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International Military Education and Training: Agencies Should Emphasize Human Rights Training and Improve Evaluations.

GAO-12-123 October 27, 2011

Since 1976, the International Military Education and Training Formal or informal instruction provided to foreign military students, units, and forces on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis by offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors.  (IMET IMET international military education and training (US DoD)
IMET Incident Meteorologist (NOAA)
IMET Integrated Market Enforcement Team (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) 
) program has provided education and training to foreign military personnel. The program's objectives include professionalizing military forces and increasing respect for democratic values and human rights. In 2010, Congress appropriated $108 million in IMET funding for more than 120 countries. The Department of State (State) and the Department of Defense (DOD (1) (Dial On Demand) A feature that allows a device to automatically dial a telephone number. For example, an ISDN router with dial on demand will automatically dial up the ISP when it senses IP traffic destined for the Internet. ) share responsibility for IMET. In response to a mandate in the conference report accompanying the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010, this report assesses (1) changes in the program from fiscal years 2000 to 2010, by funding levels, students trained, and recipient countries; (2) the program's provision of and emphasis on human rights training for its students; and (3) the extent to which State and DOD monitor IMET graduates and evaluate program effectiveness. GAO reviewed and analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 agency funding, planning, and performance management documents, and interviewed U.S. officials in Washington, D.C., and overseas.

Although IMET funding has increased by more than 70 percent since fiscal year 2000, the number of students trained has decreased by nearly 14 percent. Over the last 10 years, countries in the Europe and Eurasia region have continued to receive the largest portion of IMET funding, receiving $30 million in 2010. However, all regions have received increased IMET funding since fiscal year 2000, with the levels of funding to the Near East and South and Central Asia regions more than doubling from fiscal year 2000 to fiscal year 2010. Professional military education represents the largest single use of IMET funds-- nearly 50 percent in fiscal year 2010. Other major types of training funded by IMET include English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations.  training and technical training, which represented 13 and 11 percent, respectively, of fiscal year 2010 IMET program costs. Training to build respect for internationally recognized human rights standards is provided to IMET students through various in-class and field-based courses, but human rights training was generally not identified as a priority in the IMET country training plans GAO reviewed. IMET students primarily receive human rights training through human rights courses that focus on promoting democratic values, and through a voluntary program that sends them on visits to democratically oriented o·ri·ent  
n.
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

2.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

3.
 institutions. However, human rights and related concepts were identified as key objectives in only 11 of the 29 country training plans GAO reviewed for IMET participant countries that received low rankings for political and civil freedoms by Freedom House, an independent nongovernmental organization nongovernmental organization (NGO)

Organization that is not part of any government. A key distinction is between not-for-profit groups and for-profit corporations; the vast majority of NGOs are not-for-profit.
. State and DOD's ability to assess IMET's effectiveness is limited by several weaknesses in program monitoring and evaluation. First, State and DOD have not established a performance plan for IMET that explains how the program is expected to achieve its goals and how progress can be assessed through performance measures and targets. Second, State and DOD have limited information on most IMET graduates, due to weaknesses in efforts to monitor these graduates' careers after training. DOD has collected updated career information on only 1 percent of IMET graduates. Training managers identified limited resources and lack of host country cooperation as among the key challenges to monitoring IMET graduates. Third, the agencies' current evaluation efforts include few of the evaluation elements commonly accepted as appropriate for measuring progress of training programs, and do not objectively measure how IMET contributes to long-term, desired program outcomes. The agencies could incorporate existing evaluation practices, including those of other State and DOD entities, or suggestions from training managers overseas to improve IMET monitoring and evaluation efforts. IMET training managers have offered suggestions for improving monitoring efforts, such as by clarifying DOD's monitoring guidance and strengthening DOD's IMET data systems. Training managers also offered ideas to improve program evaluations, such as surveying U.S. military groups to assess participant nations' proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy  
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.

Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence
 in key areas, assessing career progress of IMET graduates against non-IMET graduates in specific countries, and testing students before and after training to measure changes in knowledge or attitudes. GAO recommends that the Secretaries of State and Defense (1) ensure human rights training is a priority in IMET recipient countries with known human rights concerns, and (2) take initial steps to begin developing a system to evaluate the effectiveness of the IMET program, including adopting existing evaluation practices used by other State and DOD agencies and soliciting IMET training managers for suggestions on improving monitoring and evaluation efforts. State and DOD both concurred with our recommendations.

Recommendations

Our recommendations from this work are listed below with a Contact for more information. Status will change from "In process" to "Open," "Closed - implemented," or "Closed - not implemented" based on our follow up work.

