Interest earned: with markets healthy, metals recyclers have been investing in upgraded sorting equipment.Recent years have been prosperous ones for many metals recyclers, resulting in the kind of market that has given many companies the confidence to boost their plant and equipment line items and capital investments.
Among those for whom such investments are among the most considerable are operators of auto shredding shred
1. A long irregular strip that is cut or torn off.
2. A small amount; a particle: not a shred of evidence.
tr.v. plants. The shredding plants themselves can require significant maintenance and periodic upgrading, while the downstream systems can entail an additional level of attention.
When it comes to configuring downstream portions of auto shredding plants, the key recently has been automated sorting and separating.
MAGNETIC ATTRACTION. The power of magnets to attract ferrous ferrous (fĕr`əs), iron in the +2 valence state.
Containing or having to do with iron. The difference between ferrous and ferric is the number of valence electrons they contain (ferrous contains two and ferric contains three), which metal remains a vital first step in sorting and separating at shredding plants in particular.
Although most new magnetic products and technologies involve advances in identifying and separating the nonferrous portion of the shredded stream, pulling out the ferrous shred remains critical.
Drum magnets and suspended magnets have been employed in this task since auto shredders were first designed and installed, and the casual observer may not notice whether much has changed in this area.
But Don Morgan Don Morgan is a Canadian provincial politician. He is the Saskatchewan Party member of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan for the constituency of Saskatoon Southeast. , a product manager based in the Milwaukee office of Walker Magnetics, remarks that there have been advances and changes in preference in these workhorses over the decades.
Permanent magnets permanent magnets,
n.pl magnets containing the mineral boron and the rare earth metal neodymium; often combined to create a neoprene or ceramic entity. and electro-magnets vie for market share in this segment, with recent advances in permanent magnets allowing them to provide agitation of material that can help improve performance.
"Theoretically, the field strength is very similar" between the two types of magnets, says Morgan, who also notes that purchasers may favor one style over the other for different reasons.
"An advantage of electro-magnets is that you can shut them off," he comments. "With permanent magnets always being on, that can entail some maintenance problems."
Permanent magnets, however, conserve power relative to the their electro-magnetic counterparts. The amount of power saved, in the scheme of entire shredding plant, is probably "peanuts" Morgan also notes.
The advent of rare earth materials Earth materials is a general term that includes rocks and materials that are not by definition rocks but are commonly regarded as rocks. Examples of the latter are coal and volcanic glass, which are not composed of minerals. ill the 1980s helped lend added strength to some magnets, Morgan also notes. "A number of years ago, permanent magnets had to be within 10 or 12 inches of the conveyor, but the new rare earth ones can be suspended up to 15 inches away and still equate with an electro-magnet," he remarks.
The drum magnet remains the "bulk worker" at many shredding plants, says Morgan, while suspended cross-belt magnets often pick up remaining ferrous material later in the process.
One variation on the traditional ferrous magnet is a stainless steel stainless steel: see steel.
Any of a family of alloy steels usually containing 10–30% chromium. The presence of chromium, together with low carbon content, gives remarkable resistance to corrosion and heat. separator offered by SGM SGM
sergeant major Magnetics. It pulls out and sends iron and carbon steel material onto one path and also pulls out slightly magnetic stainless steel fragments and, via a splitter, sends them into another stream.
Analyzing what has been shredded for its nonferrous content is a task being addressed by bulk scrap analyzers offered by companies such as Gamma-Tech LLC (Logical Link Control) See "LANs" under data link protocol.
LLC - Logical Link Control or Austin AI.
Jim Schwartz Jim Schwartz (Born July 2nd, 1966) is the current defensive coordinator for the NFL's Tennessee Titans.
