Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,728,043 articles and books

Integrating academic and non-academic instruction for students with emotional/Behavioral disorders.



Abstract

Students with emotional/behavioral disorders exhibit a wide range of academic and behavioral problems. Not surprisingly, there is growing support for integrating instruction to address overlapping students' needs in both areas. In this article, we discuss instructional variables that contribute to a positive classroom climate and that serve as setting events for more focused group-individual instructional programs. We draw on the accumulated research to identify common non-academic challenges that should be incorporated into those programs. We examine issues that relate to the eficacy of instruction and also the cultural and chronological age chron·o·log·i·cal age
n. Abbr. CA
The number of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against which certain variables, such as behavior and intelligence, are measured.
 differences among students and how they relate to planning for instruction. Finally, we offer several forms that illustrate ways to combine academics and non-academics into a manageable instructional plan.

**********

A substantial body of literature documents that students with emotional/ behavioral disorders (E/BD) manifest a wide range of problems from impulsive im·pul·sive
adj.
1. Inclined or tending to act on impulse rather than thought.

2. Motivated by or resulting from impulse.



im·pul
, antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.

2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder.
, and aggressive behavior to social withdrawal and isolation. These problems can adversely affect student academic performance as well as impinge im·pinge  
v. im·pinged, im·ping·ing, im·ping·es

v.intr.
1. To collide or strike: Sound waves impinge on the eardrum.

2.
 on their social relationships (e.g., Kauffman, 2001). Academic failure--especially in the critical area of reading, places students on a slippery slope 'slippery slope' Medical ethics An ethical continuum or 'slope,' the impact of which has been incompletely explored, and which itself raises moral questions that are even more on the ethical 'edge' than the original issue  to school avoidance/drop out and can accelerate the rate of antisocial and maladaptive Maladaptive
Unsuitable or counterproductive; for example, maladaptive behavior is behavior that is inappropriate to a given situation.

Mentioned in: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
 behavior (e.g., Maag, 1998; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995). In fact, some authorities assert that "low achievement and behavior problems go hand-in-hand" (Kauffman, 1997, p. 247). Although the exact nature of that relationship is unclear, there is general agreement that it is both reciprocal and deleterious deleterious adj. harmful.  to the teaching/learning process (Gunter & Denny, 1998; Nelson, Scott, & Polsgrove, 1999). There is little question that, if a student's learning and behavior problems go unabated, they will pose enormous challenges not only to school personnel, but also the larger community (Maag, 1998).

A false dichotomy sometimes exists between program priorities for students who manifest learning verses' behavior problems. For students classified as learning disabled, emphasis is on remedial or compensatory instruction; whereas, for students with emotional disturbances, getting behavior under control usually takes precedence (Schuermann, 1998). Recently, Lewis, Heflin, and DiGangi (1991) argued that, rather than viewing academic and non-academic deficits separately, it makes more sense to view both as "errors in learning." According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Greenwood (2002), positive student outcomes are predicated on how well we arrange, implement, and sustain instruction across time. Programs that emphasize student academic success produce a concomitant reduction in collateral "interfering" (or impeding) behaviors (Deno, 1998). It stands to reason that teachers of students with E/BD must be competent in planning, delivering, and evaluating quality instruction (Deno, 1998; Gunter & Denny, 1998; Kauffman & Wong, 1991).

In what follows, we reiterate the importance of establishing a classroom environment that reflects positive teacher-pupil interactions, encourages active student engagement, ensures high rates of correct responses, and affords students high rates of positive reinforcement positive reinforcement,
n a technique used to encourage a desirable behavior. Also called
positive feedback, in which the patient or subject receives encouraging and favorable communication from another person.
. Next, we discuss ways to identify predictable learning and behavior problems to facilitate planning at three levels: class-wide planning; planning for subgroups of students; and lastly, individual students. We offer several forms designed to accomplish that task. Finally, we contend that planning for instruction should reflect both acculturation acculturation, culture changes resulting from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one culture from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures.  and chronological age differences among students.

