Introduction to the special section.Every generation produces a few leaders in each profession who become giants in their field. Not necessarily recognized as such in their own time, they are frequently celebrated a generation or two later for the contributions that they earlier made. David Valentine Tiedeman (1919-2004), who is today recognized by many of the leaders of career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action and vocational psychology as a forerunner of 21st-century career counseling, is one such giant in our field. This special section of The Career Development Quarterly honors him for the ideas that he has left with us, although he was often highly criticized or ignored at the time when he presented them.
In his article, Mark Savickas (2008) eloquently puts Tiedeman's contributions into perspective:
When individuals of deep scholarship and intellectual daring lunge ahead of the learned community whom they are addressing, they may not receive the honor that they deserve. Instead, they may blend undistinguished into the scholarly landscape and somehow become taken for granted. Something like this has happened to the scholarly contributions of David Valentine Tiedeman (1919-2004). Being the first psychologist to systematically apply constructivist epistemology to the comprehension of careers, Tiedeman broke with intellectual traditions to lead the counseling profession in a new direction. As he cleared a path into the future, he identified what was to be avoided and articulated what was to be done. When others lagged behind, he moved forward by himself. (p. 217)
The Genesis of This Special Section
The articles published in this section emerged as a result of a special symposium dedicated to honor Tiedeman and his work that was held not long after his death at the 2006 National Career Development Association (NCDA NCDA National Career Development Association
NCDA North Carolina Department of Agriculture
NCDA National Community Development Association
NCDA National College of District Attorneys
NCDA National Conservatory of Dramatic Arts
NCDA Noncontributing Drainage Area ) Global Conference in Chicago. That symposium occurred as a result of a chance meeting between Mark Savickas and Lee Richmond at the NCDA conference 1 year earlier. There, Savickas and Richmond quite literally "bumped into each other" in a hotel hallway. Richmond then had the opportunity to tell Savickas how much she enjoyed the Festschrift fest·schrift
n. pl. fest·schrif·ten or fest·schrifts
A volume of learned articles or essays by colleagues and admirers, serving as a tribute or memorial especially to a scholar. he had been involved in planning for Donald Super. Richmond said that she wished something of that caliber could be done in honor of David Tiedeman. "David was David Was (born David Weiss, 26 October 1952, Detroit) is, with his stage-brother Don Was, the founder of the influential 1980s pop group, Was (Not Was).
Reviewed by The New York Times a thinker way ahead of his time," Savickas said. "Thirty years ago, he had ideas about social construction theory and aligned it to constructing careers. Today, we think this is new when in actuality ac·tu·al·i·ty
n. pl. ac·tu·al·i·ties
1. The state or fact of being actual; reality. See Synonyms at existence.
2. Actual conditions or facts. Often used in the plural. the profession is catching up with him!" Then, he suggested that because Richmond had been Tiedeman's friend, she might organize a symposium in Tiedeman's honor at the 2006 NCDA conference. Then, when Savickas offered to be the lead speaker and prepare a major presentation, Richmond started to work on creating such a session.
Martha Russell, the incoming president of NCDA, said she liked the idea. NCDA Executive Director Deneen Pennington and her staff set aside a place for the symposium. Anna Miller-Tiedeman, David's wife, named three people for the panel (in addition to Savickas) whose professional lives, she thought, were most influenced by David. The three people were JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey, David Jepsen, and Rich Feller. All named were persons whose lives had been touched by and whose professional careers were influenced greatly by Tiedeman's work. Anna said that David had loved each of them. Moreover, each must have loved David because all immediately agreed to participate on the panel to celebrate Tiedeman, the counselor, the scholar, the teacher, and the person. With the exception of Feller, who spoke, as is characteristic of him, extemporaneously ex·tem·po·ra·ne·ous
1. Carried out or performed with little or no preparation; impromptu: an extemporaneous piano recital.
2. from his heart, all wrote their presentations ahead of time. These presentations form the foundation of the articles in this special section. Also included are words from Anna Miller-Tiedeman about her husband, his work, and their work and life together.
This section provides a personal insight into the person of David Tiedeman from Lee Richmond's perspective.
