Integrating play into the curriculum.
While integrating play into the curriculum usually is a priority for teachers of pre-kindergarten and kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be children, it is generally abandoned for the higher grades. Yet play is deemed beneficial for all children (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 1988; Johnson, Christie & Yawkey, 1987; Piaget, 1962; Vygotsky, 1976; Wassermann, 1992). Children of all ages develop cognitively, socially, emotionally and physically through play. Play enriches the thinking of children and provides them with opportunities to create, invent, reason and problem solve. Furthermore, as children play, they learn social skills such as how to negotiate, resolve conflicts, take turns and share. Play opportunities help children develop friendships and provide a release from the stresses they face (Elkind, 1981). Play is also the primary way children develop physically.
Educators are often reluctant, however, to include play in the curriculum. Bergen suggests that "play has been undervalued Undervalued
A stock or other security that is trading below its true value.
The difficulty is knowing what the "true" value actually is. Analysts will usually recommend an undervalued stock with a strong buy rating. as a curricular tool by educators and parents because society has defined the goals of learning, especially school learning, very narrowly . . ." (Bergen, 1988, p. 1). Yet, when the goals of learning are broadly defined, educators find that play is a highly effective vehicle for enabling "students to learn more about what is important in the 'hard line' curriculum areas of math, science, social studies and language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. " (Wassermann, 1992, p. 136). Wassermann (1992) suggests that "virtually every important concept to be taught - whether it be at the primary, intermediate or graduate level or whether it be in science, math, economics or business management - can be taught through the medium of serious play" (p. 137).
Play also "affords teachers the opportunity to go with the 'natural flow of learning'" (Stone, 1993, p. 3). Children love to play. In play, they are able to create new things, take risks without the fear of failure, direct their own learning and actively engage their minds and hands (Wassermann, 1992). This natural learning environment supports each child's construction of his own knowledge of the world and his place in it (Stone, 1995).
Integrating play into the curriculum first requires an understanding that play is valuable, that children learn through play, and, therefore, that play can be a beneficial component of the curriculum across the grades. Second, one needs to be committed to incorporating play into the curriculum. This becomes easier when using an integrated curriculum model.
The Integrated Curriculum
An integrated curriculum allows children to experience learning holistically, as it is in the real world, rather than segmented into specific content areas such as reading, science, social studies and math. Students must make connections across the disciplines (Jacobs, 1991). An integrated curriculum makes learning relevant and meaningful for children, and is compatible with our understanding of the ways children learn and develop.
The process of integrating a curriculum begins when the teacher (and students) select a theme, topic or concept to study. Take care to fit facts and topics together, ensuring that the theme study does not result in a series of disconnected activities. Global themes such as "change," "freedom" and "patterns" lend themselves easily to integration (Nielsen, 1989).
The topic is then placed in the center of a curriculum web. Various areas of the curriculum branch from the web, such as science, language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking), math, social studies, art, music, health and physical education. Next, the class generates learning experiences across the curriculum around the common theme, topic or concept.
Integrating Play into the Curriculum
The first step toward integrating play into the curriculum is to branch it from a curriculum web, giving play an important place alongside the more accepted curricular components [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED]. Next, brainstorm ideas for each web area, including play. Using these ideas, develop centers, projects and large and small group learning experiences.
For the play component, decide what play experiences and play types would be effective learning tools for this theme, topic or concept. Using Piaget's (1962) cognitive levels of play, these experiences may be classified as functional play, constructive play, sociodramatic play or games with rules. Functional play occurs when a child finds "functional" pleasure in interacting with the environment, such as moving something back and forth, splashing water or jumping up and down. The child engages in repetitive actions simply for pleasure. In constructive play, a child creates something, constructs a product or solves a problem. Building with blocks, painting a picture, sculpting sculpting Cosmetic surgery The surgical reshaping of a tissue. See Deep tissue sculpting, Facial sculpting. with clay and creating a song or dance are all examples of constructive play. In sociodramatic play, children transform simple objects into play tools. A block becomes a car, and a stick becomes a horse. Children also take on fantasy roles, pretending to be a mother or father, Superman Superman
invincible scourge of crime. [Comics: Horn, 642–643]
See : Crime Fighting
superhero under guise of Clark Kent, mild-mannered reporter. or Wonder Woman, a teacher or doctor, or Goldilocks gold·i·locks
pl.n. (used with a sing. or pl. verb)
A European plant (Aster linosyris) having narrow sessile leaves and dense corymbs of small, bright yellow, discoid flower heads. or Papa Bear.