Establishing a Positive Climate for Instruction

Today, teachers face numerous obstacles to delivering quality instruction. Changing student demographics, dwindling dwin·dle  
v. dwin·dled, dwin·dling, dwin·dles

v.intr.
To become gradually less until little remains.

v.tr.
To cause to dwindle. See Synonyms at decrease.
 resources, state legislated curriculum, high-stakes testing, and the proliferation proliferation /pro·lif·er·a·tion/ (pro-lif?er-a´shun) the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells.prolif´erativeprolif´erous

pro·lif·er·a·tion
n.
 of unsubstantiated practices are among them (e.g., Berryman, 2000; Education Commission of the States The Education Commission of the States (ECS) was founded as a result of the creation of the Compact for Education, supported by all 50 states and approved by Congress in 1965. The original idea of establishing an interstate compact on education and creating an operational arm to follow up , 2001). Other barriers stem from a clash between teacher attitudes and expectations and pupil characteristics and behavior. Shores, Gunter, and Jacks (1993) described well the often coercive nature of these interactions, as one party confronts the other to force a capitulation CAPITULATION, war. The treaty which determines the conditions under which a fortified place is abandoned to the commanding officer of the army which besieges it.
     2.
 ("throw in the towel"). For example, frustrated frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
1.
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
 with Carl's classroom behavior, Mr. Larson angrily admonishes Carl to "stop talking and get to work." If the student complies, the teacher is positively reinforced for yelling, whereas, the student is negatively reinforced for responding in a way that terminates an aversive aversive /aver·sive/ (ah-ver´siv) characterized by or giving rise to avoidance; noxious.

a·ver·sive
adj.
 interaction. It is not surprising that students who engage in challenging behavior generally receive less instruction than students who routinely comply with teacher expectations (Carr, Taylor, & Robinson, 1991; Wehby, Symons, Canale, & Go, 1998). Research also shows that teachers give challenging students fewer opportunities to respond. Those same students give correct answers less often and, in turn, receive less praise than more compliant, higher performing classmates Classmates can refer to either:
  • Classmates.com, a social networking website.
  • Classmates (film), a 2006 Malayalam blockbuster directed by Lal Jose, starring Prithviraj, Jayasurya, Indragith, Sunil, Jagathy, Kavya Madhavan, Balachandra Menon, ...
 (Van Acker, 2002). Often, an unspoken agreement is struck between teacher and student-I won't bother you, if you don't bother me. The net result is a curriculum of non-instruction (Gunter, Denny, Jack, Shores, & Nelson, 1993).

Across time, aversive teacher/pupil interactions serve as a catalyst for a significant amount of classroom misconduct; students "act-up" to escape the constant drubbing associated with academic frustration and failure (Shores et al., 1993). Teacher reactions are equally predictable and mainly consist of the imposition of some kind of punitive consequences (Colvin, Sugai, & Kameenui, 1993). Nelson, Scott, and Polsgrove (1999) maintain that a clear pattern emerges--the student misbehaves and the teacher sends the student away (e.g., to the office, in-school suspension, expulsion). Short circuiting this coercive cycle is predicated, at least in part, on positive teacher-pupil interactions and instruction that is aligned with student capability and motivation. That instruction should reflect both reactive (i.e., corrective) strategies and proactive (i.e., precorrective) strategies that address both academic and non academic needs of students (Colvin & Sugai, 1988; Colvin, Sugai, & Patching, 1993). There is good r eason to believe it can best be accomplished through careful planning of group-individual instruction.

A Rationale for the Integration of Academic and Non academic Instruction

According to Greenwood (2002), the cumulative amount of classroom instructional engagement can mitigate against factors that otherwise negatively influence academic achievement (e.g., ethnicity, language, or socioeconomic circumstance). Although planning for that instruction is one variable that teachers control, there is a dearth of research on classroom planning for instruction. Nonetheless, failure to adequately plan likely increases the probability that daily instruction will be nothing more that a succession of haphazard, loosely linked activities. Failure to plan also makes it difficult to distinguish between a flawed lesson and one that has potential to be effective but is poorly executed (Gable, Hendrickson, & Van Acker, 2001; Gresham, MacMillan, Beebe-Frankenberger, & Bocain, 2000). Finally, poor planning substantially decreases the probability that a teacher can either replicate a successful lesson or analyze critically a failed lesson to strengthen future outcomes.

The accumulated research shows that a regular curriculum is an anathema anathema (ənă`thĭmə) [Gr.,=something set up; dedicated to a divinity as a votive offering], term that came to denote something devoted to a divinity for destruction. In the Bible, the term is herem.  to many students with disabilities, as conformity takes precedence over accommodation (Arllen et al., 1996). In light of that research, various authorities have advocated ways to better plan for instruction of students with diverse learning needs. For instance, Thousand and Villa (1990) proposed that education personnel organize instruction according to a model that includes: class-wide objectives (e.g., same expectations for all); curricular content that reflects multi grade-level objectives (e.g., objectives for all students drawn from 5th grade science, objectives for some drawn from 7th grade science textbooks, and for a few, a computer search serves as an additional objective); overlapping content that incorporates academic and non-academic objectives (e.g., primary objectives for most students relate to science; but, for Sara, self-control is the primary target of instruction); and finally, objectives that are ideographic (specific) to a particular student (e.g., completing a science crossword puzzle crossword puzzle, word game in which words corresponding to numbered clues are put into a grid of horizontal and vertical squares to form intersecting words. The puzzle is solved when a player supplies all of the words correctly. ). Similarly, Bos and Vaughn (1998) proposed a pyramid model that includes: what all students should learn; what most students should learn; and, what some students should learn. These approaches afford school personnel manageable ways to differentiate instruction. We can draw on these approaches to further define the non academic side of the planning and instruction equation.

