Is It "Sex"?: College Students' Interpretations of Sexual Behavior Terminology.Because sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. is private and cannot easily be measured or verified ver·i·fy
tr.v. ver·i·fied, ver·i·fy·ing, ver·i·fies
1. To prove the truth of by presentation of evidence or testimony; substantiate.
2. , social scientists rely on individuals' self-reports of their sexual behaviors. This information can be obtained through face-to-face (jargon, chat) face-to-face - (F2F, IRL) Used to describe personal interaction in real life as opposed to via some digital or electronic communications medium. interviews, surveys, or the use of computer-assisted technologies (Wagstaff Wagstaff is a surname, and may refer to
Research conducted in the 1970s and 1980s provides evidence that men and women interpret and use sexual behavior terms differently. Robinson, Balkwell, and Ward (1980) found that men and women associated different meanings with the word intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters. . Men tended to associate words with intercourse that were body-centered (e.g., words like breast, kiss, and vagina vagina: see reproductive system.
Genital canal in females. Together with the cavity of the uterus, it forms the birth canal. In most virgins, its external opening is partially closed by a thin fold of tissue (hymen), which has various forms, ), whereas women associated words with intercourse that were relationship-centered or associated with intimacy This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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This article has been tagged since September 2007. (e.g., love or marriage). Other researchers have found that men and women assign different connotative con·no·ta·tion
1. The act or process of connoting.
a. An idea or meaning suggested by or associated with a word or thing: meanings and imagery to sexual words (Campos Campos (käm`ps), city (1996 pop. 391,299), Rio de Janeiro state, SE Brazil, on the Paraíba River near its mouth. & Sueiro, 1991; McDermott, Drolet, & Fetro, 1989), and that men can list more slang expressions for terms associated with sexual activity than can women (Kutner & Brogan, 1974; Sanders San´ders
n. 1. An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood. See under Sandalwood. & Robinson, 1979; Walsh & Leonard, 1974).
Recent research indicates that survey participants may hold different views on what constitutes a particular sexual behavior (Sanders & Reinisch, 1999; Sonenstein, Ku, & Pleck, 1997). For example, Sanders and Reinisch asked college students to indicate whether or not they would say that they had sex with someone if they had engaged in a particular activity with that person. The activities included manual-genital contact or oral contact with breasts or nipples, oral-genital contact, penile-vaginal intercourse, and penile-anal intercourse. Almost all participants considered engaging in penile-vaginal intercourse as having had sex. In contrast, approximately 60% and 20% reported that they would not consider oral-genital contact and penile-anal intercourse as having had sex.
The findings of Sanders and Reinisch (1999) confirm the qualitative field work conducted by Sonenstein et al. (1997). Their interviews with young men between the ages of 15 and 19 years indicated that participants differed in their interpretations of the term having sex. For instance, one youth believed that touching a woman's breast constituted having sex. In addition, these young men held different opinions as to whether fellatio A sexual act in which a male places his penis into the mouth of another person.
At Common Law, fellatio was considered a crime against nature. It was classified as a felony and punishable by imprisonment and/or death. was sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). .
In American culture, sex is associated closely with the male orgasm n. 1. An orgasm in a male animal accompanied by the ejaculation of semen.
Noun 1. male orgasm - an orgasm accompanied by the sensation of ejaculation of semen , which is sometimes viewed as the natural culmination of all sexual activity (Abramson & Pinkerton, 1995; Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994; Masters, 1966). Because many sexual activities, such as vaginal vag·i·nal
1. Of or relating to the vagina.
2. Relating to or resembling a sheath.
pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath. intercourse, do not invariably in·var·i·a·ble
Not changing or subject to change; constant.
in·vari·a·bil lead to female orgasm orgasm /or·gasm/ (or´gazm) the apex and culmination of sexual excitement.orgas´mic
n. (Kinsey Kin·sey , Alfred Charles 1894-1956.
American sexologist and zoologist noted for his 1948 study, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, popularly known as "The Kinsey Report. , Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953; Maines, 1999), American women might be expected to be less likely to define sex solely in terms of orgasm (i.e., his or her orgasm). In line with this thinking, Berk et al. (1995) found that female college students reported that they had engaged in oral sex more frequently than did the male college students surveyed. This is an inconsistent finding if, as assumed by the authors, their participants represented an interdating population. The authors suggested that women might be more likely to remember and report oral sex experiences, because oral sex is more salient to women.
In sum, prior research indicates that misunderstandings of sexual behavior terminology exist; that the terms used in sexual behavior surveys are subject to individual interpretation; and that individuals' interpretations of survey terms can influence responses. More in-depth and systematic research is therefore needed on the meaning(s) that respondents may give to terms that identify or describe sexual behavior.
THE PRESENT STUDY
The present study explores the manner in which survey respondents interpret the term sex. In particular, we wanted to obtain a better understanding of the behaviors that young adults consider to be sex, and we wanted to determine if their judgments could be influenced by individual characteristics and situational factors. Thus, we asked participants to judge whether two hypothetical Hypothetical is an adjective, meaning of or pertaining to a hypothesis. See:
We hypothesized that almost all study participants would believe that Jim and Susie would classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. vaginal intercourse as sex and, following Sanders and Reinisch (1999), that Jim and Susie would be less likely to label anal intercourse Noun 1. anal intercourse - intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
anal sex, buggery, sodomy
sexual perversion, perversion - an aberrant sexual practice; and oral intercourse (fellatio/cunnilingus) as sex. In addition, we anticipated that participants would indicate that Jim and Susie would be more likely to label a behavior as sex if the act resulted in orgasm, and that this would be especially true when the scenario focused on whether Jim did or did not have an orgasm. Relatedly, we hypothesized that participants would attribute a broader definition of sex to Susie than to Jim, in that she might consider many activities to be sex that Jim might not (especially nonorgasmic activities). Thus, because we thought that women would identify with Susie and men would identify with Jim, we believed that men would place more importance on Jim having an orgasm than would women, and that women would place more importance on Susie having an orgasm than would men. Therefore, we expected to find significant participant gender by actor (Jim or Susie) interactions, such that, for example, the young men in our study would be more likely than their female counterparts to believe that Jim would consider a behavior to be sex if he alone had an orgasm.
