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Integrating internet-based mathematical manipulatives within a learning environment.

The use of manipulatives within a mathematical classroom environment has traditionally been offered through the use of manufactured or teacher-created concrete objects. Manufactured manipulatives are ones such as Cuisenaire rods Cuisenaire rods are mathematical manipulatives used in elementary school as well as other levels of learning and even with adults. They were initially used for mathematics and are now typically used to demonstrate vulgar fractions (generally called "common fractions" in the US. , color tiles, Unifix cubes cubes

See QQQ.
, pattern blocks, colored craft sticks, or other related, mass-produced mass-pro·duce
tr.v. mass-pro·duced, mass-pro·duc·ing, mass-pro·duc·es
To manufacture in large quantities often by or as if by assembly-line techniques.

Adj. 1.
 objects. Teacher-created concrete objects consist of cardstock, foam, or other paper templates similar to manufactured manipulatives. These are used to provide tactile-kinesthetic learning activities to enhance mathematics conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize  
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
. The Information Age offers mathematics educators the opportunity to integrate the use of digital manipulatives similar to manufactured and teacher-created ones using the World Wide Web (WWW WWW or W3: see World Wide Web.

(World Wide Web) The common host name for a Web server. The "www-dot" prefix on Web addresses is widely used to provide a recognizable way of identifying a Web site.
 or Web) as an innovative medium to expand the learner's conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project.
 of understanding. The availability of such web-based mathematical manipulatives A mathematical manipulative is an object which is designed so that the student can learn some mathematical concept by manipulating it. The use of manipulatives provides a way for children to learn concepts in developmentally appropriate, hands-on ways.  is an ever-expanding possibility that can be integrated into student-centered learning environments. However, it is critical for classroom teachers to develop sound rationale rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action.
 when choosing a technology-based resource over other resources, (i.e., manufactured or teacher-created manipulatives). This article explores necessary rationale elements to create a successful "student-centered" learning environment involving digital manipulatives.


The integration of manipulatives within the mathematical learning environment is not an original concept. Manipulatives have been integrated into the learning environment for numerous years. Preinformation age counting activities involved the use of fingers, which could be looked upon as one of the earliest manipulatives. The primary purpose of the manipulative ma·nip·u·la·tive  
Serving, tending, or having the power to manipulate.

Any of various objects designed to be moved or arranged by hand as a means of developing motor skills or understanding abstractions, especially in
 was to offer a concrete visualization Using the computer to convert data into picture form. The most basic visualization is that of turning transaction data and summary information into charts and graphs. Visualization is used in computer-aided design (CAD) to render screen images into 3D models that can be viewed from all  of mathematical concepts that lead towards an understanding of the mathematical concepts as defined by learning objectives.
   All students should be able to reason and communicate
   proficiently in mathematics. They should have knowledge
   of and skill in the use of the vocabulary, forms of
   representation, materials, tools, techniques, and
   intellectual methods of the discipline of mathematics, including
   the ability to define and solve problems with reason, insight,
   inventiveness, and technical proficiency (Connected Mathematics
   Project, 2001).

This statement is directly tied to the technological needs within the dawning of the Information Age. "To justify the expensive and time-consuming time-con·sum·ing
Taking up much time.


taking up a great deal of time

Adj. 1.
 task of integrating technology into education, teachers must identify specific contributions that technology can and should make to an improved education system" (Roblyer & Edwards, 2000, p. 12). Within the literature there are conflicting studies regarding the effectiveness of computer-based methods over traditional approaches. However, to impact student learning it is necessary for teachers to consider essential rationale elements to create a successful "student-centered" learning environment involving technology integration, especially digital manipulatives.

Within this framework of proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy  
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.

Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence
, manipulatives create familiar, concrete, and understandable representations of information that are often "unfamiliar, abstract, and confusing con·fuse  
v. con·fused, con·fus·ing, con·fus·es
a. To cause to be unable to think with clarity or act with intelligence or understanding; throw off.

 to students" (Burns, 2001a). The appropriate integration of manipulatives within the learning environment ensures the learner's conceptualization of mathematical theories This is a list of mathematical theories, by Wikipedia page.
  • Algebraic K-theory
  • Approximation theory
  • Automata theory
  • Braid theory
  • Brill-Noether theory
  • Catastrophe theory
  • Category theory
  • Character theory
  • Choquet theory
 and tasks at a level appropriate to the learner by providing stimulating visual and concrete representations.