Academic/non-academic Intervention for Students with E/BD

In an article on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, Maag and Reid (1994) proposed a step-wise approach to planning and intervention. Maag and Reid suggested that practitioners single out factors that likely contribute to students' behavior problems in order to select appropriate intervention strategies and procedures. To facilitate that process, they identified four common problem areas: behavioral skill deficits; cognitive distortions; problem-solving deficits; and, self-control deficits. Maag and Reid further asserted that interventions focus on student deficits or excesses and on ecological (or contextual) variables. As students move from one area of the classroom to another, Tiffany is accidentally brushed by another student. She responds aggressively, perhaps because she lacks the ability to do so more appropriately (i.e., skill deficit). On the other hand, her aggression could signal an inability to self-regulate her behavior long enough to weigh other response options (i.e., self-control or pro blem-solving deficit). Tiffany may have attributed physical contact to a hostile intent The threat of imminent use of force by a foreign force, terrorist(s), or organization against the United States and US national interests, US forces and, in certain circumstances, US nationals, their property, US commercial assets, and other designated non-US forces, foreign nationals, , became angry, and sought to retaliate (i.e., cognitive distortion Cognitive therapy and its variants traditionally identify ten cognitive distortions that maintain negative thinking and help to maintain negative emotions. [1] Eliminating these distortions and negative thought is said to improve mood and discourage maladies such as )(e.g., Dodge & Frame, 1982; Dodge & Somberg, 1987; Maag & Reid, 1994; Van Acker, 2002). Lastly, a potentially volatile situation may have been exacerbated by the fact that too many students were moving about in too close physical proximity. As this encounter illustrates, observing student behavior may not be enough to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior or to develop an adequate plan of intervention.

Some years ago, Skinner (1975) posited that internal feelings were closely associated with behavior and the conditions under which behavior occurs. Recent attempts to shift functional behavioral assessment from clinic to classroom have raised numerous issues, including questions about assessment. The main reason to conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA FBA Federal Bar Association
FBA Functional Behavior Assessment
FBA Fibre Box Association (North America)
FBA Forms Based Authentication (Microsoft Outlook Web Access)
FBA Florida Bicycle Association
) is to isolate functional relationships between significant aspects of the social, academic, or physical environment and the occurrence (or nonoccurrence) of a target behavior (Dunlap et al., 1993). A substantial amount of what has been written on FBA focuses on direct observation of target behaviors. Indeed, Nichols (2001) has argued that current thinking about the functional assessment of student's challenging behavior ignores internal events. She asserted that assessment should account for intra personal factors associated with observable behavior. Nichols maintains that assessment should go beyond the topography of the target behavior to include i nformation on covert or cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).

Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders
 (i.e., thoughts and feelings) that may serve as antecedents to overt behavior.

In discussing the previous incident with Tiffany, we may find that her aggression was precipitated by a misinterpretation of the intentionality intentionality

Property of being directed toward an object. Intentionality is exhibited in various mental phenomena. Thus, if a person experiences an emotion toward an object, he has an intentional attitude toward it.
 of a classmates' behavior. Because of prior learning experiences, she viewed physical proximity and incidental contact as an act of provocation. Although not without methodological shortcomings, functional interviews with students can yield potentially useful information on covert excesses and deficits, and, in turn, yield a fuller understanding of a student's diverse learning needs (Gable, Quinn, Rutherford, Howell, Hoffman, & Butler, in press). Furthermore, the classroom incident underscores the transactional nature of behavior problems and that the context in which behavior occurs is an equally significant aspect of assessment (e.g., Hendrickson, 1992; Maag & Reid, 1994). Today, most experts agree that efforts to address excesses or deficits in student behavior without dealing with the context(s) that occasion such behavior is counterproductive coun·ter·pro·duc·tive  
adj.
Tending to hinder rather than serve one's purpose: "Violation of the court order would be counterproductive" Philip H. Lee.
 to achieving long-te rm positive outcomes (e.g., Gresham, 1991). In all, a mix of variables affect student behavior--encompassing internal and external events. In planning instruction for students with E/BD, school personnel should look for ways to incorporate knowledge of both into a plan of instruction.