The sample consisted of 223 undergraduate students enrolled in a human sexuality This article is about human sexual perceptions. For information about sexual activities and practices, see Human sexual behavior.
Generally speaking, human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings. course at a large university in the western United States Noun 1. western United States - the region of the United States lying to the west of the Mississippi River
Santa Fe Trail - a trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico; an important route for settlers moving west in the 19th century . Participants ranged in age from 19 to 40 years (M = 22.2, SD = 2.2). Sixty-five percent (n = 145) were women. Thirty-seven percent self-identified as Asian/Pacific Islander, 34% as White, 12% as Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere , 4% as African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. , 1% as Native American, 6% as Bi- or Multiracial mul·ti·ra·cial
1. Made up of, involving, or acting on behalf of various races: a multiracial society.
2. Having ancestors of several or various races. , and 6% as Other. English was the first language for 70%. Most of the participants (96%) were college seniors and single (97%). Of the single participants, 51% had a steady partner, 12% had multiple dating partners, and 37% were not presently dating anyone. Ten percent reported that they had never engaged in vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse; 15% did not indicate whether they had ever engaged in these behaviors. Eight percent self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.
2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.
3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
This study was conducted in March, 1998. On January 26, 1998, President Clinton addressed the nation to quell quell
tr.v. quelled, quell·ing, quells
1. To put down forcibly; suppress: Police quelled the riot.
2. rumors For other uses, see Rumor (disambiguation).
Rumors is a farcical play by Neil Simon.
At its start, several affluent couples gather in the posh suburban residence of a couple for a dinner party celebrating their tenth anniversary. that he had had an affair with Monica Lewinsky Monica Samille Lewinsky (born July 23, 1973) is an American woman with whom the former United States President Bill Clinton admitted (after initially denying) to having had an "inappropriate relationship" while Lewinsky worked at the White House in 1995 and 1996. , a White House intern intern /in·tern/ (in´tern) a medical graduate serving in a hospital preparatory to being licensed to practice medicine.
in·tern or in·terne
n. . In a much-quoted statement, he said, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman I did not have sexual relations with that woman, or more simply I did not have sex with that woman is a political catch phrase that has become symbolic of Bill Clinton and the Monica Lewinsky scandal. " (Shogren, Willman, & Cooper, 1998). By August, the press had reported details of the President's relationship with Ms. Lewinsky (Baker & Hams, 1998), including the fact that the two had engaged in oral sex (Broder, 1998; Janofsky & Van Natta, 1998). The national debate that arose as to whether oral sex was sex, and whether the President had been telling the truth when he denied having a sexual relationship with Ms. Lewinsky (Fisher, 1998; Kuczynski, 1998), received media attention in late 1998, when the President's lawyers argued that he did not perjure per·jure
tr.v. per·jured, per·jur·ing, per·jures Law
To make (oneself) guilty of perjury by deliberately testifying falsely under oath. himself when he denied having a sexual relationship with Ms. Lewinsky because having oral sex does not constitute a sexual relationship (Gerstenzang & Shogren, 1998). Thus, this study was conducted before details of the President's relationship with Monica Lewinsky (and the meaning of oral sex) were widely reported by the press and, more importantly, widely discussed on college campuses.
Participants completed an anonymous, self-report questionnaire during a regularly-scheduled class period in the middle of the semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s . The questionnaire, which was administered by the instructor of the class, consisted of 133 items and took approximately 30 minutes to complete. To control for order effects, the sexual behavior scenario questions were randomly arranged in two different orders; participants were distributed one of the two different versions of the survey.
Demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. . Seven items were used to assess participants' age, gender, year in school, marital Pertaining to the relationship of Husband and Wife; having to do with marriage.
Marital agreements are contracts that are entered into by individuals who are about to be married, are already married, or are in the process of ending a marriage. and dating status, and race/ethnic background. Three additional items measured participants' sexual experience for anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse (e.g., "Have you ever engaged in vaginal intercourse?").
Sexual behavior scenarios. Each participant was asked to consider 16 different sexual behavior scenarios involving two hypothetical actors, Jim and Susie, and to indicate for each scenario if he/she believed that Jim and Susie would "consider this sex." Separate judgments were made for Jim and Susie. The scenarios varied by type of act (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and oral intercourse [fellatio/cunnilingus]) and whether or not the behavior led to orgasm for Susie, Jim, both, or neither. For example, participants read, "Jim and Susie meet at a bar. They go back to his apartment where they engage in [vaginal] intercourse. [Only Jim has an orgasm.] Would Jim consider this sex? Would Susie consider this sex?" (The words in brackets brackets: see punctuation. reflect the phrases that differed between scenarios.) Response choices were yes and no (which were subsequently coded as 1 and 0, respectively), making the dependent variable dichotomous di·chot·o·mous
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
2. Characterized by dichotomy.
To reflect the nature of the three different sexual acts, we varied the wording across scenarios. The wording of the oral intercourse scenarios indicated that one partner (the active partner) was stimulating the other partner (the recipient), who did or did not achieve orgasm. For example, "Jim and Susie meet at a bar. They go back to his apartment where Jim performs oral sex on Susie and she has an orgasm. Would Jim consider this sex? Would Susie consider this sex?" However, the wording of the vaginal and anal intercourse scenarios indicated that both partners were actively participating in the behavior. Hence, the oral intercourse scenarios reflected more asymmetrical a·sym·met·ri·cal or a·sym·met·ric
adj. Abbr. a
Lacking symmetry between two or more like parts; not symmetrical. behaviors, and the vaginal and anal intercourse scenarios reflected more symmetrical symmetrical
equally on both sides.
symmetrical multifocal encephalopathy
inherited disease in two forms: Limousin form appears at about a month old with blindness, forelimb hypermetria, hyperesthesia, nystagmus, aggression, weight behaviors.