Manipulatives have been integrated into learning opportunities for years. "One of the first advocates of 'hands-on learning' was the Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer. Birth, education and career
He was born on January 12, 1746 in Zürich, Switzerland.
 (1746-1827). Pestalozzi Pes·ta·loz·zi   , Johann Heinrich 1746-1827.

Swiss educational reformer whose teaching theories, based on respect and attention to the individual, laid the foundation for the reform of education in the 19th century.
 asserted that students need to learn through their senses and through physical activity" (Resnick Resnick is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Adam Resnick, American comedy writer
  • Alice Robie Resnick, Ohio Supreme Court Justice
  • Charlie Resnick
  • Faye Resnick
  • Josh Resnick
  • Lauren Resnick
  • Mike Resnick, science fiction author
 et al., 1998) and rebelliously re·bel·lious  
1. Prone to or participating in a rebellion: rebellious students.

2. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a rebel or rebellion: rebellious behavior.
 struggling for "things before words, concrete before abstract" (Pestalozzi, 1803). However, the introduction of manipulatives within a mathematical environment has exponentially ex·po·nen·tial  
1. Of or relating to an exponent.

2. Mathematics
a. Containing, involving, or expressed as an exponent.

 expanded the conceptualization of the theories related to the task by the learner. Numerous positive attributes can be associated with manipulatives, as manipulatives can offer the following aids within the learning environment:

1. Manipulatives help make abstract ideas concrete.

2. Manipulatives lift math off textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible.  pages.

3. Manipulatives build students' confidence by giving them a way to test and confirm their reasoning.

4. Manipulatives are useful tools for solving problems.

5. Manipulatives make learning math interesting and enjoyable. (Burns, 2001a)

However, the use of manipulatives w4thin the learning environment comes with specific procedural tasks. Bums (200 lb) described several specific "musts" that need to occur to facilitate positive correlations Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation
 when manipulatives are used. Concurrently, our classroom experiences with manipulatives reinforce these "musts," as follows:

1. The instructor conducts ongoing dialogue with students about why manipulatives help them learn math.

2. Ground rules are set and consistently communicated as students work with manipulatives.

3. Students are encouraged to develop a system for using and storing materials in the classroom under the teacher's direction. Materials managers are appointed to help with these tasks.

4. Time given to students for free exploration provides for more "ontime" behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.

behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 applications as necessary.

5. Manipulatives are a natural for writing assignments, giving students' a writing focus. That is, to describe, illustrate, outline what happened, and so forth.

6. Parents are given opportunities to gain hands-on hands-on
Involving active participation; applied, as opposed to theoretical: "We're involved in hands-on operations, pulling levers, pushing buttons" Arthur R. Taylor.
 experiences using the manipulatives.

The aspects discussed refer to the concrete manipulatives that are available within learning environments. Mathematical manipulatives have been integrated into the learning environments to expand the learner's conceptual framework of understanding and to develop a link between theory and concrete explanations of mathematical concepts. But we are at the beginning of a new age, the Information Age that begins the shift from mere concrete manipulatives that can only aid the learner in conceptualizing the more simplistic sim·plism  
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.

[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple
 mathematical theories towards digital manipulatives that offer the learner a conceptualization of more advanced, difficult mathematical theories in a digital arena. Digital manipulatives can be appropriately and successfully integrated into a mathematical learning environment through the use of web-based materials. The use of digital manipulatives provides an interactive environment with immediate feedback to explore indepth mathematical theories that would be difficult to simulate simulate - simulation  with concrete models. Additionally, younger students are able to "see" (conceptualize con·cep·tu·al·ize  
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
) concepts that would normally be regulated to indepth abstract mathematical principles.


A chart outlining "Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in Education" delineated de·lin·e·ate  
tr.v. de·lin·e·at·ed, de·lin·e·at·ing, de·lin·e·ates
1. To draw or trace the outline of; sketch out.

2. To represent pictorially; depict.

 by Roblyer and Edwards (2000, p. 13) provided an action research framework to gain insights during a recent mathematics professional development session with current in-service in-service In-service training adjective Referring to any form of on-the-job training noun In-service training of an employee  teachers. Teachers were from a variety of grade levels, K-5, and 9th, all involved with integrating algebraic 1. (language) ALGEBRAIC - An early system on MIT's Whirlwind.

[CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)].
2. (theory) algebraic - In domain theory, a complete partial order is algebraic if every element is the least upper bound of some chain of compact elements.
 concepts in their respective mathematics instruction. Additionally, teachers were culturally diverse as were their schools and students. All participants were female with a large range of teaching service, one year to more than 25 years. Since demographic information was not formally apart of the survey, it is given here only for descriptive purposes. First, a computer-generated computer-generated computer adjde synthèse  survey was created using the free This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using . Zoomerang.
 Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 site and e-mailed to participants near the end of the professional development session. Second, participants were provided ample opportunity and resources to visit the web-based National Library of virtual manipulatives (2002) to independently select, view, and critique virtual manipulatives based on possible future classroom implementation using the frameworks espoused in the Roblyer and Edwards chart. Third, after visiting several sites during a four hour timeframe, participants were to respond appropriately to the computer-generated survey. Results were statistically computed and reported as a featured component of the survey.


1. Motivation

* Gaining learner attention

* Engaging the learner through production work

* Increasing perceptions of control

2. Unique instructional capabilities

* Linking learners to information sources

* Helping learners visualize problems and solutions

* Tracking learner progress

* Linking learners to learning tools

3. Support for new instructional approaches

* Cooperative learning cooperative learning Education theory A student-centered teaching strategy in which heterogeneous groups of students work to achieve a common academic goal–eg, completing a case study or a evaluating a QC problem. See Problem-based learning, Socratic method.  

* Shared intelligence

* Problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
 and higher-level skills

4. Increased teacher productivity

* Freeing time to work with students by helping with production and record-keeping tasks

* Providing more accurate information more quickly

* Allowing teachers to produce better-looking more "student friendly" materials more quickly

5. Required skills for an information age

* Technology literacy

* Information literacy Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. For example, one conception defines information literacy in terms of a set of competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and  

* Visual literacy Visual literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be communicated through a process of reading.  

(Roblyer & Edwards, 2000, p. 13)


Using the concept chart (Roblyer & Edwards, 2000, page 12) 11 teachers viewed virtual manipulatives web sites and completed a similar assessment. The results are presented in Figure 1.

The distinctive skew (1) The misalignment of a document or punch card in the feed tray or hopper that prohibits it from being scanned or read properly.

(2) In facsimile, the difference in rectangularity between the received and transmitted page.
 in the number of web sites viewed was not directly addressed as a component of this survey. However, one could speculate given the participant diversity characteristics--individual interest levels, grade, and mathematical content instructional level versus related overall numbers of available web-based manipulatives, independent time on task behavior characteristics or lack of technological skills--the results indicate this is a definite area whereby additional study and/or and/or  
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.

Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing.
 follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.



follow-up plan
 is needed.

The survey results are designated by distinct areas of interest, as presented by the tabular tab·u·lar
1. Having a plane surface; flat.

2. Organized as a table or list.

3. Calculated by means of a table.


resembling a table.
 format of the results. As such, the following areas of interest are addressed:

* Motivation

* Unique Instructional Capabilities

* Support for New Instructional Approaches

* Increased Teacher Productivity

* Required Skills for Information Age

Within each of the tables, the breakdown of the data is offered in percentage format in Table 1, as well as the actual number of people who responded to each level. Therefore, the percentage indicates total respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  ratio and parenthesis parenthesis: see punctuation.

The left parenthesis "(" and right parenthesis ")" are used to delineate one expression from another. For example, in the query list for size="34" and (color = "red" or color ="green")
 indicate actual number.

The classroom teachers note high levels of satisfaction, as related to the motivational factors of digital manipulatives on the Web. It is interesting to note that gaining the learner attention is considered very satisfactory, while the exact opposite response rate is noted when engaging the learner through production work is addressed. Although 91% of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  stated that the motivation level for the learner is either satisfactory or very satisfactory, the breakdown between the satisfactory levels and very satisfactory levels as related to gaining attention and engaging the learner is presented as opposite responses. Further, 90% of the responses noted that motivation is pronounced when related to the increased perception of learner control. Therefore, the classroom teacher's perception of learner motivation is significant, as relates to digital manipulatives on the Web (Table 2).