An Integrated Planning In amphibious operations, the planning accomplished by commanders and staffs of corresponding echelons from parallel chains of command within the amphibious task force. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force.  Model for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

Given that both academic and non-academic problems can pose life span challenges for E/BD students, it seems shortsighted to address one set of problems and to ignore the others (Bullock & Gable, 2000). A group-individual approach appears to be the most practical way to merge aspects of academic and non academic instruction. Integral to the functional behavioral assessment process is the concept of conditional probability--the ability to predict future events based on knowledge of present events (Gresham, 1991). By compiling data on student needs, school personnel are able to anticipate and plan strategically to address specific learning and behavior problems (e.g., Scott, Nelson, & Liaupsin, 2002).

Drawing upon the work of Bos and Vaughn (1998), Maag and Reid (1994), Nichols (2001), and Thousand and Villa (1990), we put together a three-step planning process whereby teachers can identify and prioritize group-individual instruction for students with E/BD. Figure 1 presents a Classroom Diversity Profile Form on which teachers record information that relates to student academic functioning in major curricular areas. The accumulated data can strengthen the planning process and help school personnel align instructional methodologies with specific student needs. Mr. Larson plans to introduce a particular topic in science. The instructors manual stipulates that students read independently from their textbooks for 20 minutes and then complete a written worksheet. Information previously compiled allows Mr. Larson to identify those students who may lack the prerequisite decoding or comprehension skills to complete the lesson as assigned. Other students may not be able to successfully complete the written portion of the lesson. Still other students may not be able to self-regulate their behavior well enough to concentrate on relevant aspects of the assignment. Once these obstacles are identified, Mr. Larson can plan specific academic accommodations (e.g., material is read aloud to one student) or modifications (e.g., fewer simpler objectives are imposed on another student) to address group-individual "prohibitive prerequisites" to effective instruction. In completing a classroom profile, at primary grade levels, the teacher might list information on every student. In contrast, at the middle and secondary school level, a teacher may instruct as many as 150 students each day. It may be more sensible to record information only on those students who are judged to be at-risk for learning or behavior problems, or both.

Figure 2 contains a Class Profile and Management Form on which school personnel can record additional information collected from various sources--a review of the cumulative records, incident reports, office referrals, discussion with colleagues, student-focused interview(s), and/or direct classroom observations. Consonant consonant

Any speech sound characterized by an articulation in which a closure or narrowing of the vocal tract completely or partially blocks the flow of air; also, any letter or symbol representing such a sound.
 with functional assessment (Sasso et al., 1992), assert that descriptive analysis can yield a profile of student strengths and weaknesses, predictable instructional challenges (e.g., social skill deficits), pupil-specific high frequency/low intensity (e.g., academic: low rates of engagement and correct responses; social: peer put downs), and low frequency/high intensity behavior (e.g., academic: poor testing taking skills: social: physical aggression). Furthermore, it allows school personnel to order various interventions. That is, the teacher can summarize information on strategies on three distinct levels: (a) class-wide interventions, (b) targeted interventions for subgroups of students a t-risk, and (c) student-specific interventions for students with identified special needs)(e.g., Lewis & Sugai, 1999). Available data may indicate that multiple students likely will evidence particular problems (e.g., talk-outs, off-task) that may best be addressed through systemic, class-wide interventions designed to directly teach students behavioral expectations and corresponding consequences (those that promote increased awareness of the desired behavior) for rule infractions (Colvin et al., 1993). In other instances, clusters of students may manifest similar high risk behavioral responses that demand targeted instruction at a small group level (e.g., intensive reading support, social skills instruction). Finally, records may suggest that one or more students will require more complex, intrusive intervention programs to address their needs (e.g., anger management or self-control training)(e.g., Lewis & Sugai, 1999).

Figure 3 presents an Individual Instructional Plan Form. This form is designed to allow school personnel to identify strategies that are aligned with individual student academic/non-academic needs. First, the teacher records preliminary information, including student(s) identifiers and then, on the lefthand side of the form, lists specific areas of strength and concern for student(s), along with various instructional or curricular accommodations/modifications that are aligned with student academic needs. On the right hand side, the teacher can specify strategies to teach students replacement behavior that serves the same function or results in the same outcome as the target behavior(s)(Gable at al., in press). In succeeding sections, we discuss behavior problems common among students with E/BD, namely, socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.

so·cial·i·za·tion
n.
, self-control, and critical thinking/problem solving (Cullinan, 2002; Kauffman, 2001; Maag & Reid, 1994). Not all students will evidence difficulties in every area; other concerns may apply to par ticular students and would be listed under the other category (e.g., language deficits). In completing the planning process, the goal is to capture the most critical dimensions of instruction, including overlap within and across academic and non academic intervention efforts.