Other measures. Participants completed other measures, which were not the focus of the present investigation. These measures assessed perceived social norms for different sexual behaviors, responses to scenarios about sexual partners, perceived pleasure of different sexual behaviors, and social desirability.
A generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. estimating equations (GEE gee 1
The letter g.
Used to command a horse or ox to turn to the right.
intr.v. ) approach was used to model participants' yes/no responses within each scenario to the question, "Would Jim (Susie) consider this sex?". Unlike traditional methods that have been developed to analyze continuous outcomes, this regression-based technique is appropriate when participants' observations are binary and If two conditions are combined by and, they must both be true for the compound condition to be true as well.
Likewise, two bits may be combined with and:
x y x AND y
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
I.e. correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. , as they were in this study (Diggle, Liang, & Zeger, 1994; Liang & Zeger, 1986; Zeger & Liang, 1986).
To test the hypothesis that vaginal intercourse would be more likely to be rated as sex than the other types of sex acts, we calculated the grand mean for each type of behavior (vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse) by averaging over the appropriate eight items; the data were then arrayed as a one between-, one within-subjects design. Participant gender was the between-subjects variable; type of behavior was the within-subject variable. The logistic regression In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors. model included main effects for participant gender and type of behavior, and the gender x type of behavior interaction. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts were used to test pair-wise differences between the grand means of each type of sexual behavior.
To test our remaining hypotheses, we performed three separate logistic regression analyses that examined responses to the scenarios for each act (i.e., vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse). In each analysis, participant gender was a between-subject effect and actor (Jim, Susie) was one of the within-subject effects. For oral intercourse, another within-subject variable was included in the analyses to reflect whether Jim or Susie was the recipient of the stimulation. Because the vaginal and oral intercourse scenarios did not reflect this kind of asymmetry Asymmetry
A lack of equivalence between two things, such as the unequal tax treatment of interest expense and dividend payments. , this variable was not included in analyses of the responses to these scenarios.
For each analysis, we initially used a saturated model In mathematical logic, and in particular model theory, a saturated model M is one which realizes as many complete types as may be "reasonably expected" given its size. that modeled the log odds of a yes response as a function of all main effects and interactions. If one or more of the interaction effects were not significant in the saturated model, we fit a reduced model that excluded nonsignificant non·sig·nif·i·cant
1. Not significant.
2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence. interaction effects. We included all of the main effects (and lower order interactions) when an analysis based on the saturated model indicated that an interaction effect was needed. The chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. was used to test the overall fit of the reduced model; the z statistic was used to test single-degree-of-freedom hypotheses and to conduct simple effects tests associated with significant main effects and interactions. All GEE analyses were performed using STATA Stata (Statistics/Data Analysis) is a statistical program created in 1985 by Statacorp that is used by many businesses and academic institutions around the world. Most of its users work in research, especially in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, and v5.0 (Stata Corporation, 1997).
We provide regression coefficients Regression coefficient
Term yielded by regression analysis that indicates the sensitivity of the dependent variable to a particular independent variable. See: Parameter.
regression coefficient and standard errors for the final model for each sex act (i.e., vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse). In presenting our findings, we report cell probabilities instead of log odds or logits, which may be a less familiar metric for some readers. The cell probabilities were obtained by a back-transformation of the mean of the log odds (see Hosmer & Lemeshow, 1989); they can be interpreted as the conditional probability conditional probability
the probability that event A occurs, given that event B has occurred. Written P(AB). of a yes response, given the study participant's gender and the other explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.
ex·plan variables in the model (e.g., whether the rating was made for Jim or Susie, whether the recipient of oral sex was Jim or Susie, and/or whether orgasm occurred).
Proportion Indicating that Jim/Susie Would Consider the Acts to be Sex
Table 1 shows the proportion of participants who indicated that Jim/Susie would classify each behavior as sex by type of behavior, whether the target person(s) had an orgasm, and the participant's gender. Overall, more than 90% indicated that vaginal and anal intercourse would be considered sex by Jim (overall Ms = .96 and .92, respectively) and Susie (overall Ms = .98 and .93). In contrast, less than 50% indicated that oral intercourse would be considered sex by Jim (overall M = .41) and Susie (overall M = .46), especially when the recipient did not experience orgasm (overall Ms = .35 and .41 for Jim and Susie, respectively). Participants' responses indicated that they thought that Jim and Susie would be most likely to agree with one another and consider the behavior to be sex when the two had vaginal or anal intercourse and both of them had an orgasm, and would be most likely to disagree with Verb 1. disagree with - not be very easily digestible; "Spicy food disagrees with some people"
hurt - give trouble or pain to; "This exercise will hurt your back" one another when the two of them engaged in oral intercourse (fellatio or cunnilingus An act in which the female sexual organ is orally stimulated.
At Common Law, cunnilingus was not a crime. It is presently a crime in some jurisdictions and is usually treated as Sodomy. ) and the recipient alone had an orgasm.