The classroom educators relate unique instructional capabilities to digital manipulatives on the Web within distinct parameters. Linking learners to information sources, helping learners to visualize problems and solutions, and linking learners to learner tools are overwhelmingly supported by the classroom educators' responses. However, of interest is the range of responses as related to the ability to track the learner progress using digital manipulatives on the Web. Although 54% of classroom teachers were either satisfied or very satisfied with tracking learner progress, 45% of classroom teachers were either neutral or found this to be unsatisfactory in nature. Therefore, the unique instructional capabilities are overwhelmingly apparent to classroom teachers but informative elements to support analyzing learner knowledge and understanding, such as tracking learner progress, is not viewed as inherent in all digital manipulatives on the Web (Table 3).

Classroom teachers view digital manipulatives on the Web as supportive of new instructional approaches. Cooperative learning and shared intelligences are noted by 73% and 90%, respectively, as satisfactory or very satisfactory; yet 27% and 10%, respectively, view digital manipulatives as being either neutral or unsatisfactory as related to support for new instructional approaches. Of interest is the strong response of the classroom teachers as related to problem solving and higher level skills, as 100% of respondents note that digital manipulatives on the Web are satisfactory or very satisfactory as related to problem solving and higher level skills development support structures for new instructional approaches. Therefore, the classroom educators may view digital manipulatives on the Web as bridging the gap between basic knowledge-level processes and enhancing the learner's abilities to grasp the conceptual understanding that leads towards higher order thinking skills The concept of higher order thinking skills became a major educational agenda item with the 1956 publication of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.

The simplest thinking skills are learning facts and recall, while higher order skills include critical thinking,
 (Table 4).

The classroom teachers were not as supportive of digital manipulatives on the Web as related to their ability to increase teacher productivity. Elements of time, accuracy of information, and the production of student-friendly materials, although noted as at least satisfactory or higher by the majority of classroom teachers responding to this survey, the questions related to increased teacher productivity received responses that were at lower satisfaction levels than the other areas of interest within the survey. This skew may be directly related to the classroom teachers level of comfort as related to the integration of technology into the instructional design Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of  of the course, the classroom teachers level of comfort as related to the integration of technology into the classroom learning environment, or to the classroom teachers personal belief in his or her own level of technological expertise (Table 5).

Overwhelmingly, the classroom teachers responded that they agreed me required skills for the Information Age were related to technological literacy Technological literacy is the ability to understand and evaluate technology. It complements technological competency, which is the ability to create, repair, or operate specific technologies, commonly computers. , information literacy and visual literacy. The respondents may very well view the classroom learners must be literate within the areas of technology, as well as the analysis of visual, auditory auditory /au·di·to·ry/ (aw´di-tor?e)
1. aural or otic; pertaining to the ear.

2. pertaining to hearing.

, and written information if they are to be successful through out the reign of the Information Age. Therefore, it is imperative that learners are able to extend and augment aug·ment  
v. aug·ment·ed, aug·ment·ing, aug·ments
1. To make (something already developed or well under way) greater, as in size, extent, or quantity:
 their higher order thinking skills to meet their future needs.

The classroom teachers also offered several areas of concern, related to unsatisfactory ratings presented in the previous tabular format.

* inability to track learner progress and level of understanding, for either classroom teacher or learner;

* web sites were either under construction or not user friendly;

* unclear directions for use, or unclear instructions;

* inability of learner to obtain direct feedback as related to use; and

* teacher can not analyze student's strengths or areas of concern, for purposes of strengthening skills or individualizing lesson selections.

A major component of the action research led to vigorous discussion concerning "Why choose one manipulative over the other?" It is reasonable to present that the overarching o·ver·arch·ing  
1. Forming an arch overhead or above: overarching branches.

2. Extending over or throughout: "I am not sure whether the missing ingredient . . .
 goal of classroom technology implementation primary's purpose should be to create and enhance student-centered learning environments. Then, the question "Will virtual manipulatives do this better than concrete manipulatives?" Therefore, it is critical that educators are aware of "the good and the bad" regarding manipulative innovations and all elements must be considered when choosing appropriate manipulative integration. Participants in this study indicated their willingness to incorporate digital manipulatives, however additional professional development is necessary to fully incorporate "the good" from web-based manipulatives and to decrease effective classroom implementation from being hampered by "the bad."


