Intermediate level education: helping to combat field artillery atrophy.[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
The white paper The King and I: The impending crisis in field artillery's ability to provide fire support to maneuver commanders, which was written by three former brigade combat team The brigade combat team (BCT) is the basic deployable unit of maneuver in the US Army. A brigade combat team consists of one combat arms branched maneuver brigade, and its attached support and fire units. commanders, openly challenges the deterioration of the field artillery branch at an alarming rate. The paper centers around the authors' assertion that "no branch of the Army has suffered a greater identity crisis than (the) field artillery, as a result of transformation, (counterinsurgency coun·ter·in·sur·gen·cy
Political and military strategy or action intended to oppose and forcefully suppress insurgency.
coun )--centric operations and the non-standard manpower demands of (Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom)." In light of this white paper, the Fires Center of Excellence and the Command and General Staff Officer College developed several initiatives to alleviate this perceived concern and help combat the atrophy of field artillery skills among the branch's mid-level officers.
Intermediate level education has always been viewed as a course that provides an officer the opportunity to build a solid educational foundation for future assignments. Unfortunately, unless an officer is selected for attendance at the War College, intermediate level education is probably the last educational opportunity for most field grade officers. Therefore, it is the last opportunity to provide both field artillery and maneuver officers the ability to gain higher-level proficiency in Fires during their field grade years. Intermediate level education provides a superb educational environment to make an impact on the skill set of field artillery mid-grade officers before they move into the critical positions of battalion executive officer, battalion operations officer and brigade fire support officer.
Core skills. The Fires Center of Excellence addressed this perception of deteriorating skills by developing the Field Artillery Campaign plan. It specifically laid out several programs to rebuild the field artillery experience base, re-establish training capacity and restore senior leader oversight. To rebuild the field artillery experience base, MG Peter Vangjel, former commanding general of the Fires Center of Excellence, proposed expanding the Field Artillery Captain's Career Course from 20 to 24 weeks; Pre-Command Course from two to three weeks and Noncommissioned Officer Education System up to four weeks. Second, he recommended increasing the emphasis on Fires within intermediate level education. By lengthening the courses and increasing the emphasis on fire support skills, Vangjel was attempting to broaden the professional knowledge foundation throughout the force.
Re-Redding training. The dilemma facing field artillery officers when they arrive at intermediate level education is they normally have come from a non-field artillery branch assignment. The normal career progression has these officers commanding a battery between their sixth and ninth years of service followed by a stint in an active or reserve training unit, teaching at a branch school or serving at recruiting command or in a non-field artillery coded position. In most instances, they have not served in a field artillery unit in two to three years. Couple this with numerous nonstandard non·stan·dard
1. Varying from or not adhering to the standard: nonstandard lengths of board.
2. missions, and many of these officers end up not performing field artillery core tasks in several years.
To combat this, the Fires Center of Excellence developed a "re-Redding" training program. This training is conducted one to two weeks prior to the start of the intermediate level education academic year and consists of a four-day training program designed to bring the incoming students up to speed on current doctrine; tactics, techniques and procedures; and field artillery operations (See the above figure for the program's curriculum). It focuses on both fire support officer and field artillery operations skills that will prepare these officers better to act as the subject matter expert within their 16-person staff group during the academic year and, ultimately, their future assignments. Classes use the existing curriculum from the Fire Support Coordinator, Joint Fires, Electronic Warfare Noun 1. electronic warfare - military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine or exploit or reduce or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum
military action, action - a military engagement; "he saw action in Korea" and Information Operation Courses currently taught at Fort Sill Fort Sill, U.S. military reservation, Comanche co., SW Okla., 4 mi (6.4 km) N of Lawton; est. 1869 by Gen. Philip Sheridan. A 95,000-acre (38,445-hectare) field artillery and missile base, it is the home of the U.S. Army Artillery and Missile Center. , Okla.