Figure 1 contains an integrated curriculum web for primary age children in which play is a prime component. Using the topic of "rocks," children will participate in centers, projects and experiences related to this topic across the curriculum. Young children will weigh rocks (math), classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. rocks (science), find mountain ranges on a map (social studies) and read and write reports, stories and poems about rocks (language arts).
Adding the play component opens yet another dimension of exploration, discovery and enjoyment for children. For example, play experiences with rocks could include the following:
* dramatizing a fictional story such as Sylvester and the Magic Pebble Pebble - A polymorphic language.
["A Kernel Language for Abstract Data Types and Modules", R.M. Burstall & B. Lampson, in Semantics of Data Types, LNCS 173, Springer 1984]. (Steig, 1969) (sociodramatic play)
* feeling pebbles and rocks (functional play)
* washing rocks (functional play)
* pretending to be an archaeologist in a sand area (sociodramatic play)
* making rock sculptures (constructive play)
* building with rocks (constructive play)
* playing the game "Pebble, Pebble, Who's Got the Pebble?" (games with rules)
* exploring rocks (open-ended play experience).
A monster theme may include the following play experiences for primary children:
* dramatizing Where the Wild Things Are (Sendak, 1963) (sociodramatic play)
* creating monsters with math tangrams (constructive play)
* painting monsters (constructive play)
* building block monsters (constructive play)
* creating a monster dance (constructive play)
* playing "Monster, May I?" (games with rules)
* playing There's a Nightmare in My Closet (Mayer, 1968) with flannel flannel, large group of napped plain-weave or twill-weave fabrics made of cotton, wool, or man-made fibers. Flannel fabrics vary in closeness or firmness of weave and in degree of napping. graph figures on a flannel board (sociodramatic play).
Play experiences should also be an active component of the curriculum for the intermediate grades [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]. Consider the following play experiences that can be incorporated within a literature theme based on Sarah, Plain and Tall (MacLachlan, 1985):
* creating a play "house" similar to the one in Sarah, Plain and Tall; recreating several themes from the story (constructive play/sociodramatic play)
* creating travel board games This is a list of board games. This page classifies board games according to the concerns which might be uppermost for someone organizing a gaming event or party. See the article on game classification for other alternatives, or see for a list of board game articles. for traveling by sea and traveling by land in the 1800s (constructive play/games with rules)
* playing games typical of the time period (games with rules)
* painting watercolor prairie prairie
Level or rolling grassland, especially that found in central North America. Decreasing amounts of rainfall, from 40 in. (100 cm) at the forested eastern edge to less than 12 in. flowers (constructive play)
* creating charcoal drawings (Fine Arts) a drawing made with charcoal. See Charcoal, 2. Until within a few years this material has been used almost exclusively for preliminary outline, etc., but at present many finished drawings are made with it.
See also: Charcoal of items from the story (constructive play)
* feeling shells from the sea (functional play)
* building replicas from the prairie house/farm using cardboard (constructive play)
* reenacting emotional issues from the story (sociodramatic play)
* reinventing uses for common tools on the prairie (constructive play).
The topic of archaeology archaeology (ärkēŏl`əjē) [Gr.,=study of beginnings], a branch of anthropology that seeks to document and explain continuity and change and similarities and differences among human cultures. also lends itself to serious play for older children:
* building a prehistoric pre·his·tor·ic also pre·his·tor·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or belonging to the era before recorded history.
2. Of or relating to a language before it is first recorded in writing. museum (constructive play)
* creating sand replicas of pyramids, Stonehenge, etc. (constructive play)
* playing with excavation excavation
In archaeology, the exposure, recording, and recovery of buried material remains. The techniques employed vary by the type of site, but all forms of archaeological excavation require great skill and careful preparation. tools before learning the purpose of each (functional/exploratory play)
* inventing a prehistoric animal with paint or clay (constructive play)
* creating an archaeological dig (constructive play/sociodramatic play)
* making fossils with clay (constructive play)
* playing an "Indiana Jones" board game (games with rules)
* writing and then dramatizing a story involving a prehistoric time period or the field of archaeology (sociodramatic play).