Schwartz is well-known among the NFL's statistical analysis fanbase for his work with Aaron Schatz of Football Outsiders on a number of research studies. of Metso-Texas Shredder's San Antonio San Antonio (săn ăntō`nēō, əntōn`), city (1990 pop. 935,933), seat of Bexar co., S central Tex., at the source of the San Antonio River; inc. 1837. office notes that Metal Management Inc., PSC (Public Service Commission) Same as PUC. Metals and the River Metals Recycling subsidiary of David J David J. Haskins (b. April 24, 1957, in Northampton, England) is a British alternative rock musician. He was the bassist for the seminal gothic rock band Bauhaus. Life and work . Joseph are among the recyclers using the machines to determine which portions of their shredded streams are suitable to upgrade as low-copper shipments. "It clearly addresses the trend of steel mills wanting to know their copper levels before they melt," says Schwartz.
POLAR OPPOSITES. While traditional magnets attract the iron-bearing portion, magnetic technology of different sorts address the nonferrous metals stream at shredder plants.
Eddy current Eddy current
An electric current induced within the body of a conductor when that conductor either moves through a nonuniform magnetic field or is in a region where there is a change in magnetic flux. It is sometimes called Foucault current. technology, which sends nonferrous metal flying away via magnetic repelling, is well established at shredder plants.
Increasingly, it is being supplemented by induction sorting machines offered by companies such as Steinert and SSE/Wendt Corp.
Effective induction sorting allows shredding plant operators to recover more nonferrous metals that even the best eddy current units might miss, including stainless steel fragments.
Testimonials from Steinert customers such as General Iron Industries in Chicago, posted on the company's Web site, indicate that installing one of the machines can quickly pay off. General Iron's Adam Labkon remarks, "Since installing our 80-inch [induction sorting system], we are recovering about five tons of nonferrous daily, most of which is stainless steel and some wire and other hard-to-get metal, such as breakage or balled-up nonferrous."
In addition to considering induction sorting units, shredder operators are now also being offered the chance to deploy an X-ray identification and separating technology that has been offered since 2004 by the German company SSE (1) An earlier full-screen editor in OS/2.
(2) (Streaming SIMD Extensions) A series of additional instructions built into Pentium CPU chips for improved multimedia performance by performing mathematical operations on multiple sets of data at the , represented in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. by Wendt Corp.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Bill Close of Wendt Corp., the first X-tract unit has been on the job at a Camden Iron & Metal facility since early this year. The device uses X-ray detection to identify metals by atomic density and then uses a series of air jet nozzles to separate the materials after they are identified.
Close says the machine is best used on a high-metals concentrate stream, such as a post-shredder Zorba grade. "Of the input, approximately 70 percent might be aluminum, and what this machine allows you do to is separate and upgrade that to sell directly to the secondary consuming market," he notes. "The X-tract totally strips the zinc from the flow, and that zinc is a downgrade on that material."
The unit at Camden Iron "has been running for about one month, and what they are telling me is that they are easily getting into the secondary aluminum markets and close to getting to the primary markets," says Close. The device "can support up to 10 tons per hour of input," he notes, which can equal one large shredding plant served by four eddy currents.
Wendt is installing another X-tract machine at a Commercial Metals Co. shredder yard in South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures
Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15. , and believes each installation will yield customer visits and additional sales.
Is there a next step after X-ray sorting? One possibility is optical sorting of the remaining non-aluminum "heavies," which can consist of copper, brass, zinc and loose coins. "Optical sorting is an option now, and I anticipate that it will become a popular option in the future," says Close.
Should global commodity prices remain aloft, attention to extraction and sorting will only increase.
DE-ZINCING. Separation technology is not found only at shredder yards, as one recent transaction in the scrap industry attests.