Intermediate Level Education Core and Advanced Operations Courses. Students spend the majority of their time in the Core and Advanced Operations Courses discussing doctrine, tactics and complex problems at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. Using both the joint operation planning and execution system A system that provides the foundation for conventional command and control by national- and combatant command-level commanders and their staffs. It is designed to satisfy their information needs in the conduct of joint planning and operations. , and military decision making process, officers employ current doctrine to analyze and develop solutions to complex problems embedded in doctrine. Working as a member of a simulated joint and Army staff, each student analyzes and develops products from the Combined Forces Land Component Command to the brigade combat team perspective. These products include identifying the problem, mission analysis and development of an operations plan or order.
During the analysis, students discuss the various war fighting functions as well as the enablers that make a combined, division or brigade headquarters successful. Fires skills--both lethal and nonlethal fires--are discussed in various blocks of instruction at the macro level during both the Core and Advanced Operations Courses. The majority of the learning within each staff group occurs through discussions field artillery officers have with their fellow classmates as they work through complex and diverse problem sets. If an inbound field artillery officer is not well versed in lethal and nonlethal fires, then the staff group does not gain a full appreciation of how fires contribute to success in full-spectrum operations. It is, therefore, essential we bring each incoming officer up to speed on fire support matters so each staff group gets the full benefit of having a field artillery subject matter expect in its educational process. The "re-Redding" program significantly increases the skill set of each incoming field artillery officer and benefits not only the field artillery officer at intermediate level education, but, also, the entire staff group.
Electives. After completing the Core and Advanced Operations Courses' curriculum, officers are required to complete 192 hours of electives. They run the full gamut of full-spectrum operations and are taught by subject matter experts from within the college. In addition to supporting the students' overall long-term professional development, the electives provide an opportunity to focus on the students' educational needs for their upcoming assignments. The elective program supports the awarding of additional skill identifiers and is an integral part of the master of Military Art and Science Program. Electives also support the Command and General Staff School's language program, prepare selected students for the Advanced Military Studies Program offered by the School of Advanced Military Studies and give students the opportunity to enroll in electives to support their own goals.
We are constantly updating the course material to ensure it remains relevant and current and, more importantly, provides master's level expertise. Within the electives program, there are eight fires focused and related courses that field artillery officers entering intermediate level education should consider taking as part of their professional development. Senior artillerymen in the college challenge each incoming class to take these electives to build a strong foundation. Even with this challenge, the responsibility for self-improvement fully rests on each officer. All officers must look at their respective backgrounds and operational experiences, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, and select those electives that will improve their professional knowledge base.
The courses outlined below all contain either a pure Fires curriculum or focus on critical aspects of both lethal and nonlethal fires that will assist students in developing into well-rounded officers.
"A307 Fires in Contemporary Operations" encompasses discussions on the planning and synchronizing of both lethal and nonlethal fires at the division level and below.
"A335 S3/XO Roles in Full Spectrum Operations" focuses on preparing students to become successful battalion and brigade operations and executive officers. Classes focus on the duties and responsibilities of an operations and executive officer in developing intelligence preparation of the battlefield; intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance may refer to:
"A532 Joint Targeting and Effects" covers in detail, joint planning using the joint targeting model, the six-step targeting cycle and the four-step ground targeting cycle.
"A866 Joint Firepower Control" is modeled after the Joint Firepower Control Course academic curriculum taught by the Air-Ground Operations School at Nellis Air Force Base Nellis Air Force Base (IATA: LSV, ICAO: KLSV) is a United States Air Force base, in Clark County, Nevada, on the northeast side of Las Vegas. It is also treated as a census-designated place by the United States Census for statistical purposes, and so specific , Nev. Students who complete this course earn the 5U Air Operations Officer Additional Skill Identifier.
"A544 Information Operations Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one's own information and information systems. Also called IO. See also defensive information operations; information; offensive information operations; operation. " examines this nonlethal fires capability at primarily the operational and strategic levels.
