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Iran Sanctions' Risk To Air Safety.

Six months before a US-made Iranian military transport plane crashed on Dec. 6 and killed 108 people, a report prepared for the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO ICAO
International Civil Aeronautics Organization

Noun 1. ICAO - the United Nations agency concerned with civil aviation
International Civil Aviation Organization
) warned that American sanctions against Iran This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been imposed by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. Currently the sanctions include a total embargo on dealings with Iran by Americans, threatening the world's oil and gas  were placing civilian lives in danger by denying Iranian aviation necessary spare parts Spare parts, also referred to as Service Parts is a term used to indicate extra parts available and in proximity to the mechanical item, such as a automobile, boat, engine, for which they might be used.

Spare parts are also called “spares.
 and aircraft repair. The report written by a Canadian contractor, which ICAO officials said Iran had requested and paid for but had no role in writing, did not deal with military aircraft. But it said the US government and major US companies were ignoring international treaties and taking actions that put passengers on Iranian commercial airlines at risk, including thousands of people from other countries travell-ing to and from Iran.

Reportedly the ICAO, a world body overseeing rules for all the aviation countries, checked the report for technical accuracy. Like other such reports, it was neither endorsed nor rejected by the ICAO. It received little attention until it recently reached officials in the aviation industry. Asked for comment on the report, an official of the US State Department noted that Iran had paid for it and that the plane that crashed on Dec. 6 was not a commercial airliner.

No US military parts have been approved for Iran since the overthrow of the Pahlavi Shah in early 1979. The International Herald Tribune International Herald Tribune

Daily newspaper published in Paris. It has long been the staple source of English-language news for American expatriates, tourists, and businesspeople in Europe.
 (IHT IHT International Herald Tribune (newspaper)
IHT Inheritance Tax (UK)
IHT Institution of Highways & Transportation (UK)
IHT Intermittent Hypoxic Training
) on Dec. 14 quoted a US official as saying that, if any Iranian civilian aircraft were unsafe to fly, it would be the responsibility of civil air authorities in Iran to keep it grounded.

The contractor who did the report, Albert Keith Bryson, a Canadian who now lives in Dubai, was selected by the ICAO, which is headquartered in Montreal. A spokesman said the ICAO was careful to ensure that such studies were unbiased. The ICAO said in a statement that its President, Assad Kotaite Assad Kotaite (Arabic: أسعد قطيط) (born November 6, 1924), is a former Secretary-General and Council President of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Early life
He was born in Hasbaya, Lebanon.
 of Lebanon, had once persuaded the US to provide spare parts for an Iranian Boeing 747 and was now involved in negotiations for delivery of more spare parts.

The IHT quoted the statement as saying: "In all discussions, Dr. Kotaite always recognized the commitment of the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  to ensure the safety of airline operations, and that this was the guiding principle during the present negotiations. When the United States was convinced that safety was in jeopardy, they allowed spare parts to be delivered".

The IHT said it was too early to determine whether a lack of proper parts or maintenance caused the crash on Dec. 6 of an Iranian military C-130. Iranian news media reported that the takeoff from Tehran was delayed repeatedly by mechanical problems as the plane prepared for a flight to Bandar Abbas Bandar Abbas (bändär` äb-bäs`), city (1991 pop. 249,504), S Iran, on the Strait of Hormuz at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. A port of strategic and commercial importance, it is the focal point of the trade routes of S Iran.  with 68 Iranian reporters on their way to watch Iranian military exercises. In calls to family members from the plane, several reporters speculated that it might be unable to take off. Eventually it did, but minutes later it suffered an engine failure and rammed into a housing area. Since then, the Iranian government has come under sharp criticism for allowing a flight with civilians aboard by a plane almost 30 years old that was starved for spare parts by the US embargo.

