Iran's strategy on natural disaster risk management.
Having confronted with more than 34 out of 41 types of known natural disasters, Iran has one of the longest histories in challenging the natural disasters. In recent years there have been one earthquake with extremely high human and property losses, every five years on the average. Among these earthquakes of the recent years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time 2003 Bam, the 2004 Baladeh, and the 2005 Zarand earthquakes are the most manifesting ones. With respect to the number of natural disaster and the socio-economic impacts, extensive planning have been implemented in the course of the recent two decades in order to mitigate natural disaster effects that in this study some of them will be discussed.
With respect to rise in the number of natural disasters and the following mortality and socio-economic impacts, extensive planning have been implemented in the course of the recent two decades in order to mitigate natural disasters effects and consequences to an acceptable level, some of which will be discussed in the following:
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management into Development Policy Planning and Implementation in Iran
A. Revision of the Natural Disaster Emergency Management Structure of the Country
In the course of the recent years, especially after occurrence of the Bam earthquake, a modification to the emergency management system structure has been adopted by taking a new approach regarding more importance and attention to pre planning (public training, promotion of safety precautions precautions Infectious disease The constellation of activities intended to minimize exposure to an infectious agent; precautions imply that the isolation of an infected Pt is optional, but not mandatory. , early warning, awareness and preparedness pre·par·ed·ness
The state of being prepared, especially military readiness for combat.
Noun 1. preparedness - the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action); "putting them ).
Considering the great importance of natural disaster management the First Vise president of the country was nominated by the High Council of natural disaster prevention and management, to observe the trend of related operations.
B. Natural Disaster Management in Policies and Development Plans of the Country
With new approach, due to the great importance of NDM NDM Nonfat Dry Milk
NDM National Democratic Movement
NDM Network Data Mover
NDM Natural Disaster Management
NDM Newspaper Designated Market
NDM Near Dry Machining (applying a very small amount of lubricant in lieu of flood coolant) , the necessity of sustainable macro planning for this issue is observed in the 4th Cultural, Social and Economic Plan of the Country. The following pivots have been confirmed in macro policies of the country:
1. Prevention and disaster risk reduction in urban & rural regions and enhancement of safety factor in new constructions.
2. Earthquake risk reduction at present status of urban and rural sectors with human life protection based policies.
3. Establishment of integrated information management with contribution of relevant scientific research institutes and key executive organizations for prompt and precise information dissemination dissemination Medtalk The spread of a pernicious process–eg, CA, acute infection Oncology Metastasis, see there during & after disaster--particularly floods and earthquake.
4. Early warning and prompt information dissemination regarding regions vulnerable and prone to natural disaster, by utilization of early warning systems technology.
5. Codification The collection and systematic arrangement, usually by subject, of the laws of a state or country, or the statutory provisions, rules, and regulations that govern a specific area or subject of law or practice. and implementation of integrated research and scientific programs for social and psychological rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. of victims and comprehensive renovation of damaged urban and rural regions.
6. Expansion, support and regulation of multilateral scientific research on earthquake through development and completion of seismic & strong motion networks, mobilization mobilization
Organization of a nation's armed forces for active military service in time of war or other national emergency. It includes recruiting and training, building military bases and training camps, and procuring and distributing weapons, ammunition, uniforms, of earthquake laboratories network in the Country, completion of N.D. early warning systems, N.D. risk zoning maps, and seismic micro zoning of the country.
7. Training and encouragement of authorities and general public to become more acquainted with earthquake prevention and develop adequate judgment along with the knowledge to take effective action during a disaster.
8. Establishing an assessment system for N.D. risk reduction management approach in the country in order to have an efficient disaster management system.
In recent two decades with knowledge enhancement of lecturers in universities and research centers of the Country and particular attention of authorities to natural disasters noticeable results have been achieved. Parts of these achievements are as follows:
In addition to a noticeable increase in number of specialists, university lecturers and research centers involved in natural disasters and disaster mitigation, enjoyment of modern technologies in development activities, required applied research in preventive measures
2. Preparation and codification of Technical Managerial and Safety Codes, Criteria and Guidelines
Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings (Standard no. 2800) and retrofitting guideline for existing structures are among codified cod·i·fy
tr.v. cod·i·fied, cod·i·fy·ing, cod·i·fies
1. To reduce to a code: codify laws.
2. To arrange or systematize. and notified codes in the Country.
3. Retrofitting Plan for Public Buildings, Infrastructure Facilities, and Lifelines LifeLines is a free genealogy software tool to assist family history research.