Table 1. Proportion of Participants Who Think Jim or Susie Would Label Various Sexual Behaviors as Sex
Would Jim consider it sex? All Men Women participants only only Vaginal Jim orgasms .99 .99 .99 intercourse Susie orgasms .92 .95 .90 Both orgasm 1.00 1.00 1.00 Neither orgasm .90 .95 .88 Anal Jim orgasms .96 .96 .96 intercourse Susie orgasms .88 .96 .84 Both orgasm .96 .95 .97 Neither orgasm .89 .91 .88 Oral sex, Jim orgasms .54 .58 .52 recipient = Jim No orgasm .34 .40 .31 Oral sex, Susie orgasms .41 .49 .36 recipient = Susie No orgasm .36 .44 .32 Would Susie consider it sex? All Men Women participants only only Vaginal Jim orgasms .96 .94 .97 intercourse Susie orgasms 1.00 1.00 1.00 Both orgasm 1.00 1.00 1.00 Neither orgasm .97 .97 .97 Anal Jim orgasms .91 .92 .90 intercourse Susie orgasms .94 .94 .94 Both orgasm .97 .97 .97 Neither orgasm .91 .92 .90 Oral sex, Jim orgasms .43 .50 .39 recipient = Jim No orgasm .39 .42 .37 Oral sex, Susie orgasms .58 .62 .55 recipient = Susie No orgasm .44 .45 .43
Is Vaginal Sex More Likely to be Considered Sex?
Participants indicated that Jim and Susie would be more likely to classify vaginal (M = .97) and anal (M = .92) intercourse as sex than they would be to classify oral intercourse as sex (M = .44) (zs = 15.36 and 14.08, ps [is less than] .001, respectively). Participants also indicated that Jim and Susie would be more likely to classify vaginal intercourse as sex than they would be to classify anal intercourse as sex, although the magnitude of the effect was not large (z = 3.53, p [is less than] .000). Overall, male participants' judgments of what Jim and Susie would consider to be sex were comparable to the judgments made by female participants (z = 1.06, p = .29). Finally, we obtained a nonsignificant participant gender x behavior interaction, indicating that male participants' implicit ranking of the three behaviors was comparable to that of female participants ([chi square] = 0.05, df = 2, p = .98).(1)
A one between-, two within-subjects design (2 x 2 x 4) was used to analyze the eight vaginal intercourse items. The between-subjects variable was participant gender; the within-subject variables were actor (Jim, Susie) and orgasm (Jim had an orgasm and Susie did not; Susie had an orgasm and Jim did not; both had an orgasm; or neither had an orgasm). This analysis allowed us to test the following three hypotheses. First, participants would be more likely to label a behavior as sex when Jim and/or Susie had an orgasm than when neither one had an orgasm; and participants would be more likely to do so when Jim had an orgasm. Second, if participants attributed a broader definition of sex to Susie than to Jim, a definition that does not depend on having an orgasm, they would indicate that Susie would be more likely than Jim to label as sex the contacts described by the eight scenarios. Third, there would be a significant participant gender by outcome interaction, as male participants, for example, would be more likely than female participants to believe that Jim would only consider vaginal intercourse to be sex if he had an orgasm.
Because all participants thought that Jim and Susie would label vaginal intercourse as sex if both had an orgasm, we could not fit any model that contained the participant gender x actor x orgasm interaction. We therefore fit a model with main effects for participant gender, actor, and orgasm, and the participant gender x orgasm, participant gender x actor, and actor x orgasm interactions. Two single-degree-of-freedom contrasts were used to partition A reserved part of disk or memory that is set aside for some purpose. On a PC, new hard disks must be partitioned before they can be formatted for the operating system, and the Fdisk utility is used for this task. the orgasm main effect--specifically, Jim (Susie) having an orgasm was contrasted with neither having an orgasm. When the initial fit indicated that there were no participant gender effects, we fit a reduced model that included effects for actor, orgasm, and their interaction.
With the reduced model, the two main effects and their interaction were statistically significant, although the differences between the means were small (see Table 2). The actor main effect indicated that participants thought Susie (M = .99) was slightly more likely than Jim (M = .96) to consider vaginal intercourse to be sex; the orgasm contrasts indicated that participants believed that Jim and Susie would be somewhat more likely to label vaginal intercourse to be sex if one of them had an orgasm than if neither of them had an orgasm (Jim: M = .99; Susie: M = .98; Neither: M = .95).
Table 2. Final GEE Model for the Vaginal Intercourse Items
Standard Effect Coefficient error Orgasm 1 (Jim orgasms vs. neither orgasms) 0.54 .23 Orgasm 2 (Susie orgasms vs. neither orgasms) 2.43 .68 Actor -2.27 .75 Actor x Orgasm 1 0.72 .18 Actor x Orgasm 2 -2.32 .68 Constant 5.83 .69 Effect z Orgasm 1 (Jim orgasms vs. neither orgasms) 2.30(*) Orgasm 2 (Susie orgasms vs. neither orgasms) 3.58(***) Actor -3.04(**) Actor x Orgasm 1 4.08(***) Actor x Orgasm 2 -3.41(**) Constant 8.42(***)
Note. Model [chi square] (5) = 54.62, p < .001.
(*) p < .05.
(**) p < 01.
(***) p < .001.