US actions listed as detrimental to safety in the report the ICAO commissioned include refusal by US companies to provide spare parts, confiscation confiscation

In law, the act of seizing property without compensation and submitting it to the public treasury. Illegal items such as narcotics or firearms, or profits from the sale of illegal items, may be confiscated by the police. Additionally, government action (e.g.
 of engines sent to other countries for repair, withholding of navigation information, and even threats to stop providing parts to European airlines for their own planes if they did maintenance work for Iran. The report said: "The lack of concern for aviation safety is surprising in intensity and vigor. Since most Iranian aircraft spend most of their time in foreign airspace over foreign built-up areas, common sense and an agreed minimum level of safety must prevail within the concept of economic sanctions Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. Economic sanctions include, but are not limited to, tariffs, trade barriers, import duties, and import or export quotas. ".

Iran Air Iran Air(Persian: ایران ایر) is the flag carrier airline of Iran, based in Tehran. It operates services to 20 scheduled and 5 charter destinations.  and eight smaller Iranian airlines fly over much of Europe, often without the latest navigation charts, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the report. In addition, the report said, though 23 foreign airlines landed in Iraq, many navigation aids were not being properly calibrated cal·i·brate  
tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument):
 because one of the two Iranian aircraft equipped with special calibrating equipment was grounded for lack of parts. The report said some deaths and injuries in Iranian civil air crashes could be at least partly attributed to the effects of sanctions. In one case, the report said, a child was killed and several adults were injured when the landing gear of an old Boeing 707 owned by SAHA Airlines Saha Air is an airline based in Tehran, Iran. It operates domestic passenger services with three 707s and occasional cargo charters with 747s. It was established in 1990 and is wholly owned by the Iranian Air Force.  collapsed on landing in Iran in April.

The report said two companies not based in the US, the aircraft builder Airbus and the engine manufacturer Rolls Royce Rolls Royce

the millionaire’s vehicle. [Trademarks: Brewer Dictionary, 928]

See : Luxury
, had been providing full service to Iran. Most of Iran's current aircraft are Boeing products, however. The study accused Boeing of taking an excessively narrow interpretation of the requirements of the US embargo. In addition to refusing to sell planes to Iran, Boeing refused to offer the airline any help in complying with important safety bulletins, the study said. The IHT quoted Boeing as saying: "US government sanctions against Iran prohibit US companies from doing business in that country. Boeing abides by those sanctions and the US government policies behind them. However, because passenger and aircraft safety are a top priority at Boeing, in 2004 we submitted a license request to the US government that would allow us to survey the condition of Iranian commercial aircraft, determine flight safety requirements, and ultimately [under separate licence] provide spares and parts to Iran's airlines". Boeing said it had heard nothing from the US government about its request.

The report was particularly critical of General Electric, the world's leading manufacturer of aircraft engines. It said GE had threatened to stop providing services to Lufthansa, Air France, KLM KLM Kaiserliche Marine (Enigma: Rising Tide game)
KLM Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij (Royal Dutch Airlines)
KLM Klub Langer Menschen (German: Tall Person Club) 
 and the Turkish airline THY if they did any more maintenance or overhaul work for Iranian airlines which used GE parts. Those airlines immediately halted Iranian work, leaving several engines sitting unfinished. The IHT quoted a GE spokesman at the company's jet engine division in Cincinnati, Rick Kennedy, as saying his company had been trying for a year and a half to get permission to export safety-related parts to Iran, but like Boeing, had heard nothing from the US authorities. In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
, he said, the company believed it would be breaking the law if it allowed any repair work of any kind to take place anywhere with US parts.

The report for the ICAO said that Honeywell, a major provider of air navigation equipment and software, had deliberately delayed delivering important navigation information to Iranian airlines, and it called the delay "a serious threat to aviation safety". Honeywell said it "is committed to aviation safety worldwide and works with its global customers to ensure they have the most current data and products while complying with all US export laws and regulations".
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Publication:APS Diplomat News Service
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 19, 2005
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