Web-based manipulatives offer a creative, useful variety to the learning environment. These interactive materials enhance the knowledge and understanding of learners, while creating a conceptual understanding of mathematical theories beyond the mere formulaic models of traditional mathematical coursework coursework

work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course

Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's
. "These new manipulatives--with computational Having to do with calculations. Something that is "highly computational" requires a large number of calculations.  power embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  inside--are designed to expand the range of concepts that children can explore through direct manipulation, enabling children to learn concepts that were previously considered 'too advanced' for children" (Resnick et al., 1998).

As examples of digital mathematical manipulatives available on the Web, GeoComputer (Riverdeep Riverdeep Interactive Learning originally started as a publishing house for educational online and CDROM products based in San Francisco and Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1995, Riverdeep is principally the creation of 37-year-old ex-investment banker Barry O'Callaghan.  Interactive Learning Limited, 2001) offers the ability to create, flip, and rotate shapes to make colorful designs while simulating the concepts of reflections, translations, and rotations. Students are also able to have interactive experiences with basic principles of geometry geometry [Gr.,=earth measuring], branch of mathematics concerned with the properties of and relationships between points, lines, planes, and figures and with generalizations of these concepts.  and measurements. Number sense concepts including fractional fractional

size expressed as a relative part of a unit.

fractional catabolic rate
the percentage of an available pool of body component, e.g. protein, iron, which is replaced, transferred or lost per unit of time.
 computations are enhanced by using pattern blocks and other virtual manipulatives embedded in web-based applets developed specifically for use within a mathematical learning environment. The use of such manipulatives within a mathematically appropriate learning environment enhances the learner's conceptual understanding of material that would previously be considered too advanced or inappropriate.

Through the appropriate and successful integration of the mathematical manipulatives within a web-enhanced learning environment, "children, by playing and building with these new manipulatives, can gain a deeper understanding of how dynamic systems behave" (Resnick et al., 1998). Further,
   Such explorations would not be possible with traditional
   (non-computational) manipulative materials. Computation and
   communication capabilities play a critical role: they enable
   physical objects to move, sense and interact with one
   another--and, as a result, make systems-related concepts
   more salient to (and manipulable by) children.
   (Resnick et al., 1998)

   Numerous web-based mathematical manipulatives are available
   for appropriate and successful integration within a mathematical
   learning environment. However, the engagement of the learner
   in innovative ways of thinking and learning about mathematical
   concepts is the focus of the exercise. The National Library for
   Virtual Manipulatives for Interactive Mathematics houses a
   vast collection of interactive web-based manipulatives and
   games hosted by the Math Forum organization at


Web-based mathematical manipulatives are available for integration into the learning environment. However, thoughtful consideration must be given to the instructional design of the course and the specific learning objectives for each module of instruction. The focus of web-based manipulatives is to enhance the learner's understanding of advanced theories and levels of understanding; "Our primary goal is not to help users accomplish some task faster or more effectively, but rather to engage them in new ways of thinking. In short, we are interested in Things That Think only if they also serve as Things To Think With" (Resnick et al., 1998). The web-based manipulatives offer the computational abilities that aid in the communication of advanced concepts and theories to the learner. The focus is on the learner and the conceptual framework of understanding that is created due to the appropriate use of digital, web-based mathematical manipulatives.
Table 1


                                1                2
                                Very             Unsatisfactory

1. Gaining learner attention       0% (0)            9% (1)
2. Engaging the learner
   through production work         0% (0)            9% (1)
3. Increasing perceptions
   of control                      0% (0)            9% (1)

                                3                4
                                No Opinion/      Satisfactory

1. Gaining learner attention       0% (0)           36% (4)
2. Engaging the learner
   through production work         0% (0)           55% (6)
3. Increasing perceptions
   of control                      0% (0)           45% (5)


1. Gaining learner attention       55% (6)
2. Engaging the learner
   through production work         36% (4)
3. Increasing perceptions
   of control                      45% (5)

Table 2

Unique Instructional Capabilities

                          1                 2                 3
                          Very              Unsatisfactory    No
                          unsatisfactory                      Opinion/

1. Linking learners
   to information
   sources                     0%(0)             9%(1)          0%(0)
2. Helping learners
   visualize problems
   and solutions               0%(0)             0%(0)          9%(1)
3. Tracking learner
   progress                    0%(0)            27%(3)         18%(2)
4. Linking learners
   to learner tools            0%(0)             9%(1)          0%(0)