The significant actor x orgasm interaction was consistent with our hypotheses, although the magnitude of the effects was small. Participants believed that Jim would be more willing to consider vaginal intercourse to be sex if he had an orgasm than if neither he nor Susie had an orgasm (M = .99 vs. M = .90, respectively; z = 3.66, p [is less than] .001). Likewise, participants believed that Susie would be somewhat more willing to consider vaginal intercourse to be sex if she had an orgasm than if neither of them had an orgasm (M = 1.00 vs. M = .97, respectively; z = 3.50, p [is less than] .001). On the other hand, respondents thought that whether or not Jim had an orgasm would not affect whether Susie considered vaginal intercourse to be sex (M = .96 if Jim had an orgasm; M = .97 if neither did; z = .78, p = .44), and whether or not Susie had an orgasm would not affect Jim's labeling of the act as sex (M = .92 if Susie had an orgasm; M = .90 if neither did; z = 1.04, p = .30). Finally, when neither partner had an orgasm, participants thought that Susie would be more likely than Jim to consider vaginal intercourse to be sex (M = .97 vs. M = .90; z = 3.50, p [is less than] .001).
To summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum , we received support for our hypotheses that participants believe that vaginal intercourse is more likely to be considered sex if it results in orgasm, particularly by the person who experiences the orgasm, and that Susie would be expected to have a broader definition of sex than Jim. It is important to note, however, that the associated effect sizes were small--almost all participants labeled vaginal intercourse as sex, regardless of the gender of the actor or whether orgasm was experienced. Moreover, the hypothesized participant gender x actor interactions were not obtained and there was no evidence that Jim's orgasm was judged to be more important than Susie's.
Our hypotheses for anal intercourse were similar to those presented above for vaginal intercourse, and a similar one between-, two within-subjects design (2 x 2 x 4) was employed to analyze the data from the eight anal intercourse items. The within-subjects variables were actor and orgasm. Three single-degree-of-freedom contrasts were used to partition the orgasm main effect: (a) Jim had an orgasm, (b) Susie had an orgasm, and (c) Jim and Susie both had orgasms were contrasted with neither having an orgasm.
In the saturated model, the gender and actor main effects and the gender x actor and gender x orgasm interactions were not significant. (Thus, participants believed that Jim and Susie were equally likely to consider anal intercourse sex, and male participants were as likely as female participants to believe that an actor would label anal intercourse as sex.) Therefore, a reduced model was fit that included participant gender, actor, and orgasm main effects and the actor x orgasm and participant gender x actor x orgasm interactions.
Table 3 shows the regression coefficients (and standard errors) for the effects in the reduced model. Despite the significant effects, the differences between the means were not large. The significant contrasts associated with the orgasm main effect indicate that participants believed that Jim and Susie would be slightly more likely to consider anal intercourse to be sex if Jim had an orgasm (M = .94) or if both of them had an orgasm (M = .97), as opposed to neither having an orgasm (M = .90). In contrast, participants believed that Jim and Susie would be as likely to label anal intercourse to be sex when Susie had an orgasm (M = .92) as when neither of them had an orgasm.
Table 3. Final GEE Model for the Anal Intercourse Items Standard Effect Coefficient error Participant gender .34 .21 Orgasm 1 (Jim orgasms vs. neither orgasms) .30 .10 Orgasm 2 (Susie orgasms vs. neither orgasms) .13 .10 Orgasm 3 (both orgasm vs. neither orgasms) .58 .16 Actor .09 .11 Actor x Orgasm 1 .27 .10 Actor x Orgasm 2 -.05 .07 Actor x Orgasm 3 -.04 .11 Participant gender x Actor x Orgasm 1 -.06 .07 Participant gender x Actor x Orgasm 2 .15 .07 Participant gender x Actor x Orgasm 3 -.13 .10 Constant 3.32 .35 Effect z Participant gender 1.66(+) Orgasm 1 (Jim orgasms vs. neither orgasms) 3.05(**) Orgasm 2 (Susie orgasms vs. neither orgasms) 1.32 Orgasm 3 (both orgasm vs. neither orgasms) 3.70(***) Actor 0.84 Actor x Orgasm 1 2.79(**) Actor x Orgasm 2 -0.73 Actor x Orgasm 3 -0.39 Participant gender x Actor x Orgasm 1 -0.84 Participant gender x Actor x Orgasm 2 2.33(*) Participant gender x Actor x Orgasm 3 -1.34 Constant 9.49(***)
Note. Model [chi square] (11) = 25.36, p < .008.
(+) p < .10.
(*) p < .05.
(**) p < .01.
(***) p < .001.
The orgasm main effect was qualified by an actor x orgasm interaction and by a participant gender x actor x orgasm interaction. With respect to the former, participants believed that Jim would be somewhat more likely to consider anal intercourse to be sex when he had an orgasm, as opposed to when neither he nor Susie had an orgasm (M = .96 vs. .89, respectively; z = 3.41, p = .001), but that Susie would be equally likely to rate these outcomes to be sex (Ms = .91 and .91, respectively; z = .30, p = .77). Further, they believed that Jim would be slightly more likely than Susie to label anal intercourse to be sex when he had an orgasm (M = .96 vs. .91, respectively; z = 2.40, p = .016), and that Jim and Susie would provide comparable judgments when neither of them had an orgasm (z = -.82, p = .41).
Finally, the significant contrast associated with the participant gender x actor x orgasm interaction suggested that male and female participants tended to disagree about how Jim and Susie would react if only Susie had an orgasm. Female participants indicated that Susie would be more likely to label anal intercourse to be sex when she had an orgasm than when neither she nor Jim had an orgasm (M = .94 vs. M = .89, respectively; z = 2.20, p = .03), and that Jim would be equally likely to consider both outcomes as sex (Ms = .84 and .86; z = .64, p = .52). Female participants also indicated that Susie would be more likely than Jim to consider anal intercourse as sex when she alone had an orgasm (M = .94 vs. .84, respectively; z = 3.26, p [is less than] .001). In contrast, male participants indicated that Jim and Susie would hold comparable views regardless of whether Susie had an orgasm (Ms = .96 and .94) or neither partner had an orgasm (Ms = .93 and .94).