As panel chair, my (Richmond's) role was to introduce the others. However, as it did to each of the symposium participants, meeting David Tiedeman had its effect upon my life and changed the direction of my work. That meeting fits Tiedeman's ideas about the way that life works. It was April 1983, in Washington, DC, and, once again, the place was a convention hotel, only this time it was the American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. convention. The theme of the convention was "Counselors Help America Work," and I was program chair. The convention was planned to feature health or wellness counseling and also career development. The health topic opened the conference. The keynote speech keynote speech
See keynote address.
Noun 1. keynote speech - a speech setting forth the keynote
keynote - the principal theme in a speech or literary work was to be a debate between the then president of the American Medical Association American Medical Association (AMA), professional physicians' organization (founded 1847). Its goals are to protect the interests of American physicians, advance public health, and support the growth of medical science. (AMA (Automatic Message Accounting) The recording and reporting of telephone calls within a telephone system. It includes the calling and called parties and start and stop times of the call. ) and the president of the American Holistic Medical Association. C. Gilbert Wrenn was to serve as moderator. As things worked out, there was a freak blizzard blizzard, winter storm characterized by high winds, low temperatures, and driving snow; according to the official definition given in 1958 by the U.S. Weather Bureau, the winds must exceed 35 mi (56 km) per hr and the temperature 20°F; (−7°C;) or lower. in Pittsburgh that April day, and the president of the AMA got snowed in. He phoned and said that because of the storm, his plane was delayed and he could not get to Washington in time to speak.
The program then changed. I introduced the program as a dialogue between Wrenn and Gladys McGarry. The discussion was exhilarating and forward looking and deserved the standing ovation that was given to the two speakers at the close of the session. At the end of the program, when people came to the podium to talk to the keynote speakers, a rather short man with sparkling eyes and an almost impish imp·ish
Of or befitting an imp; mischievous.
imp smile came and shook my hand. "Did you plan this program?" he asked. I told him that I had, although not exactly as it was presented. He then emphasized that it was presented exactly as it should have been. "It was perfect, the best thing I have heard at this convention in years," he said. I then asked his name. He told me that his name was David, David Tiedeman. My thought was "My god--he touched me." Before then I had read of him and of his theories only in textbooks.
I saw David again the next day, on the "career" day at the convention when many of the programs were focused on career counseling. He was on a panel planned by Carole Minor and moderated by Nancy Schlossberg. David, John Holland, John Krumboltz, and Donald Super presented their theories and demonstrated how their theories applied to the career lives of clients. All of the presentations were brilliant, but somehow I resonated to David's theory. Whereas the others talked about work and their ideas about how it is chosen, he talked about life and how career is constructed within the individual in terms of his or her sense of being, relative to other people and events that occurred in his or her life.
I wanted to learn more and told David so. He invited me to attend the 1983 Assembly to Advance Career that he and his wife, Anna Miller-Tiedeman, presented at the University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission . I did attend, and, by a random selection of names, I became Anna's roommate. I have not stopped learning from them since.
Later, as I was then teaching and coordinating the counseling program at Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University, mainly at Baltimore, Md. Johns Hopkins in 1867 had a group of his associates incorporated as the trustees of a university and a hospital, endowing each with $3.5 million. Daniel C. , I invited them to come to Baltimore and teach a special course. I also attended that course and learned more about internal process theory. Students along with me included Linda Kemp, then the director of career development for the U.S. Postal Service The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) processes and delivers mail to individuals and businesses within the United States. The service seeks to improve its performance through the development of efficient mail-handling systems and operates its own planning and engineering programs. , and Harvey Huntley, a Lutheran minister. Huntley had been chosen to design a career plan for employees relative to the national merger of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. Formed in 1988 by the merging of three churches and currently having about 4. and the American Lutheran Church The American Lutheran Church (ALC) was a Christian Protestant denomination in the United States that existed from 1960 to 1987. Its headquarters were in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Upon its formation in 1960, the ALC designated Augsburg Publishing House (est. . Kemp, Huntley, and myself all latched onto the internal process theory, the Lifecareer theory, as espoused by the two Tiedemans. Programs still exist in the postal service postal service, arrangements made by a government for the transmission of letters, packages, and periodicals, and for related services. Early courier systems for government use were organized in the Persian Empire under Cyrus, in the Roman Empire, and in medieval and in the church that were developed according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the model that was provided in that class 24 years ago.
The Lifecareer model that Anna Miller-Tiedeman had developed was heartily endorsed by David and embellished by his life process theory. The connection between spirituality and career, and the model that was developed by Deborah Bloch and myself, was sparked by the work of the two Tiedemans.