"A578 Fundamentals of Civil Affairs Designated Active and Reserve component forces and units organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs activities and to support civil-military operations. Also called CA. See also civil affairs activities; civil-military operations. and Psychological Operations Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. " explores the characteristics of psychological operations and civil affairs at the tactical and operational level as well as civil affairs units in global operations Global Operations is a first-person shooter computer game developed by Barking Dog Studios and published by both Crave Entertainment and Electronic Arts. It was released in March of 2002, following its public multiplayer beta version which contained only the Quebec map. .
"A366 Joint Automated Deep Operations Deep operations was a military doctrine developed by the Soviet Union for its armed forces during the 1920s and 1930s. It was fully developed with the 1936 Field Regulations. Coordination System Fundamentals" is designed as a hands-on class. It focuses on leadership and oversight skills required to understand the functions and capabilities of the Joint Automated Deep Operations Coordination System application in supporting the commander's decision-making process.
"A368 Digital Fire Support Operations--Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System/Effects Management Tool" is another hands-on course that provides students with a general understanding of the functions, capabilities and battlefield architecture issues relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System and its client, the Effects Management Tool.
"Targeting in a Hybrid Environment" is a new elective designed to study the integration and coordination of all nonlethal enablers in an era of persistent conflict. The hybrid environment encompasses multiple threats and is more than just information exchange, and command and control warfare The integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities, while protecting , but, also, includes civil affairs, civil military operations This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. Missions in support of other missions are not listed independently. World War I
''See also List of military engagements of World War I
The classes cover a wide range of topics: interagency operations, partner and host nation concerns and issues, information operations from a joint perspective, commander's communications strategy, space support in the detect and deliver realm and working with contractors. The elective also discusses public diplomacy Those overt international public information activities of the United States Government designed to promote United States foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by broadening the dialogue between American , theater security cooperation, intelligence support to nonlethal targeting, culture, religion and fires in support of U.S. Northern Command and homeland defense. This elective challenges the students to understand these complex issues fully and build a foundation to combat future adversaries.
Active participant. These are designed to improve lethal and nonlethal skills to make mid-level officers more successful across the full spectrum of operations. Now that these initiatives have been outlined in the Field Artillery Campaign Plan and become operational, the rest is up to field artillery officers across the force and, specifically, those officers about to attend intermediate level education.
Each field artillery officer needs to be an active participant in the "re-Redding" program at the beginning of intermediate level education to be the subject matter expert in his or her respective staff group. Each must be an advocate within his staff group for both lethal and nonlethal fires during the numerous joint operation planning and execution system and military decision-making process planning sessions throughout the academic year.
These officers must identify electives within the Fires realm that best benefit their background and experience. Using these initiatives and programs, mid-level field artillery officers can ensure they remain relevant and current as they go back to the field, combat the degradation of Fires skills and assume critical roles in fires battalions and brigades.
By COL (Ret.) James L. Davis
Colonel (Retired) James L. Davis, field artillery, is an assistant professor in the Center for Army Tactics and the field artillery subject expert for the Command and General Staff College The Command and General Staff College (C&GSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a United States Army facility that functions as a graduate school for U.S. military leaders. It was originally established in 1881 as a school for infantry and cavalry. . His previous assignments include commander of the fire Support Test Directorate; commander of the 6th Battalion, 27th field Artillery; and G3, III Corps List of military corps — List of military corps by number
A number of countries have Third, or III, Corps:
Field artillery "re-Redding" curriculum Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 * Brigade combat * Concept of * Cannon * Field team/Fires cell Fires precision artillery development Fires/Guided operations * Lines of effort Multiple-Launch * Accuracy Rocket System * Fires * Decide, detect, versus precision Knowledge deliver and (Precision-Strike * Targeting Network assess targeting Suite-Special meetings, reach back process Operations working groups Force) and boards * Training * Assessment and Doctrine * Collateral * Rehearsal/ Command * "Liberty damage battle Capabilities Thunder" estimate drills Manager operations order brief * Joint air * Fire support * Cannon, support coordinator rockets and planning trends missiles, and sensors * Airspace command and control * Electronic warfare planning and integration