1. Social/behavioral Skill Deficits. A defining characteristic of students with E/BD relates to problems in socialization (Sugai & Lewis, 1996). Research indicates that students with E/BD struggle to accurately assess and appropriately respond to various social situations. Social interactions often trigger negative responses--especially when students are frustrated, fearful, angry, or otherwise emotionally aroused (Maag & Reid, 1994; Nichols, 2001). Over time, many of these negative responses become highiy predictable (Van Acker, 2002). The behavior is neurologically programmed such that it requires less and less thought or effort on the part of the student. At least for some students, social skill deficits may need to be addressed before--or at least concurrent--to other cognitive or behavioral problems (Maag & Reid, 1992). That instruction usually begins with the identification of specific skills, selected according to their propensity to be elicited and reinforced in the natural environment (McConnell, 198 7).

Social skills instruction usually is designed around modeling and behavioral rehearsal of the target behavior(s), social reinforcement, and programming for maintenance/generalization. Furthermore, rather than time limited or decontextualized ("pull-out") instruction, research supports the integration of social skills and academic instruction (e.g., Maag, 1998). In planning instruction, it is useful to know that classroom investigations document that students with E/BD can effectively serve as behavior change Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification of human behavior. Such changes can occur intentionally, through behavior modification, without intention, or change rapidly in situations of mental illness.  agents (Gable, Arllen, & Hendrickson, 1992) and academic tutors (e.g., Rutherford et al., 1996). There also is evidence that various cooperative learning cooperative learning Education theory A student-centered teaching strategy in which heterogeneous groups of students work to achieve a common academic goal–eg, completing a case study or a evaluating a QC problem. See Problem-based learning, Socratic method.  arrangements can set the stage for positive academic and behavioral outcomes (Goor & Schween, 1993). Even so, many students with E/BD evidence a range of serious problems--problems associated with skill deficits, performance deficits, discrimination, and motivation. Accordingly, social skills instruction alone may not resolve complex behavior problems; i nstead, a bundling of multiple interventions may need to include: behavioral-reduction, cognitive, and skill building programs, along with environmental manipulations.

2. Cognitive Deficits. Some students with E/BD misinterpret mis·in·ter·pret  
tr.v. mis·in·ter·pret·ed, mis·in·ter·pret·ing, mis·in·ter·prets
1. To interpret inaccurately.

2. To explain inaccurately.
 social situations and respond in ways that have been reinforced in the past (e.g., with anger, aggression, or social withdrawal). In struggling to find a solution to a given problem, students with E/BD sometimes draw upon cognitive misperceptions regarding how to respond to a situation (e.g., Tiffany punched a student who brushed into her in the classroom); across time, that physical reaction invokes less thought or effort--essentially it becomes automatic (Van Acker, 2002). Simply sharing information on appropriate responses with the student (e.g., debriefing de·brief·ing  
n.
1. The act or process of debriefing or of being debriefed.

2. The information imparted during the process of being debriefed.

Noun 1.
 the student following an act of physical aggression) may not be powerful enough to change the behavior. Direct intervention may be needed to ameliorate a·mel·io·rate  
tr. & intr.v. a·me·lio·rat·ed, a·me·lio·rat·ing, a·me·lio·rates
To make or become better; improve. See Synonyms at improve.



[Alteration of meliorate.
 behavior problems that stem from the student's cumulative learning history (e.g., cognitive and behavioral interventions). It is useful to keep in mind that appropriate as well as inappropriate behavior takes time to learn and even more time to unlearn (Van Acker, 2002).

3. Problem-Solving Deficits. Many students with E/BD manifest problems in the area of critical thinking and problem-solving. Students with E/BD may be deficient in various cognitive and behavioral skills, struggle to discriminate among various response options, and fail to successfully engage in behavior that is deemed socially acceptable or appropriate (Cullinan, 2002; Kauffman, 2001). Among the strategies that have proven effective is to teach students a step-by- step process, demonstrating each step, modeling a "think aloud" strategy, introducing behavioral rehearsal, giving the student corrective feedback, and finally, orchestrating multiple opportunities for the student to engage in the behavior and be positively reinforced for doing so.

4. Self-control Deficits. Another common characteristic among students with E/BD is behavioral disinhibition dis·in·hi·bi·tion
n.
1. A loss of inhibition, as through the influence of drugs or alcohol.