Over the years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time Tiedemans and I became friends, visiting when possible each other's homes and staying in touch by mail, phone, and e-mail as best we could. In the end, what I remember of David is David I, king of Scotland
David I, 1084–1153, king of Scotland (1124–53), youngest son of Malcolm III and St. Margaret of Scotland. During the reign of his brother Alexander I, whom he succeeded, David was earl of Cumbria, ruling S of the Clyde that he was gentle of speech and strong of character; that he was modest; that he adored a·dore
v. a·dored, a·dor·ing, a·dores
1. To worship as God or a god.
2. To regard with deep, often rapturous love. See Synonyms at revere1.
3. his wife, liked science fiction, and had a sense of humor Noun 1. sense of humor - the trait of appreciating (and being able to express) the humorous; "she didn't appreciate my humor"; "you can't survive in the army without a sense of humor"
sense of humour, humor, humour equaled only by his broad and somewhat impish smile. I remember talking with him one day when I did not like something going on at the university at which I was then working. I did not know what to do. Should I speak up? Or what? I asked David. He answered with a question: "What is your job title?" I said, "Professor." He said, "Well, then, profess pro·fess
v. pro·fessed, pro·fess·ing, pro·fess·es
1. To affirm openly; declare or claim: "a physics major !"
The articles of which this special section is composed attempt to put Tiedeman's contributions into a historical perspective. They focus especially on his early work and its application.
Mark Savickas (2008) argues convincingly that Tiedeman laid the foundation for the "contemporary theory and practice of career construction" (p. 217). He charts Tiedeman's journey from logical positivist Noun 1. logical positivist - someone who maintains that any statement that cannot be verified empirically is meaningless
positivist, rationalist - someone who emphasizes observable facts and excludes metaphysical speculation about origins or ultimate causes to career constructionist con·struc·tion·ist
A person who construes a legal text or document in a specified way: a strict constructionist. .
Tiedeman's dissatisfaction with the methods of positivist psychology impelled his quest for a new paradigm. He wanted a psychology that did more than offer only a sum of miscellaneous facts. He wanted to investigate how the facts of lived experience organize themselves into a whole that gives new meaning to a life in progress. (Savickas, 2008, p. 218)
Savickas (2008) writes that "Tiedeman viewed the then-prominent theories of Roe (1956), Holland (1959), and Super (1957) as unarticulated un·ar·tic·u·lat·ed
a. Not articulated: our unarticulated fears.
b. Not carefully or thoroughly thought out.
2. Biology Not having joints or segments. parts, each in a neat box of Newtonian science" (p. 219), and, as Tiedeman developed his critique of his contemporaries' theories, his own view along with new definitions emerged. Tiedeman's new language for career was an attempt to get his peers to break out of their old ways of thinking. For him, "career is guided thought that lends direction to a person's vocational behavior" (Tiedeman, 1964, p. 18). This new view provided the impetus for the development of career construction theory. In Tiedeman's process theory of self and career (as Tiedeman eschewed such, this is not the name of his theory, merely descriptive), "career emerges from self-organization, purposeful action bridges discontinuity dis·con·ti·nu·i·ty
n. pl. dis·con·ti·nu·i·ties
1. Lack of continuity, logical sequence, or cohesion.
2. A break or gap.
3. Geology A surface at which seismic wave velocities change. , and decisions evolve through differentiation and integration" (Savickas, 2008, p. 217).
David Jepsen (2008) provides a personal and logical argument as to why we should read Tiedeman's work and, at the same time, gives us the essence of Tiedeman as a person and of his professional contributions. Jepsen writes of what made Tiedeman unique to the world of career development. Like a Zen Buddhist Noun 1. Zen Buddhist - an adherent of the doctrines of Zen Buddhism
Zen, Zen Buddhism - school of Mahayana Buddhism asserting that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith; China and Japan master, Tiedeman "recognized paradoxes in career decision processes (e.g., the requirement that a decision maker be both committed and tentative at the same time; Tiedeman, 1967, 1975)" (Jepsen, 2008, p. 226).
