India) 8.5 WNF Eg 101 8.5 Kokobera 6.0 Karshi 1.0 Apoi 3.0 Usutu 3.0 JE 3.5 Tyuleniy 2.0 St. Louis 0.5 TBE 0.5
We examined brain tissue from five patients (63, 67, 71, 72, and 16 years of age) in the Volgograd region who died of meningoencephalitis. Flaviviruses and West Nile virus RNA RNA: see nucleic acid.
in full ribonucleic acid
One of the two main types of nucleic acid (the other being DNA), which functions in cellular protein synthesis in all living cells and replaces DNA as the carrier of genetic were detected in all five samples by RT-PCR; however, virus was isolated only from the 16-year-old patient. In this case, suckling mice injected with brain tissue became ill on days 4 to 6. This incubation period decreased to 3 to 5 days on the second passage and to 3 days after subsequent passages. On the second passage, we detected hemagglutinins in mouse brain suspension of this virus at a titer of 1:128 at pH 6.4. The HIT for this isolate was inhibited by IAF to West Nile virus. Antigen of West Nile virus was also identified from mouse brain suspension by ELISA at titers of 1:80 to 1:160. This isolate was designated LEIV 22889 Vlg. All 18 samples of cerebrospinal fluid from patients were negative by RT-PCR and virus isolation in suckling mice.
Serum samples from 25 patients from the Astrakhan region were tested for virus isolation. Virus strain AST (AST Computer, Irvine, CA) A PC manufacturer founded in 1980 by Albert Wong, Safi Quershey and Tom Yuen (A, S and T). It offered a complete line of PCs that sold through its dealer channel. 986 was isolated in serum of one patient on days 7 to 8 after inoculation into suckling mice. The incubation period after the third passage was reduced to 3 days. Hemagglutinating antigen was identified in brain suspension of the mice on the second passage at titer 1:640, reciprocally with IAF of West Nile virus (Table 2).
Table 2. Identification of the strains LEIV 27889 Vlgand Ast 986 by hemagglutination inhibition test with immune ascitic fluid and antigens of flaviviruses
Viral antigens(a) 27889 AST LEIV LEIV LEIV IAF of viruses Vlg 986 Az-1640 Az-72 Az-1628 LEIV Az-1640 320(b) nt 1280 160 nt LEIV Az-72 80 nt 160 160 nt LEIV Az-1628 nt 640 nt nt 1280 Japanese encephalitis 160 320 320 160 160 Kokobera 160 nt 320 160 nt St. Louis 160 160 320 160 80 Usutu 160 nt 160 320 nt Apoi 320 nt 320 160 nt Karshi 8 nt 80 80 nt Tyuleniy 160 nt 320 160 nt Kama 160 nt 160 160 nt TBE 20 nt 20 20 nt Yellow Fever (Dakar) 0 nt nt nt 0 YF St. IAF of viruses JE (Dakar) Louis LEIV Az-1640 nt nt nt LEIV Az-72 nt nt nt LEIV Az-1628 nt 640 nt Japanese encephalitis 640 nt nt Kokobera nt nt nt St. Louis 0 0 160 Usutu nt nt nt Apoi nt nt nt Karshi nt nt nt Tyuleniy nt nt nt Kama nt nt nt TBE nt nt nt Yellow Fever (Dakar) nt 640 nt
nt = not tested; IAF = immune ascitic fluid.
(a) Isolates were identified by comparative testing with the following strains of West Nile virus: LEIV Az1640, Azerbaijan, 1967, from Sitta europea birds; LEIV Az1628, Azerbaijan, 1967, from Turdus merula birds; LEIV Az72, Azerbaijan, 1970, from Ornithodorus capensis ticks; 2269 Ig, Madras, 1956, from Culex Culex /Cu·lex/ (ku´leks) a genus of mosquitoes found throughout the world, many species of which are vectors of disease-producing organisms.
n. vishnui mosquitoes; in Eg 101, 1951, from the serum of an Egyptian pediatric patient; and other flaviviruses: Japanese encephalitis (JE), St. Louis encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis
see St. Louis encephalitis. (SLE SLE systemic lupus erythematosus.
systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ), Yellow fever-Dakar (YF), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), Kokobera (KOK), Usutu (USU), Apoi, Karshi (KSI), Kama, and Tyuleniy (TYU).
(b) quantity inverse IAF dilution.