2. A temporary loss of an inhibition caused by an unrelated stimulus, such as a loud noise.
 or the limited capacity to manage their behavior, especially under stressful conditions. Students may find it difficult to suppress responses that have served them well in the past even though they are socially unacceptable (e.g., verbal or physical aggression). These same students may lack the ability to self-regulate or self-monitor their own covert or overt behavior, or both. An intervention plan might include: direct instruction on recognizing internal and external cues surrounding a difficult situation; "placeholder" behaviors that serve to buy time for the student; a set of appropriate social responses; along with self-management strategies, to support maintenance of the behavior across time (e.g., self-reinforcement).

Efficacy of behavior as an instructional variable. In developing a group-individual academic/non-academic plan, school personnel should probably factor in the efficiency and effectiveness of instruction. The effort required to engage in a behavior, along with the immediacy and the level of the reinforcement available to the student for doing so, may dictate selection of one target behavior over another (Gable et al., in press). Likewise, the time and effort required for a student to learn one skill versus another should be considered before developing an intervention plan. The student who makes crude or inappropriate remarks during class may be seeking peer attention and affiliation. In an effort to promote an acceptable replacement behavior, school personnel might explore the use of social skills training or casting the student in the role of peer tutor A peer tutor is anyone who is of a similar status as the person being tutored. In an undergraduate institution this would usually be other undergraduates, as distinct from the graduate students who may be teaching the writing classes. . While either of these strategies could increase the student's social status with his peer group, they may require too much effort (time and energy), trigger a loss in status (the student is now seen as someone needing a "social worker"), and result in too few chances to gain peer attention. Indeed, as Scott et al. (2001) point out, many behavior problems afford students ready access to teacher or peer attention. Not surprisingly, the student may actively resist any plan to thwart what has become an effective means of gaining attention (e.g, disruptive comments). In making decisions about intervention priorities, it is important to critically evaluate the present and future relevance of the skills that will comprise instruction. And, regardless of the intervention, that plan should probably include booster training-periodic reintroduction Noun 1. reintroduction - an act of renewed introduction
intro, introduction, presentation - formally making a person known to another or to the public
 of a scaled down version of the original intervention, to help assure fidelity of student application (Gable & Hendrickson, 2000).

Interventions that Reflect Cultural and Chronological Age Differences Among Students

In that a student's behavior is a reflection of his or her cultural and linguistic background (Cartledge et al., 2002), growing diversity within the schools heightens the risk that education personnel may misunderstand mis·un·der·stand  
tr.v. mis·un·der·stood , mis·un·der·stand·ing, mis·un·der·stands
To understand incorrectly; misinterpret.
 or misinterpret student behavior. Differences among students are not synonymous with synonymous with
adjective equivalent to, the same as, identical to, similar to, identified with, equal to, tantamount to, interchangeable with, one and the same as
 deficits; therefore, quality planning should mirror community norms, values, and expectations. For example, the typical middle-class Anglo American (as a listener) maintains eye contact with the speaker during a verbal exchange, while the speaker frequently breaks eye contact with the listener. This may not hold for the typical African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  who breaks eye contact while listening and maintains direct eye contact when speaking (Kochman, 1981). Accordingly, if two students--one Anglo American and the other African American, engage in a verbal dispute and are confronted by an Anglo American teacher, the Anglo American student is more likely meet the social expectations of that interaction. A teacher might inter pret the African American student's failure to maintain eye contact, when being addressed as disinterest dis·in·ter·est  
n.
1. Freedom from selfish bias or self-interest; impartiality.

2. Lack of interest; indifference.

tr.v.
To divest of interest.

Noun 1.
, as a lack of concern, or even dishonesty dis·hon·es·ty  
n. pl. dis·hon·es·ties
1. Lack of honesty or integrity; improbity.

2. A dishonest act or statement.

Noun 1.
. When speaking to the teacher, student direct eye contact might be construed as an act of defiance. Because of a discriminatory attribution regarding the students' behavior (Obiakor, 1999), school personnel might well impose a more punitive consequence on the African American student (e.g., Ishii-Jordan, 2000; Van Acker, 2002).

Knowledge of the pupil-specific cultural norms and expectations is an integral part of teacher/pupil classroom interactions; it should also inform decisions about academic instruction. For example, the communicative behavior, task orientation and task performance, and social behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social.  of students from diverse backgrounds may differ from that of Anglo-American students (Townsend, 2001). African American students typically come from a collectivistic col·lec·tiv·ism  
n.
The principles or system of ownership and control of the means of production and distribution by the people collectively, usually under the supervision of a government.
 rather than individualistic culture. For that reason, authorities have advocated use of group management contingencies, cooperatively learning activities, and peer-mediated academic and non academic interventions. Finally, African American often perform well when given multiple rather than single instructional assignments (Cartledge et al., 2002).