First, according to Jepsen (2008), Tiedeman
insisted that he did not write a career theory. Rather than advancing theoretical propositions amenable to empirical tests, he offered "primitive terms in a science of career development" (Tiedeman & O'Hara, 1963, p. v). He believed that each person can become a career theorist, that each of us is capable of developing a theory of our own career. (p. 226)
conceptualized the human career as a process, not an outcome, such as a series of occupational roles. From his perspective, career is "a lifetime achievement, always in the process of emergence" (Tiedeman, 1971, p. 123). He frequently used the analogies of motion and flow when describing career. Specifically, he believed that career is "the time-extended working out of oneself" through mechanisms such as acts of deciding and "mapping of self (Tiedeman, 1971, p. 124). (Jepsen, 2008, p. 226)
framed the goal of a person's career development not as entering a job or an occupation but rather as "the making of a life and the evolution of existential meanings" (Tiedeman & O'Hara, 1963, p. 4). Whereas other career scholars emphasized vocational behaviors or work roles, Tiedeman insisted that the fundamental quality that develops throughout a career is the meaning the person attributes to experiences.... [Tiedeman] argued that the internalization of the decision processes, that is, going beyond the words used in talking about decisions, leaves the person with a heightened sense of personal agency. (Jepsen, 2008, p. 226)
David Duys, Janice Ward, Jane Maxwell, and Leslie Eaton-Comerford (2008) revisit re·vis·it
tr.v. re·vis·it·ed, re·vis·it·ing, re·vis·its
To visit again.
A second or repeated visit.
re Tiedeman's contributions as applied to today's world and conclude that his ideas hold up remarkably well. These authors focus on Tiedeman's decision-making process--a nonlinear A system in which the output is not a uniform relationship to the input.
nonlinear - (Scientific computation) A property of a system whose output is not proportional to its input. model that allows for career path recycling and revisiting of previously completed phases. According to these authors, Tiedeman's (1961) model "provides a framework to better understand phases associated with evolving priorities throughout life" (Duys et al., 2008, p. 237). They also discuss an application of this process that they call "retro-development" (Duys et al., 2008, p. 236), or the process of working backward through these decision-making phases.
Finally, they discuss "parallel streams" (Duys et al., 2008, p. 237), which occurs when people simultaneously pursue different vocational interests.
For Tiedeman, engagement in parallel vocational paths is not seen as a failure to make a significant investment in a primary occupation but rather as an accepted manner of further exploring one's interests and abilities. A counselor who operates from Tiedeman's perspective would be quite comfortable helping a client simultaneously deal with issues associated with each endeavor. (Duys et al., 2008, p. 237)
Duys et al. (2008) contend that these ideas embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. in Tiedeman's (1961) original model address variables often ignored by other models. "The idea of nonlinear movement, flexibility, and individual development that Tiedeman's model explores makes it an excellent resource for counselors helping clients contend with a volatile labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience " (Duys et al., 2008, p. 239).
In the concluding article in this special section, Anna Miller-Tiedeman (2008) offers us her perspective on the work of her late husband, partner, colleague, and collaborator, David Tiedeman. Miller-Tiedeman was arguably ar·gu·a·ble
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.
2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law. David Tiedeman's most influential collaborator given that she introduced him to constructivism constructivism, Russian art movement founded c.1913 by Vladimir Tatlin, related to the movement known as suprematism. After 1916 the brothers Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner gave new impetus to Tatlin's art of purely abstract (although politically intended) and quantum physics quantum physics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of physics that uses quantum theory to describe and predict the properties of a physical system.
See quantum mechanics. in the 1970s (Savickas, 2008). Using his own words, Miller-Tiedeman guides us through Tiedeman's work. She uses the structure of (a) his professional credo, (b) his Harvard Studies in Career Development, (c) his declaration in 1983 about career, (d) his thoughts about statistics of vocational guidance vocational guidance: see guidance and counseling. , and (e) his beliefs about self-counseling and consciousness.
Furthermore, she cites four practice or theory and practice themes in Tiedeman's work. Tiedeman's first practice theme "involves protecting personal perception in an effort to increase individual personal development" (Miller-Tiedeman, 2008, p. 243). Tiedeman's second theory and practice theme "involves supporting an idea capable of liberating the perception, thereby freeing it for increased development" (Miller-Tiedeman, 2008, p. 244). Tiedeman's third theory and practice theme "holds that statistics matter little in an individual life. If anything, they tend to capture, not liberate, perception, and this can truncate To cut off leading or trailing digits or characters from an item of data without regard to the accuracy of the remaining characters. Truncation occurs when data are converted into a new record with smaller field lengths than the original. development" (Miller-Tiedeman, 2008, p. 244). Tiedeman's fourth practice theme "involves moving to a science supporting a consciousness of being conscious in order to recognize process even at a young age" (Miller-Tiedeman, 2008, p. 244).