In short, the pattern of results obtained for anal intercourse suggests that participants believed that Jim's orgasm was a determining factor in whether or not Jim viewed anal intercourse to be sex. Moreover, women, but not men, believed that Susie's having or not having an orgasm during anal intercourse would affect her classification of this behavior, but would not influence whether Jim considered it sex. None of these effects were large, however, and overall, the majority of participants believed that the actors would consider anal intercourse to be sex.
Oral Intercourse (Fellatio/Cunnilingus)
Data from the eight oral sex items were arrayed and analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. as a one between-, three within-subjects design. The between-subjects variable was participant gender; the within-subject variables were actor (Jim, Susie), gender of the recipient of oral sex (Jim, Susie), and whether or not the recipient achieved orgasm. Our analysis allowed us to test the following pair of hypotheses about participants' perceptions. First, oral intercourse would be more likely to be considered sex if the recipient experienced orgasm, especially if the recipient was male. Second, Jim would be less likely than Susie to consider oral intercourse sex, especially if it did not result in orgasm.
Because none of the effects associated with participant gender were significant in the initial model, a reduced model was fit that did not include any of the participant gender effects. As shown in Table 4, the orgasm and actor main effects were significant. The significant orgasm main effect indicated that, as predicted, participants believed that Jim and Susie would be more likely to classify oral intercourse to be sex when the recipient achieved orgasm than when the recipient did not (M = .49 vs. .38, respectively). The significant actor main effect indicated that oral intercourse was more likely to be considered sex when the actor was Susie rather than Jim (M = .46 vs. .41, respectively).
Table 4. Final GEE Model for the Oral Intercourse Items Standard Effect Coefficient error Recipient gender -.04 .03 Orgasm .21 .03 Actor -.09 .04 Recipient gender x Orgasm .03 .03 Actor x Recipient gender .16 .04 Orgasm x Actor .04 .02 Actor x Orgasm x Recipient gender .13 .03 Constant -.27 .11 Effect z Recipient gender -1.37 Orgasm 6.58(**) Actor -2.24(*) Recipient gender x Orgasm .99 Actor x Recipient gender 4.35(**) Orgasm x Actor 1.57 Actor x Orgasm x Recipient gender 5.35(**) Constant -2.43(*)
Note. Model [chi square] (7) = 90.94, p < .001.
(*) p < .05.
(**) p < .01.
The significant actor x recipient gender interaction suggested that participants believed that Jim and Susie would label the behavior differently, depending on who was the recipient. Participants indicated that Jim would be more likely to consider oral intercourse to be sex when he was the recipient than when Susie was the recipient (M = .44 vs. .38, respectively; z = 2.50, p = .01). Similarly, participants indicated that Susie would be more likely to label the behavior as sex when she was the recipient than when Jim was the recipient (M = .51 vs. .41, respectively; z = -4.18, p [is less than] .001).
Finally, participants' responses suggested that Jim would be more likely to label oral intercourse to be sex when he was the recipient and he had an orgasm than when Susie was the recipient and she had an orgasm (M = .54 vs. .41 respectively; z = 4.64, p [is less than] .001). Similarly, participants indicated that Susie would be more likely to consider oral intercourse to be sex if she was the recipient and she had an orgasm than if Jim was the recipient and he had an orgasm (M = .58 vs. .43, respectively; z = 5.06, p [is less than] .001). When the act did not result in orgasm, participants indicated that Jim was equally likely to label the behavior to be sex regardless of whether Susie performed oral sex on him or he performed oral sex on her (M = .34 vs. .36, respectively; z = -.77, p = .44), and that Susie was equally likely to label the behavior as sex whether Jim performed oral sex on her or she performed oral sex on him (M = .43 vs. .39, respectively; z = 1.51, p =. 13).
In sum, less that half of participants overall believed that Jim and Susie would rate oral intercourse to be sex. Further, oral intercourse was more likely to be considered sex by the female actor and by the recipient of the behavior, especially if the recipient achieved orgasm. If the recipient did not have an orgasm, participants believed that the recipient would be as likely to consider oral intercourse to be sex as the partner who performed the act. Contrary to predictions, male and female participants did not judge the oral intercourse scenarios differently.
Impact of Sexual Experience on Responses to the Scenarios
In order to assess the impact of participants' sexual experience on their responses to the sexual behavior scenarios, sexual experience was included as a covariate covariate
predictors during the allocation of experimental units in a randomized design. in the final GEE models for vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse. For each act, sexual experience was defined as ever having engaged in that act. Thus, for the vaginal intercourse scenario, participants who had ever engaged in vaginal intercourse were contrasted with those who had never engaged in vaginal intercourse.
In the models for vaginal and anal intercourse, the coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. for sexual experience was not significantly different from zero. Moreover, the values of the remaining coefficients did not differ appreciably ap·pre·cia·ble
Possible to estimate, measure, or perceive: appreciable changes in temperature. See Synonyms at perceptible. from the values obtained when the sexual experience covariate was not included. In the model for oral sex, the value of the coefficient for sexual experience was significantly different from zero; however, the values of the other coefficients in the model were comparable to the values observed when the covariate was not in the model. The vaginal (anal) intercourse findings indicated that the responses of the participants who had had vaginal (anal) intercourse were comparable to the responses of the participants who had never engaged in the behavior. Closer examination of the oral intercourse findings revealed that the participants who had engaged in oral sex were less likely to indicate that Jim (Susie) would label the behavior as sex. For all three sexual behaviors, participants' prior sexual experiences (as assessed by a single binary Meaning two. The principle behind digital computers. All input to the computer is converted into binary numbers made up of the two digits 0 and 1 (bits). For example, when you press the "A" key on your keyboard, the keyboard circuit generates and transfers the number 01000001 to the covariate) did not seem to play a role in their interpretation of the word sex.