                          4                 5
                          Satisfactory      Very

1. Linking learners
   to information
   sources                    73%(8)            18%(2)
2. Helping learners
   visualize problems         27%(3)            64%(7)
   and solutions
3. Tracking learner           36%(4)            18%(2)
4. Linking learners
   to learner tools           82%(9)             9%(1)

Table 3

Support for New Instructional Approaches

                           1                 2                 3
                           Very              Unsatisfactory    No
                           unsatisfactory                      Opinion/

1. Cooperative learning         0%(0)             9%(1)         18%(2)
2. Shared intelligence          0%(0)            10%(1)          0%(0)
3. Problem solving and
   higher level skills          0%(0)             0%(0)          0%(0)

                           4                 5
                           Satisfactory      Very

1. Cooperative learning        55%(6)            18%(2)
2. Shared intelligence         80%(8)            10%(1)
3. Problem solving and
   higher level skills         36%(4)            64%(7)

Table 4

Increased Teacher Productivity

                           1                 2                 3
                           Very              Unsatisfactory    No
                           unsatisfactory                      Opinion/

1. Freeing time to work
   with students by
   helping with
   production and
   record keeping tasks        0%(0)              9%(1)         18%(2)
2. Providing more
   accurate information
   more quickly                0%(0)              9%(1)         18%(2)
3. Allowing teachers to
   produce better-
   looking more
   materials more
   quickly                     0%(0)              9%(1)         27%(3)

                           4                 5
                           Satisfactory      Very

1. Freeing time to work
   with students by
   helping with
   production and
   record keeping tasks       45%(5)             27%(3)
2. Providing more
   accurate information
   more quickly               45%(5)             27%(3)
3. Allowing teachers to
   produce better-
   looking more
   materials more
   quickly                    45%(5)             18%(2)

Table 5

Required Skills for Information Age

                           1                 2                 3
                           Very              Unsatisfactory    No
                           unsatisfactory                      Opinion/

1. Technology literacy          0%(0)             0%(0)         18%(2)
2. Information literacy         0%(0)             0%(0)         10%(1)
3. Visual literacy              0%(0)             0%(0)          0%(0)

                           4                 5
                           Satisfactory      Very

1. Technology literacy         64%(7)            18%(2)
2. Information literacy        60%(6)            30%(3)
3. Visual literacy             27%(3)            73%(8)

            How many virtual
            web sites
            did you view during   Number        Responses
            this session?         of Response   Ration

5 or less                          2             18%
6-10                               5             45%
11 or more                         4             36%
            Total                 11            100%


Burns, M. (2001a). A letter to parents. Retrieved on February 9, 2001 from: /letter.htm

Burns, M. (2001b). 7 musts for using manipulatives. Retrieved on February 9, 2001 from:

Connected Mathematics Project (2001). Overarching goals of CMP CMP (cytidine monophosphate): see cytosine.

(1) (CMP Media LLC, Manhasset, NY, Part of United Business Media, CMP is a leading integrated media company that offers a wide variety of publications and services in the information
. Retrieved on February 9, 2001 from:

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives (2002). The math forum: Internet mathematics library. Retrieved on December 19, 2002 from: http://

Pestalozzi, H. (1803). ABC ABC
 in full American Broadcasting Co.

Major U.S. television network. It began when the expanding national radio network NBC split into the separate Red and Blue networks in 1928.
 der anschauung, oder anschauungs-lehre der massverhaltnisse. Tubingen, Germany: J.G. Cotta cot·ta  
n. pl. cot·tae or cot·tas
A short surplice.

[Medieval Latin, of Germanic origin.]

Resnick, M., Martin, F., Berg, R., Borovoy, R., Colella, V., Kramer, K. and Silverman, B. (1998). Digital manipulatives: New toys to think with. Retrieved on February 9, 2001 from:

Riverdeep Interactive Learning Limited (2001). GeoComputer [Computer software]. Retrieved on March 25, 2001 from:

Roblyer, M. D., & Edwards, J. (2000). Integration educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
  • Saddle River, New Jersey, a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey
  • Saddle River (New Jersey), a tributary of the Passaic River in New Jersey
, NJ: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr.


University of Houston, Clear Lake



University of Houston, Downtown

COPYRIGHT 2003 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
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Author:Brown, Evelyn
Publication:Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching
Date:Jun 22, 2003
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