Miller-Tiedeman also graciously contributed the curriculum vitae curriculum vitae CV, resume Medical practice A formal listing of a person's professional education, objectives, work history, including location and dates of service at a particular hospital, health care facility, university, the role filled at the time of service, and photographs that accompany this special section.
Tiedeman was always growing and developing, as he moved from an outcome- to a process-focused view of life and career. What runs throughout the articles in this special section is Tiedeman's contributions to both theory and practice. He knew he was offering intellectually provocative insights into career development, and he deliberately used a new language to move career counseling and development professionals out of their comfort zone to help them overcome their previous professional learning and their inertia. "Tiedeman's change in language about careers both reflected and fostered the change he sought to bring about in career theory" (Savickas, 2008, p. 220).
He grew out of his statistics phase, as Miller-Tiedeman (2008) stated, but he could only do that through his own expertise in that field of study. Just as Picasso's modernist view of art grew out of his excellence in the foundational techniques of representational rep·re·sen·ta·tion·al
Of or relating to representation, especially to realistic graphic representation.
rep art, so did Tiedeman evolve. As an expert statistician, he could see through the holes in that worldview world·view
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. , and it led him to a new vision, a vision informed by engineering, science, and physics. A vision so big that it encompassed the relativity of a person's universe; the importance of perception; and how individuals construct their own lives, vision, and theory about their own human nature as well as their careers.
There is no reason why kids can't themselves be theorists of human nature. It's too heady a game, theory in human nature, to permit psychologists to monopolize it. It's the capacity to theorize about one's own nature which I make the center of my work. (D. V. Tiedeman, personal communication, July 7, 1971)
Finally, as Savickas (2008) writes,
[Tiedeman] elaborated a new paradigm that applied a constructivist epistemology to the comprehension of career. His model of career consciousness fits postmodern societies with their information technology and global economies. Counselors who use career construction models and narrative counseling methods are well advised to revisit Tiedeman's initial formulations. His seminal articles provide inspiration and instruction for the continuing elaboration of career construction theory. (p. 223)
His process theory of self and career laid the foundation for today's career construction theory and other constructivist con·struc·tiv·ism
A movement in modern art originating in Moscow in 1920 and characterized by the use of industrial materials such as glass, sheet metal, and plastic to create nonrepresentational, often geometric objects. , social construction, and narrative theories. For this and all that he gave to our profession, with this special section, we pay tribute to the contributions of David Valentine Tiedeman.
Duys, D. K., Ward, J. E., Maxwell, J. A., & Eaton-Comerford, L. (2008). Career counseling in a volatile job market: Tiedeman's perspective revisited. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 232-241.
Jepsen, D. A. (2008). A tribute to David Tiedeman. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 225-231.
Miller-Tiedeman, A. (2008). Essential Tiedeman: Anchoring the North Star for human development. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 242-245.
Savickas, M. L. (2008). David V. Tiedeman: Engineer of career construction. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 217-224.
Tiedeman, D. V. (1961). Decision and vocational development: A paradigm and its implications. The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 40, 15-21.
Tiedeman, D. V. (1964). The cultivation of career in vocational development through guidance-in-education (Harvard Studies in Career Development No. 29). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Harvard University, mainly at Cambridge, Mass., including Harvard College, the oldest American college. Harvard College
Harvard College, originally for men, was founded in 1636 with a grant from the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. , Graduate School of Education, Center for Research in Careers.
Lee J. Richmond, Department of Education, Loyola College in Maryland Loyola College in Maryland, formerly Loyola College, is a private, coeducational university in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, affiliated with the Society of Jesus and the Roman Catholic Church. ; Mark Pope Mark Edward Pope (born September 11 1972 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a former professional basketball player in the NBA. He played for the Indiana Pacers, the Milwaukee Bucks and the Denver Nuggets and enjoyed his best season in 2000-2001 when he averaged 2. , Division of Counseling and Family Therapy, University of Missouri-St. Louis. Tiedeman photo (this page) reprinted with permission. Correspondence concerning this introduction should be addressed to Mark Pope, Division of Counseling and Family Therapy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 415 Marillac Hall, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121-4400 (e-mail: email@example.com).