Both strains LEIV 27889 Vlg and Ast 986 were reactive in HIT (Table 2). Antigens LEIV 27889 Vlg and strain LEIV Az-1640 of West Nile virus reacted in similar titers with IAF of all flaviviruses studied except yellow fever. When the strain LEIV 27889 Vlg was tested by NT (Table 1), virus was neutralized with IAF to all strains of West Nile and Kokobera viruses (Index of Neutralization 6.0-8.5). The identification of strains LEIV 27889 Vlg and Ast 986 was confirmed by HIT with convalescent-phase sera.
According to virologic and serologic data from the Center of Ecology of Viruses, D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, and collaborating laboratories, the West Nile virus-endemic area in the former Soviet Union includes Moldavia, Ukraine, Bielorussia, the southern area of European Russia (regions of desert, steppe steppe (stĕp), temperate grassland of Eurasia, consisting of level, generally treeless plains. It extends over the lower regions of the Danube and in a broad belt over S and SE European and Central Asian Russia, stretching E to the Altai and S to , and deciduous forests) and western Siberia-Altai territory (steppe and combined forest-steppe), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenia. For the last 20 years, illness has been observed in Kazakhstan and the republics of Central Asia, Astrakhan region (in Russia), Ukraine, and Azerbaijan (1). High risk for exposure to West Nile virus has been observed in the desert territories of the Volga basin, especially in the river valleys, where an outbreak occurred in 1999.
The ornithophilic mosquito species Culex modestus is of great importance for circulation of West Nile virus in natural foci of bird colonies in the Volga Delta and in populated areas. Both Culex p. pipiens and C. p. molestus feed on wild, sylvan, and domestic birds, as well as humans. In the Volga Delta, 56 species of birds are involved in virus circulation. In the coastal area of the delta, the most important hosts are shore birds, especially the Gressores order: the green heron (Nicticorax nicticorax, 45% of which had antibodies), great cormorant The Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), known in Australia as the Black Cormorant, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds. It breeds in much of the Old World and the Atlantic coast of North America. (Phalacrocorax carbo), coot (Fulica atra), waterhen (Gallinula chloropus), and great grebe (Podiceps cristatus), and to a lesser extent gulls and terns (10). In the agricultural region of the Volga Delta, 20 species of birds (particularly rooks, crows, and pigeons) are involved in virus circulation (11). Less virus circulation is seen in other areas of the delta, in semidesert sem·i·des·ert
A semiarid area often located between a desert and a grassland or woodland.
Noun 1. semidesert - a region much like a desert but usually located between a desert and the surrounding regions region of Astrakhan, and Kalmykia. In the Kuban and Terek River deltas, the most important birds are herons, coots, and some species of ducks.
In light of these data, the occurrence of West Nile virus outbreaks is not surprising. However, the high death rates and a wide range of infected populations are unusual and probably result from factors such as high temperature, extended breeding places of mosquitoes, migration of some groups of populations, and perhaps change in the virus genotype. The ecology of West Nile virus in southern Russia is similar to that in northeastern Romania, in the Danube Delta (12,13). A different ecologic situation was observed during the West Nile outbreak in New York in 1999 (8,14-17). The virus may have been introduced to the American continent by infected mosquitoes (eggs or larvae) from disease-endemic areas in Africa, Asia, or Europe by ships or airplanes. The urban subspecies C. p. molestus, which can reproduce without bloodsucking blood·suck·er
1. An animal, such as a leech, that sucks blood.
2. An extortionist or a blackmailer.
3. A person who is intrusively or overly dependent upon another; a parasite. , may have introduced the virus; these ornithophilic mosquitoes become infected when they bite infected birds. The high susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Karshi virus, which closely resembles West Nile virus, was confirmed experimentally (18). The results of genome sequencing of strains isolated in the last epidemic and other West Nile strains previously isolated in the former Soviet Union will be described in the future.
(1.) Lvov DK, Klimenko SM, Gaidamovich SY. [Arboviruses arboviruses (ar´bōvī´rsz),
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(2.) Lvov DK. Ecological soundings of the former USSR USSR: see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. territory for natural foci of arboviruses. In: Lvov DK, editor. Arboviruses. Sov Med Rev E: Virology. New York: Harwood Inc.; 1993. p. 1-47.
(3.) Lvov DK Arboviral zoonoses Zoonoses
Infections of humans caused by the transmission of disease agents that naturally live in animals. People become infected when they unwittingly intrude into the life cycle of the disease agent and become unnatural hosts. of Northern Eurasia (Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), community of independent nations established by a treaty signed at Minsk, Belarus, on Dec. 8, 1991, by the heads of state of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. Between Dec. 8 and Dec. ). In: Beran GW, Steel JH, editors. Handbook of zoonoses. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking) An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitting digital data. The transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths which, used as dividends, are divided by a fixed divisor. Press; 1994. p.237-60.