Director: Lisa R. Shames

Team: Government Accountability Office The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress, and thus an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. : Natural Resources and Environment

Phone: (202) 512-2649

Director: Alicia P. Cackley

Team: Government Accountability Office: Financial Markets and Community Investment

Phone: (202) 512-7022

Director: David J. Wise

Team: Government Accountability Office: Physical Infrastructure

Phone: (202) 512-5731

Director: Orice Williams Brown

Team: Government Accountability Office: Financial Markets and Community Investment

Phone: (202) 512-5837

Director: Steven J. Sebastian

Team: Government Accountability Office: Financial Management and Assurance

Phone: (202) 512-9521

Director: Susan Ragland

Team: Government Accountability Office: Financial Management and Assurance

Phone: (202) 512-8486

Director: Jeanette M. Franzel

Team: Government Accountability Office: Financial Management and Assurance

Phone: (202) 512-9471

Director: Valerie C. Melvin

Team: Government Accountability Office: Information Technology

Phone: (202) 512-6304

Director: William T. Woods

Team: Government Accountability Office: Acquisition and Sourcing Management

Phone: (202) 512-8214

Director: Debra A. Draper drap·er  
n. Chiefly British
A dealer in cloth or clothing and dry goods.



[Middle English, weaver or seller of cloth, from Old French drapier, from drap, cloth; see
 

Team: Government Accountability Office: Health Care

Phone: (202)512-3000

Director: Linda T. Kohn

Team: Government Accountability Office: Health Care

Phone: (202)512-3000

Director: Carolyn L. Yocom

Team: Government Accountability Office: Natural Resources and Environment

Phone: (202) 512-4931

Director: Linda T. Kohn

Team: Government Accountability Office: Health Care

Phone: (202)512-3000

Director: Gregory D. Kutz

Team: Government Accountability Office: Forensic Belonging to courts of justice.


forensic 1) adj. from Latin forensis for "belonging to the forum," ancient Rome's site for public debate, and currently meaning pertaining to the courts.
 Audits and Investigative Service

Phone: (202) 512-9505

Director: Marcia G. Crosse

Team: Government Accountability Office: Health Care

Phone: (202) 512-3407

Director: Randall B. Williamson

Team: Government Accountability Office: Health Care

Phone: (206) 287-4860

Director: Mark L. Goldstein

Team: Government Accountability Office: Physical Infrastructure

Phone: (202) 512-6670

Director: Stephen L. Caldwell

Team: Government Accountability Office: Homeland Security and Justice

Phone: (202) 512-9610

Director: David C. Maurer

Team: Government Accountability Office: Homeland Security and Justice

Phone: (202) 512-9627

Director: Kay KAY Kick Ass Year
KAY Kansas Association of Youth
 E. Brown

Team: Government Accountability Office: Education, Workforce, and Income Security

Phone: (202) 512-3674

Director: David A. Powner

Team: Government Accountability Office: Information Technology

Phone: (202) 512-9286

Director: Gregory C. Wilshusen

Team: Government Accountability Office: Information Technology

Phone: (202) 512-6244

Director: Charles M. Johnson Jr

Team: Government Accountability Office: International Affairs Noun 1. international affairs - affairs between nations; "you can't really keep up with world affairs by watching television"
world affairs

affairs - transactions of professional or public interest; "news of current affairs"; "great affairs of state"
 and Trade

Phone: (202) 512-7331

Recommendations for Executive Action

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Recommendation: The Secretaries of State and Defense should take several steps to emphasize human rights training and improve evaluations for the IMET program. Specifically, the Secretaries of State and Defense should take steps to ensure that human rights training is identified as a priority for those IMET recipient countries with known records of human rights concerns. These steps may include highlighting human rights and related concepts in country training plans.

Agency Affected: Department of Defense

Status: In process

Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

Agency Affected: Department of State

Status: In process

Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

----------

Recommendation: The Secretaries of State and Defense should take several steps to emphasize human rights training and improve evaluations for the IMET program. Specifically, the Secretaries of State and Defense should take initial steps toward developing a system for evaluating the effectiveness of the IMET program. These steps should build on current efforts toward a more systematic collection of performance information--at multiple points in time, over several years, and for a set of objective performance measures--and should include: (1) adopting existing evaluation practices used by other State and DOD agencies, such as periodically surveying program participants to assess changes in knowledge or attitudes, and (2) soliciting ideas from training managers and applying their suggestions on improving program monitoring practices and evaluations, including for the development of objective performance measures that could assess program impact over time.

Agency Affected: Department of Defense

Status: In process

Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

Agency Affected: Department of State

Status: In process

Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

Categories: International Affairs, Appropriations, Combat readiness Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to missions or functions performed in combat. , Defense capabilities, Education program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. , Federal funds Federal Funds

Funds deposited to regional Federal Reserve Banks by commercial banks, including funds in excess of reserve requirements.

Notes:
These non-interest bearing deposits are lent out at the Fed funds rate to other banks unable to meet overnight reserve
, Foreign military assistance, Foreign military training, International Military Education and Training Program, International relations international relations, study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, , Military forces, Military personnel, Military training, Monitoring, Surveys, Training utilization
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Publication:General Accounting Office Reports & Testimony
Date:Nov 1, 2011
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