Introduction.The present report examines the main actions taken in the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience whose effect can be described as "non-discriminatory hiring practices" and "affirmative action affirmative action, in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women. ," with regard to three social groups whose status in the Israeli work force is especially vulnerable: Arab citizens of Israel, Ethiopian Israelis This is a list of prominent Israelis (including Arab citizens of Israel). Historical figures
For the purposes of this report, we define "non-discriminatory hiring practices " as any activity designed to improve the employment opportunities of a special group: increasing representation in different sectors of the economy, improving representation in managerial positions, increasing wages and promoting employability.
The report distinguishes between two types of action: (1) direct actions, among them vocational training and micro-finance programs, employer incentives, legislation mandating fair representation, and quotas; and (2) policies that have an indirect anti- discrimination bearing, mainly development and infrastructure projects.
The organizations and programs included in the report are the ones operating on the national and regional level. In addition to these, there are numerous local initiatives pursued by local authorities and/or locally organized nonprofits, which are not included due to time and budget limitations.
The report concentrates on non-discriminatory hiring, and therefore general educational efforts, such as youth centers or university programs--as they belong to the category of affirmative action in higher education--were not included.
The absence of a political culture of affirmative action
In Israel there is no political culture of affirmative action similar to that which developed in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. and in other countries, with regard to women, minorities and the disabled.
On one hand, and in contrast to the American history of relations between the white majority and the black minority, in Israel the debate concerning the problems of the largest minority group (aside from women), the Arab minority, has centered on national and political dimensions rather than on social and economic dimensions. The political and intellectual leadership of the Arab minority considers the goal of cultural and political autonomy to be no less important, and perhaps even more important, than the goal of increased integration into Israeli society by means of affirmative action or nondiscriminatory practices.
On the other hand, the State of Israel has bestowed a long series of benefits and preferential pref·er·en·tial
1. Of, relating to, or giving advantage or preference: preferential treatment.
2. treatment on Jewish groups, mainly new immigrants, in areas from housing to education. Special assistance was provided not only at the stage of absorption, but also at later stages, especially for groups that found themselves on the bottom rungs of the socio-economic ladder. These include new immigrants from Arab countries, in the period following establishment of the state, and new immigrants from Ethiopia, during the last two decades. However, the low position of these groups was not perceived as the result of discrimination, but rather as the result of a failure to properly absorb them into Israeli society. Thus, actions designed for their advancement were never defined as affirmative action or as anti-discrimination measures.
This being the case, very little legislation and regulations call for affirmative action. The legal concept of affirmative action was developed mainly for women and persons with disabilities: legislation favoring favoring
an animal is said to be favoring a leg when it avoids putting all of its weight on the limb. A part of being lame in a limb. women in the area of employment exists from the first years of independence, and the employment rights of the disabled have been set down in recent years. It is only in certain sectors of the economy, such as the public service sector, that one finds the terms "adequate representation" or "affirmative action" regarding groups like Arab citizens or Ethiopian Israelis. There are government programs with goals in the areas of development and employment, but these programs do not involve appropriating more resources in compensation for discrimination suffered in the past.
Generally, most of the programs in the area of employment, and especially those created in recent years, constitute part of an effort on the part of the government to increase workforce participation in Israel. This is especially true for the two main groups with low participation rates: Arabs--and especially Arab women--and ultra-Orthodox Jews Jews [from Judah], traditionally, descendants of Judah, the fourth son of Jacob, whose tribe, with that of his half brother Benjamin, made up the kingdom of Judah; historically, members of the worldwide community of adherents to Judaism. .
A word about active anti-discrimination policy
At the very outset, a question needs to be asked concerning the nature and benefits of anti-discrimination policy as a strategy for increasing the participation and improving the position of minority groups in the Israeli labor market. Israel has a large variety of groups that in any other country would merit the designation, "in need of anti-discrimination measures or affirmative action": Arab citizens; immigrants from Ethiopia, the Caucasus, and Bukhara; Mizrahi Jews For the Religious Zionist Movement and other entities and people named "Mizrachi", please see the Mizrachi disambiguation page.
Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahim, (Hebrew: ; solo mothers; women; workers over the age of 50; disabled persons--and the list goes on. Indeed, this great variety has led, over the years, to the implementation of programs that could be perceived as political favoritism, because they favored one or more of the above groups over the rest. Moreover, an active anti-discrimination policy with regard to one group, for example, new immigrants, can be interpreted as exclusion towards another group, for example Arab citizens.
However, in view of the great difficulties some of these groups experience in the job market, active anti-discrimination policy may be the only strategy that has the power to effect change. As such, both anti-discrimination and affirmative action policies may involve a myriad Myriad is a classical Greek name for the number 104 = 10 000. In modern English the word refers to an unspecified large quantity.
The term myriad is a progression in the commonly used system of describing numbers using tens and hundreds. of tactics, including increasing educational and training opportunities, adaptation of universal programs and hiring prerequisites to the needs and limitations of specific groups, increasing the access of targeted groups to the job market, raising the awareness of employers and the general public, legislation, and the setting of quotas.
We view all of these as appropriate, with the exception of quotas. This, because in addition to other well known arguments against quotas, in Israel one could end up setting a quota quota
In international trade, a government-imposed limit on the quantity of goods and services that may be exported or imported over a specified period of time. Quotas are more effective than tariffs in restricting trade, since they limit the availability of goods rather for each and every group--ad absurdum.
Affirmative action: an Adva anecdote anecdote (ăn`ĭkdōt'), brief narrative of a particular incident. An anecdote differs from a short story in that it is unified in time and space, is uncomplicated, and deals with a single episode.
In June 2008, a female Arab economist began to work at the Adva Center Adva Center is a non-partisan, action-oriented Israeli policy analysis center.
Adva is the Hebrew word for ripple. It was founded in 1991 by activists from three social movements: the movement for equality for Mizrahi Jews, the feminist movement, and the movement for equal . It took Adva six months to find her. The organization was interested in hiring an Arab woman or man. It first placed an ad in the Shatil "Help Wanted" web site. Then it placed ads in Arab language newspapers, stating a preference for persons whose mother tongue was Arabic. About ten persons answered the ads, but none of them had the requisite qualifications. Then Adva made telephone calls to the academic and administrative heads of MA programs in Economics in Israeli universities, with poor results: there were very few Arab MA students to begin with. Finally, thanks to this research report, Adva learned about the Sikkuy and Mossawa projects to match job seekers with employers, and it placed ads with those organizations. Following a telephone call from Sikkuy, the woman who became an Adva economist sent her CV to the Adva Center. After an interview, she was hired, on the basis of her academic qualifications and the good impression she made at the interview.
Without Sikkuy, the Adva Center would never have found her and she would never have found Adva Center.
The present report is based on studies and reports published by the government, by civil society organizations and by scholars, as well as on interviews with decision makers, business people and leaders of civil society organizations. In the course of preparing the report, we uncovered Uncovered may refer to:
The private sector does not collect figures in any systematic way. It is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by lack of transparency (1) The quality of being able to see through a material. The terms transparency and translucency are often used synonymously; however, transparent would technically mean "seeing through clear glass," while translucent would mean "seeing through frosted glass." See alpha blending. , which apparently derives from lack of awareness and fear of public scrutiny. The only information available derives from activities initiated by civil society organizations engaged in monitoring. We turned to ten large and medium-sized firms with a request for information on the employment of Arabs and new immigrants: the request was ignored. Israel has no legislation mandating adequate representation , affirmative action or anti-discrimination initiatives in the private sector. Awareness of the importance of adequate representation is to be found mainly in firms that merged with or were sold to foreign companies, like HP-Indigo.