Playing Across the Curriculum
Children also enjoy "playing across the curriculum," which involves finding avenues for play within the content areas. Play experiences are incorporated into math, science, social studies, language arts, art and music. Consider the following activities using the general topic of "change."
* changes in matter (science): blowing bubbles (functional play)
* changes in matter (science): growing crystals (constructive play)
* changes in color (art): mixing paints for art (constructive play)
* changes in feelings (social studies): acting out the change in feelings from Beauty and the Beast Beauty and the Beast is a traditional fairy tale (type 425C -- search for a lost husband -- in the Aarne-Thompson classification). The first published version of the fairy tale was a meandering rendition by Madame Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve, published in (sociodramatic play)
* changes in appearance (social studies): playing a game where one child changes his appearance and the other children guess what is changed (games with rules)
* magical changes in literature (language arts): acting out Cinderella or The Frog Prince frog prince
transformed by a witch, he is turned back into a prince by favor of a princess. [Ger. Fairy Tale: Grimm]
See : Transformation (sociodramatic play)
* changes in shapes (math): creating designs with geometric shapes This is a list of geometric shapes. Generally composed of straight line segments
If play is incorporated into an integrated curriculum, children can explore, discover, problem solve, invent, experiment, imitate im·i·tate
tr.v. im·i·tat·ed, im·i·tat·ing, im·i·tates
1. To use or follow as a model.
a. , dramatize dram·a·tize
v. dram·a·tized, dram·a·tiz·ing, dram·a·tiz·es
1. To adapt (a literary work) for dramatic presentation, as in a theater or on television or radio.
2. and enjoy both the content and the process of learning experiences. As Wassermann (1992) notes, ". . . play allows children to make discoveries that go far beyond the realm of what we adults think is important to know" (p. 133). Play facilitates children's development of knowledge, spirit of inquiry, creativity and conceptual understanding (Wassermann, 1992).
Children of all ages should be provided opportunities within the integrated curriculum to play with words, paints, cubes, problems, materials and music as they become the writers, poets, artists, architects, scientists and musicians of tomorrow.
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Elkind, D. (1981). The hurried hur·ried
a. Moving or acting rapidly.
b. Required to move or act more rapidly; rushed.
2. Done in great haste: a hurried tour. child: Growing up too fast too soon. Menlo Park Menlo Park.
1 Residential city (1990 pop. 28,040), San Mateo co., W Calif.; inc. 1874. Electronic equipment and aerospace products are manufactured in the city. Menlo College and a Stanford Univ. research institute are there.
2 Uninc. , CA: Addison-Wesley.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Harper & Row.
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Nielsen, M. E. (1989). Integrative learning Integrative Learning is a learning theory describing a movement toward integrated lessons helping students make connections across curricula. This higher education concept is distinct from the elementary and high school "integrated curriculum" movement. for young children: A thematic the·mat·ic
1. Of, relating to, or being a theme: a scene of thematic importance.
2. approach. Educational Horizons, 68(1), 18-24.
Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams and imitation imitation, in music, a device of counterpoint wherein a phrase or motive is employed successively in more than one voice. The imitation may be exact, the same intervals being repeated at the same or different pitches, or it may be free, in which case numerous types in childhood. New York: Norton.
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Vygotsky, L. S. (1976). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. In J. S. Bruner, A. Jolly & K. Sylva syl·va
Variant of silva.
Noun 1. sylva - the forest trees growing in a country or region
timberland, woodland, forest, timber - land that is covered with trees and shrubs (Eds.), Play: Its role in development and evolution (pp. 537-544). New York: Basic Books.
Wassermann, S. (1992). Serious play in the classroom: How messing around can win you the Nobel Prize Nobel Prize, award given for outstanding achievement in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, peace, or literature. The awards were established by the will of Alfred Nobel, who left a fund to provide annual prizes in the five areas listed above. . Childhood Education, 68, 133-139.