(4.) Lvov DK, Deryabin PG, Myasnenko AM, Skvortsova TM, Aristova VA, Butenko AM, et al. Atlas of natural foci of virus infections in the Russian Federation, Federal Department of Medico-Biological and External Problems at Ministry of Public Health of RF. Moscow: D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology RAMS; 1995, p. 1-187.
(5.) Lvov DK. West Nile Fever West Nile fever West Nile meningoencephalitis Infectious disease An acute, mosquito-borne flaviviral infection endemic–rarely, epidemic–in the Near East, Africa, former Soviet Union, India Clinical After a 3-6 day incubation, children present with a (Survey). Voprosi of Virology 2000;45:4-9. (In Russian).
(6.) Lvov DK, Butenko AM, Gaidamovich SY, Larichev VPh, Leschinskaya EV, Lozarenko VV, et al. Epidemic outbreak of meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Krasnodar territory and Volgograd region provoked by West Nile fever virus. Vopr. Virusol 2000;45:37-8. (In Russian).
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(9) Clarke DH, Casals J. Techniques for haemagglutination Noun 1. haemagglutination - agglutination of red blood cells
agglutination - a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins) and haemagglutination-inhibition with arthropodborne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1958;7:561-73.
(10.) Berezin VV, Semenov BF, Reschetnikov IA, Baschkirtsev VN. Importance of birds in the natural cycle of arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes in the Volga delta. In: Transcontinental connections of migrating birds and their role in arbovirus distribution. Novosibirsk: Nauka; 1972. p.310-3. (In Russian).
(11.) Butenko AM, Chumakov MP, Bashkirtsrev VN. Isolation of West Nile virus in the Astrakhan region from mosquitoes and crows. In: Aetiology, epidemiology and clinics of CHF CHF
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Swiss Franc.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. and West Nile fever, Astrakhan. Astrakhan: Institute of Poliomyecitis and Viral Encephalitis, Astrakhan Sanitary-Epidemiological Station;1969. p.39-40. (In Russian).
(12.) Yarovoj PI. Antibodies to some flaviviruses in sera of habitants Habitants is the name used to refer to both the French settlers and the America-born inhabitants of French origin who farmed the land along the two shores of the St. Lawrence waterway in what is the present-day Province of Quebec in Canada. of north-Moldavian forest-steppe landscape. In: Gaidamovich SY, editor. Arboviruses. Moscow: D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology; 1981. p.120-1. (In Russian).
(13.) Vinograd IA, Beletskaya GV, Chumachenko SS, Omelchenko GA, Lozinsky IN, Yartus DS, et al. Ecological aspects of arboviruses in the Ukraine SSR. In: Vinograd IA, Beletskaya GV, Chumachenko SS, Omelchenko GA, Lozinsky IN, Yartus DS, et al. Ecology of viruses and foci of arbovirus infections. Moscow: D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology; 1989. p. 21-7. (In Russian).
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(15.) Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, et al. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the Northern United States The Northern United States is a large geographic region of the United States of America. Although the region includes a considerable portion of what is often called the American Midwest, most Americans refer to the region as simply "The North". . Science 1999;286:2333-7.
(16.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. . Update: West Nile virus encephalitis--New York, 1999. MMWR MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Epidemiology A news bulletin published by the CDC, which provides epidemiologic data–eg, statistics on the incidence of AIDS, rabies, rubella, STDs and other communicable diseases, causes of mortality–eg, Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:890-2.
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Dr. Lvov is director of the D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. His scientific interests focus on the ecology and epidemiology of arboviruses, viral hepatitis, and influenza.
D.K. Lvov,(*) A.M. Butenko,(*) V.L. Gromashevsky,(*) V.Ph. Larichev,(*) S.Ya. Gaidamovich,(*) O.I. Vyshemirsky,(*) A.N. Zhukov,([dagger]) V.V. Lazorenko,([dagger]) V.N. Salko,([double dagger]) A.I. Kovtunov,([double dagger]) Kh.M. Galimzyanov,([sections]) A.E. Platonov,([paragraph]) T.N. Morozova,(*) N.V. Khutoretskaya,(*) E.O. Shishkina,(*) T.M. Skvortsova(*)
(*) D.I.Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow; ([dagger]) Center of State Sanitary-Epidemiological Inspection, Volgograd; ([double dagger]) Center of State Sanitary-Epidemiological Inspection, Astrakhan; ([sections]) Medical Academy, Astrakhan; ([paragraph]) Central Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow
Address for correspondence: D.K. Lvov, D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Gamaleya Str., 16 Moscow, Russia, 123098; fax: 7-(095)-190-28-67.