Chronological age as an instructional variable. The chronological age of the students has a significant influence on the planning process as well. As Walker et al. (1995) assert, reality dictates that the focus of our intervention will change across time. At the preschool level, emphasis is on screening and early identification, delivery of quality academic and social skills instruction, and family supports. Together, these efforts stress prevention. In the primary grades, the goal is to provide early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay.
 geared toward remediation of emerging problems, interventions that include academic and social skills instruction and family support. At the middle school level, attention shifts to amelioration a·me·lio·ra·tion  
n.
1. The act or an instance of ameliorating.

2. The state of being ameliorated; improvement.

Noun 1.
 or buffering the deleterious effects of student behavior problems through teaching coping and survival skills. Intervention emphasizes not only academic and social skills instruction, but also self-control, career education, and pre vocational skills. At the secondary level, Walker and colleagues (1995) reco mmend that we weigh carefully the probability of long-term behavior problems and emphasize accommodations in the areas of vocational and transition to work skills, along with coping and survival skills instruction. In sum, planning and instruction should reflect the changing needs of students and align with those instructional priorities most likely to produce success beyond the classroom (see Walker et al., 1995).

We have long accepted that quality academic instruction hinges on: accurate curricular placement; group and individual alignment of instruction; repeated opportunity for students to respond correctly; and, routine data-driven adjustments in that instruction (e.g., Deno, 1998; Greenwood, 2002; Rutherford et al., 1996; Scheurmann, 1998). These same standards hold for non academics as well. Predictable student misbehavior reflects errors in learning that can be ameliorated through direct instruction, no less so than reading, arithmetic, or spelling problems (Colvin et al., 1993). In the preceding discussion, we have attempted to draw a parallel between what defines academic and non academic success and to blur distinctions regarding planning to address common learning versus behavior problems of students with E/BD.

Today, there is a growing sense that an integrated approach to instruction--within and across skill areas and students, contributes significantly to positive student outcomes (e.g., Arllen, Gable, & Hendrickson, 1996; Korinek & Popp, 1996). While experts agree that quality instruction is essential to assuring pupil progress ( Klingner & Vaughn, 1999), there is only a limited amount of literature on ways to differentiate the kind or amount of pupil-specific academic and non-academic instruction (e.g., Gunter, Hummel hummel

entire, naturally polled deer.
, & Venn, 1998; Ruhl & Berlinghoff, 1992). We acknowledge that the planning model we have described is neither complete nor without some limitations. But, as Greenwood (2002) put it, education personnel should rely on an "organizing construct" to improve instruction. In that both learning and behavior problems are endemic to students with E/BD, we have sought to provide a way to draw on strategies for which there is empirical support (e.g., Kauffman & Wong, 1993) and put them into a manageable plan of instruction.

References

Arllen, N., Gable, R.A., & Hendrickson, J.M. (1996). Accommodation students with special needs in the general education classrooms. Preventing School Failure, 41, 7-13.

Berryman, S. (2000). The condition of Education: 2000. Education Statistics Quarterly, 2, 76-82.

Bos, C.S., & Vaughn, S.(1998). Teaching students with learning and behavior problems. (4th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bullock, L. M., & Gable, R.A. (2000). Positive academic and behavior supports: Creating safe, effective, and nurturing school for all students. Reston, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.

Carr, E., Taylor, J.M., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 24, 523-535.

Cartledge, G., Tam, K.V.B., Loe, S.A., Miranda, A.H., Lambert, M.C., Kea kea, in zoology
kea: see parrot.
kea

Large, stocky parrot (Nestor notabilis, subfamily Nestorinae) of New Zealand. It lives in mountain habitats and is known for its curious and playful character.
, C.D., & Simmons-Reed, E. (2002). Culturally and linguistically diverse students with behavioral disorders. Reston, VA.: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.

Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (1988). Proactive strategies for managing social behavior problems: An instructional approach. Education and Treatment of Children, 11, 341-343.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, B. (1993). Precorrection: An instructional approach to managing predictable problem behavior. Intervention in the School and Clinic, 28, 143-150.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Kameenui, E. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management behavior management Psychology Any nonpharmacologic maneuver–eg contingency reinforcement–that is intended to correct behavioral problems in a child with a mental disorder–eg, ADHD. See Attention-deficit-hyperactivity syndrome.  and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 361-381.