The present study examined how respondents interpret the word sex and how various factors impact respondents' interpretations. The results suggest that young adults may subscribe to Verb 1. subscribe to - receive or obtain regularly; "We take the Times every day"
buy, purchase - obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction; "The family purchased a new car"; "The conglomerate acquired a new company"; broad cultural definitions of sexuality when deciding whether a given act is considered to be sex. As such, the results are consistent with the results of prior studies (Sanders & Reinisch, 1999; Sonenstein et al., 1997) that also investigated individuals' interpretations of the meaning of sex and related terms. This study extends past research by exploring some of the contextual factors that can influence individuals' definitions of what constitutes sex. In particular, whether or not a given behavior is considered to be sex may depend on factors such as the nature of the behavior, whether or not orgasm occurs, and who experiences orgasm.
The majority of respondents labeled vaginal and anal intercourse as sex. Our results suggest that there may be more consensus in society vis-a-vis the meaning of sex as vaginal or anal intercourse, and there may be less consensus vis-a-vis the meaning of sex as oral intercourse. Thus, although the results suggest that there is potential for measurement error if one is not careful about the wording of sexual behavior surveys, the overall magnitude of that error is not likely to be large in the case of vaginal and anal intercourse.
Not surprisingly, vaginal and anal intercourse were rated as more likely than oral intercourse to be considered sex. This finding is consistent with the results of Sanders and Reinisch (1999), and with the results of a similar study that we conducted with younger undergraduates at a mid-Atlantic university who were enrolled in an introductory psychology class (Bogart et al., 1999). However, a higher percentage of individuals in the present study than individuals in Sanders and Reinisch's (1999) study considered anal intercourse to be sex. Overall, 97%, 93%, and 44% of the participants in our study thought that vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse, respectively, would be considered sex. In comparison, 99%, 81%, and 40% of the students in the Sanders and Reinisch study classified engaging in these behaviors as having sex. This difference may due to our use of a sample of undergraduates enrolled in a human sexuality course at a large western U.S. university. In general, students enrolled in a human sexuality class probably have many of the same attitudes that other college students do about vaginal and oral intercourse, which occur more frequently than anal intercourse. Moreover, attitudes towards vaginal and oral intercourse are less likely to be influenced by the content of a human sexuality course. On the other hand, students enrolled in a human sexuality class may have more liberal attitudes toward anal intercourse, which occurs more infrequently in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. , because they are more liberal in general than students who would not choose to enroll in a sexuality class and/or because attitudes toward anal intercourse are more likely to be influenced by course content.
Our findings for vaginal and oral intercourse were quite similar. For both of these activities, participants believed that Susie would have a broader definition of sex than Jim, and that an act would be more likely to be considered sex by Jim and Susie if it culminated in orgasm. Moreover, the person who experienced the orgasm would be more likely to consider the behavior to be sex. In the particular case of vaginal intercourse, the participants indicated that Jim would be more likely to consider it sex if he orgasmed; however, Susie's outcome would not affect his labeling of the act as sex. Parallel results were obtained for Susie. (If neither partner had an orgasm, participants indicated that it was more likely that Susie would label the behavior as sex than would Jim, lending support to the cultural belief that orgasm is less important to women.) Likewise, with oral intercourse the recipient would be more likely than the partner who was performing the act to consider the behavior as sex, especially if the recipient had an orgasm. This finding--that participants believed that the person receiving oral sex would be more likely to consider the behavior as sex than would the partner performing the act--may be related to the finding that orgasm matters to people's definitions of sex. Individuals who stimulate their partners may not consider the activity to be sex because they are unlikely to experience orgasm themselves (unless reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.
Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements. stimulation is provided).
The findings for anal intercourse deviated slightly from this pattern. Overall, participants indicated that Jim and Susie would not differ in whether or not they considered this behavior to be sex. Participants also indicated that whereas Jim would be more likely to consider anal intercourse to be sex if he had an orgasm, Susie would be as likely to consider the behavior sex whether she did or did not have an orgasm. However, the latter finding only held for male participants: female participants indicated that having an orgasm would influence how Susie classified anal intercourse. The overall results suggest that participants believed that it was Jim's orgasm, or lack thereof, that was the main factor in labeling anal intercourse as sex.
Contrary to our hypotheses, there were very few interaction effects involving the gender of the study participants. We had expected that some cultural beliefs would influence male and female participants differently. If orgasm is more important to men, for instance, we would expect to find having (or not having) an orgasm differentially reflected in male and female participants' views of how Jim would classify acts that did or did not result in orgasm. With the exceptions noted above, however, we observed essentially no interactions that involved participant gender. We speculate that the lack of interactions may be due to the convergence of men's and women's views of sexual behavior during the latter 1980s and early 1990s (Oliver & Hyde, 1993). Future studies in the same vein could test the effect of the media on sexual attitudes by comparing the results of a study that uses both an adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. sample that was exposed to the media throughout their childhood, and an older sample that came of age prior to the 1980s.
The results of this study have obvious implications for the wording of questionnaire items that are used in sexual behavior surveys. Our findings suggest that most people include vaginal and anal intercourse in their definition of sex, but are less likely to count oral intercourse as sex. Thus, survey researchers who aim to measure sexual behavior may over- or underestimate the sexual activity level of their sample if respondents are not questioned about vaginal, anal, and oral sex separately. For example, suppose a survey asks respondents to report their overall level of sexual activity. A man who engages in oral intercourse, but not in vaginal or anal intercourse, may report that he is not sexually active if his definition of sex does not include oral intercourse. In contrast, a woman who includes oral intercourse in her definition of sex may overestimate o·ver·es·ti·mate
tr.v. o·ver·es·ti·mat·ed, o·ver·es·ti·mat·ing, o·ver·es·ti·mates
1. To estimate too highly.
2. To esteem too greatly. the frequency of her recent sexual activity, possibly leading researchers to believe that she is riskier than she actually is.