Lifelines was originally written by Tom Wetmore circa 1991-1994. Its primary strengths are its powerful scripting language and the ability to easily import and export information in the GEDCOM as a Preventive Measure
Allocating funds, guiding and monitoring retrofitting research studies and performing projects including:
--Major hospitals, rescue centers & fire stations
--Strategic buildings, military and police headquarters
--Universities and schools
--Tehran major bridges & important railroad bridges
--Key fuel facilities and main refineries of the Country
--Major telecommunications centers A facility, normally serving more than one organization or terminal, responsible for transmission, receipt, acceptance, processing, and distribution of incoming and outgoing messages. , radios and TV stations
--Power plants, transmitting & distributing networks, and urban water networks
4. Rural Housing Integrated Plan as a Preventive Measure
5. Natural Disasters Information Networks
Currently there are variety of information networks in the Country, and particularly in geological data and meteorological me·te·or·ol·o·gy
The science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather conditions.
[French météorologie, from Greek information analysis some great goals have been accomplished.
Among the aforesaid Before, already said, referred to, or recited.
This term is used frequently in deeds, leases, and contracts of sale of real property to refer to the property without describing it in detail each time it is mentioned; for example,"the aforesaid premises. networks are:
--Iranian Space Agency
--Iran Strong Motion Network
-National Seismic Network of IIEES IIEES International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran)
--National Geosciences Database of Iran
--Seismic Geodynamics Database of NCC NCC
See National Clearing Corporation (NCC).
--IR of Iran Meteorological Organization
--Institute of Geophysics geophysics, study of the structure, composition, and dynamic changes of the earth, its atmosphere, hydrosphere and magnetosphere, based on the principles of physics. Seismograph Networks
6. Early Warning and Forecasting Systems
In this regard a large number of research have been initiated since Bam earthquake, of which extensive activities have been planned and implemented at Natural Disaster Research Institute of Iran. The implemented research and studies have led to a series of satisfactory out put for forecasting the time, location, and the intensity of the earthquake within a satisfactory range. These designed equipment has been installed as a pilot project in provinces of the country and based on the resulted data, it will be available internationally in near future.
7. International and Regional Cooperation & Exchange of Views
Iran has experienced the establishment of regional centers with regional and international communities, including:
--Regional Center on Urban Water Management (RCUWM)--Tehran
--Regional center on Drought Management at IRIMO IRIMO Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization
--Natural Disaster Risk Management as joint projects with international organizations:
--Improving Access to Information on Disaster Risk Management by Establishing Information System
--Urban Earthquake Risk Reduction Program with Focus on Local & Intermediate Levels in two Selected Cities
--Facilitating Knowledge Networking for Disaster Risk Management at the Subregional Level
--National Disaster Risk Management System as a joint project
The Country's main approach towards natural disaster was focused on post-disaster affairs management, but in recent years the preventive measures and comprehensive approaches of disaster risk reduction as, public training and promotion of the culture of prevention, enhancement of applied research, codification of required guidelines, expansion of natural disaster information networks, ... etc. were highly considered by the Government. And the results of the aforementioned policies & activities were clearly observed in Zarand earthquake disaster management in 2004.
Low of the 4th Economic, Social & Cultural Development Plan of the I.R. of Iran (2005-2009), 2004, MPO MPO myeloperoxidase.
MPO Myeloperoxidase, see there
Iran National Iran National was the initial name of Iran's first car maker. This name was changed to Iran Khodro after the Islamic revolution in 1979. Report on Natural Disaster Management in WCDR WCDR World Conference for Disaster Reduction
WCDR Wideband Compressed Data Relay , June 2005, Hyogo, Japan
BHRC BHRC Bar Human Rights Committee (of England and Wales)
BHRC Building and Housing Research Center (Iran) (2005): Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, Standard No. 2800, BHRC- PN S 253 3rd ed, Building and Housing Research Center Press.
Quryshi, M and Tehranizadeh, M. (1997): National Earthquake Research Report, Scientific Research Council of Iran, Earthquake Committee Press.
Tehranizadeh, M. (1996): Main Issues of National Earthquake Research Plan of Country, Scientific Research Council of Iran, Civil and Earthquake Commission Press.
Phd student, Facualty Engineering, Tehran University Tehran, Iran
Deputy General Director, Technical, Criteria Codification and Earthquake Risk Reduction Affairs Bureau MPO Tehran, Iran