OmniSource Corp., Fort Wayne Fort Wayne, city (1990 pop. 173,072), seat of Allen co., NE Ind., where the St. Joseph and St. Marys rivers join to form the Maumee River; inc. 1840. It is the second largest city in the state, a major railroad and shipping point, a wholesale and distribution hub, , Ind., and Meretec Corp., East Chicago East Chicago, city (1990 pop. 33,892), Lake co., extreme NW Ind., on Lake Michigan, in the industrialized Calumet region, adjoining Gary, Hammond, and Whiting; inc. 1889. , Ind., have entered into an exclusive agreement to commercialize Meretec's de-zincing technology throughout the United States. Meretec holds an international patent for technology that removes and reclaims zinc from galvanized gal·va·nize
tr.v. gal·va·nized, gal·va·niz·ing, gal·va·niz·es
1. To stimulate or shock with an electric current.
2. and zinc-coated ferrous scrap.
Reclaimed zinc is processed into a high-purity zinc powder, suitable for a specialty applications as well as typical commodity grade consumption. The process also returns a premium-grade shredded ferrous product, characterized by low-residual chemistries, improved density and higher yields than coated scrap, according to Meretec.
OmniSource will be responsible for sourcing raw materials and marketing the finished scrap products while Meretec will operate the patented processing facility in East Chicago and provide technical support. The companies will work jointly to develop on-site management programs that could include new processing plants for specific industrial generators, steel mills and iron foundries, according to a news release from OmniSource.
"We believe there is great potential for the application of the Meretec technology in metals recycling," says Danny Rifkin, OmniSource president.
Martin Young, Meretec chairman, says, "Meretec is convinced that combining our technology with OmniSource's material sourcing and market expertise will help bring this revolutionary process to the U.S. metals recycling market in the most efficient way possible."
Meretec is a subsidiary of Metals Investment Trust Ltd., a U.K.-based holding company that is currently negotiating licenses for its de-zincing process worldwide. Its first formal licensing agreement with Southern Recycling in Australia was finalized in May of 2005, with agreements in Asia and Europe pending.
The Meretec plant in East Chicago was established in 2002 and was originally designed and equipped to handle up to 115,000 metric tons of scrap per year. At that time, meretec managers estimated that the average ton of galvanized scrap should yield about 40 pounds of zinc flake product for outbound shipment.
Such investments in machines and even entire companies are an indicator of the measures scrap companies are taking to maximize the resale value of the many materials they handle.
RELATED ARTICLE: Sorting or separating?
Is a magnetic separator a sorter? Sort of!
Magnetic sorting consists of using the power and influence of magnetic devices to sort ferrous products from non-magnetic debris. Magnetic separators, whether magnetic pulleys, suspended magnets or magnetic drums that are placed appropriately in a system can remove or sort these ferrous materials from those that are non-magnetic.
Now what about the valued metallics that cannot be recovered magnetically? Certainly you can hand sort. You can also size the material to sort out oversize o·ver·size
1. A size that is larger than usual.
2. An oversize article or object.
adj. o·ver·size also o·ver·sized
Larger in size than usual or necessary.
Adj. 1. from fines. You can classify material by specific gravity specific gravity, ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of some reference substance, or, equivalently, the ratio of the masses of equal volumes of the two substances. , but you could also use an eddy current unit that sorts by conductivity and particle density The particle density or true density of a particulate solid or powder, is the density of the particles that make up the powder, in contrast to the bulk density, which measures the average density of a large volume of the powder in a specific medium (usually air). . Thomas Edison, who had the first patent on an eddy current device in 1889, did not have rare earth permanent magnet material available during his lifetime, nor were there aluminum cans to recover.
Magnets can sort nonferrous metals, classifying the conductive material such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, etc., using a rotor of alternating poles, like a motor. Furthermore, all metal separators can sort even smaller particles missed by eddy currents by using inductive inductive
1. eliciting a reaction within an organism.
a form of radiofrequency hyperthermia that selectively heats muscle, blood and proteinaceous tissue, sparing fat and air-containing tissues. detection methods
--Don Morgan, product manager/magnetic separation specialist. Walker Magnetics, Milwaukee
The author is editor of Recycling Today and can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.