The present study has several limitations. First, about one third of the college sample identified themselves as Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A or Pacific Islander Pacific Islander
1. A native or inhabitant of any of the Polynesian, Micronesian, or Melanesian islands of Oceania.
2. A person of Polynesian, Micronesian, or Melanesian descent. See Usage Note at Asian. and another third identified themselves as White, and all were college students. We did not include race/ethnicity as a variable in our models, because we simply did not have a sufficient number of cases to fill each cell of the design. The results of the study, therefore, should be generalized with caution, particularly to individuals of different ethnic backgrounds and to individuals of lower educational levels. Our data are generalizable gen·er·al·ize
v. gen·er·al·ized, gen·er·al·iz·ing, gen·er·al·iz·es
a. To reduce to a general form, class, or law.
b. To render indefinite or unspecific.
2. , however, to the extent that the questionnaire tapped participants' knowledge of broad cultural norms about the meaning of the word sex. Second, the names "Susie" and "Jim" are not necessarily equivalent, in that Jim might be considered a more neutral target name than Susie. Participants may have perceived someone who calls herself "Susie" differently than someone who, for example, calls herself "Sue" and this could have influenced their responses. Third, our sample consisted of undergraduates taking a human sexuality class at a large western U.S. university. As noted previously, participants in our sample may have had more liberal attitudes about anal sex Noun 1. anal sex - intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
anal intercourse, buggery, sodomy
sexual perversion, perversion - an aberrant sexual practice; than the general population.
Our use of scenarios instead of asking participants directly what they thought of the different sexual behavior terms is both a strength and a weakness. We assumed that the use of this methodology would minimize self-presentation bias: Because Jim and Susie served as proxies for participants, participants did not have to worry about how they would be perceived or about how to present themselves in the most favorable fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. light. However, as a result of this approach, we can only discuss what participants believed about the sexual behavior of the two individuals in the scenarios, the fictional Jim and Susie. Because this situation may not reflect participants' own sexual scripts, the results may not be generalizable to the beliefs that participants have about their own behaviors.
Given the paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of research on the meaning of sexual behavior terms, there are many avenues for future research. Because our sample size precluded us from examining ethnic differences in the definition of the word sex, our results should be replicated with larger samples of ethnically diverse individuals. In particular, a sample should be drawn from those age groups and ethnic groups at greatest risk for sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely . Because the meaning of the word sex is likely to vary for different ethnic groups (Mays & Cochran, 1990), research is needed that compares the responses of different ethnic groups. In particular, future work should compare sexual behavior definitions among African American and Hispanic individuals, because HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. infection continues to increase within these groups (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. , 1998; Wortley & Fleming Flem·ing , Sir Alexander 1881-1955.
British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928. He shared a 1945 Nobel Prize for this achievement. , 1997). Moreover, the meaning of other commonly used sexual behavior terms, such as sexual partner, needs to be examined. For example, many researchers use questionnaire measures to assess numbers of sexual partners, but respondents may not consider individuals with whom they "only" engaged in oral sex to be sex partners. In addition, some respondents may consider as sex partners only those with whom they have had a lengthy intimate relationship An intimate relationship is a particularly close interpersonal relationship. It is a relationship in which the participants know or trust one another very well or are confidants of one another, or a relationship in which there is physical or emotional intimacy. , and may not consider as partners those with whom they have engaged in sexual activity only one time.
In summary, the results presented here suggest that the meaning of sex may be more complex than typically is reflected in sexual behavior surveys. Sexuality researchers are therefore advised to choose questionnaire terms carefully, to be specific when defining terms, and to investigate the meaning of sex within the participants' culture(s). Accurate measurement of human sexual behavior
(1) We also tested for differences between participants who did and did not report English as a first language. Overall, participants who did not speak English as their first language (M = .79) made judgments for Jim and Susie that were comparable to the judgments made by those for whom English was their first language (M = .77; z = .32, p = .75). Moreover, the pattern of responses associated with the three behaviors (i.e., vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse) was the same across both groups of English speakers (z = 4.66, p =. 10).
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Laura M. Bogart Kent State University
Heather Cecil University of Alabama at Birmingham UAB began in 1936 as the Birmingham Extension Center of the University of Alabama. Because of the rapid growth of the Birmingham area, it was decided that an extension program for students who had difficulties which prevented them from studying in Tuscaloosa was needed.
David A. Wagstaff Pennsylvania State University Pennsylvania State University, main campus at University Park, State College; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855, opened 1859 as Farmers' High School.
Steven D. Pinkerton Medical College of Wisconsin Wisconsin, state, United States
Wisconsin (wĭskŏn`sən, –sĭn), upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bounded by Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, from which it is divided by the Menominee
Paul R. Abramson University of California-Los Angeles
This research was supported by center grant P30-MH52776 and postdoctoral post·doc·tor·al also post·doc·tor·ate
Of, relating to, or engaged in academic study beyond the level of a doctoral degree.
Noun 1. training grant T32-MH 19985 from the National Institute of Mental Health The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. , center grant P50-D10075 from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, and training grant MCJ-9040 from the Maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line. and Child Health Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The authors extend their appreciation to Larissa Myaskovsky, Christi Charnock, Michelle Gray-Bernhardt, Mike DeMaster, and Mary Alunkal for help with data collection and data entry.
Address correspondence to Laura M. Bogart, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, 118 Kent Hall, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242; e-mail: email@example.com.