Cullinan, D. (2002). Students with emotional and behavior disorders: An introduction for teachers and other helping professionals. Columbus, OH.: Merrill Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr.
.

Deno, S. (1998). Academic progress as incompatible behavior: curricular-based measurement as intervention. Beyond Behavior, 9, 12-17.

Dodge, K. A., & Frame, C. L. (1982). Social cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys. Child Development, 53, 620-635.

Dodge, K. A., & Somberg, D. R. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threats to self. Child Development, 58, 213-224.

Dunlap, G., Kern, L., dePecezel, M.., Clark, S., Wilson, D., Childs, K.E., White, R., Falk, G. (1993). Functional analysis of classroom variables for students with emotional and behavioral disorders Behavioral Disorders, 18, 275-291.

Education Commission of the States (2001). A closer look: State policy trends in three key areas of the Bush Education Plan -- testing, accountability, and school choice. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

Gable, R.A., Quinn, M.M., Rutherford, R.B., Jr., Howell, K., Hoffman, K., & Butler, C.J. (in press). Conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing a behavioral intervention behavioral intervention Behavior modification, behavior 'mod', behavioral therapy, behaviorism Psychiatry The use of operant conditioning models, ie positive and negative reinforcement, to modify undesired behaviors–eg, anxiety.  plan and supports. Longmont, CO.: Sopris-West.

Gable, R.A., Hendrickson, J.M., & Van Acker, R. (2001). Maintaining the integrity of FBA-based intervention in schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 248-260.

Gable, R.A., & Hendrickson, J.M. (2000). Strategies for maintaining positive behavior change stemming from functional behavioral assessment in schools. Education and Treatment of Children 23, 286-297.

Gable, R., Arllen, N.L., & Hendrickson, J.M. (1994). Use of students with emotional/behavioral disorders as behavior change agents. Education and Treatment of Children, 17, 267-276.

Goor, M.B., & Schween, J.O. (1993). Accommodating diversity and disability with cooperative learning. Intervention in the School and Clinic, 29, 6-16.

Greenwood, C. M. (2002). Science and students with learning and behavior problems. Behavioral Disorders, 27, 37-52.

Gresham, F. (1991). What ever happened to functional analysis in behavioral consultation? Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 2, 387-392.

Gresham, F.M., MacMillan, D.L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M.E., & Bocain, K.M. (2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented? Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 198-205.

Gunter, P.L., Denny, K., Jack, S.L., Shores, R. E., & Nelson, C.M. (1993). Aversive stimuli in academic interactions between students with severe behavior disorders and their teachers. Behavioral Disorders, 18, 265-274.

Gunter, P., & Denny, K. (1998). Trends and issues in research regarding academic instruction of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 44-540.

Gunter, P.L., Hemmel, J.H., & Venn, M.L. (1998). Are effective academic instructional practices used to teach students with behavior disorders? Beyond Behavior, 9, 5-11.

Hendrickson, J.M. (1992). Assessing the student-instructional setting interface using an ecobehavioral observation system. Preventing School Failure, 36, 26-31.

Ishii-Jordan, S. (2000). Behavior interventions used with diverse students. Behavioral Disorders, 25, 299-309.

Kauffman, J.M. (1997). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth. (5th ed. ) Columbus, OH.: Merrill Prentice Hall

Kauffman, J.M. (2001). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth. (7th ed. ) Columbus, OH.: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Kauffman, J.M., & Wong, K.L.H. (1991). Effective teachers of students with behavioral disorders: Are generic teaching skills enough? Behavioral Disorders, 26, 225-237.

Kochman T. (1981). Black and white styles in conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including .

Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Student perceptions of instruction in inclusive classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 66,23-37.

Korinek, L., & Popp, P.A. (1996). Collaborative mainstream integration of social skills and academic instruction. Preventing School Failure, 41, 148-152.

Lewis, T., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive school-wide management. Focus on Exceptional Children 31, 1-24.

Lewis, T., Heflin, J., & DiGangi, S. (1991). Teaching students with behavioral disorders: Basic questions and answers. Reston, VA.: Council for Exceptional Children.

Maag, J. (1998). Teaching children and youth self-control. Reston, VA.: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.

Maag, J., & Reid, R. (1992). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A condition in which a person (usually a child) has an unusually high activity level and a short attention span. People with the disorder may act impulsively and may have learning and behavioral problems.
: A functional approach to assessment and treatment. Behavioral Disorders, 20, 5-23.

McConnell, S. R. (1987). Entrapment entrapment, in law, the instigation of a crime in the attempt to obtain cause for a criminal prosecution. Situations in which a government operative merely provides the occasion for the commission of a criminal act (e.g.  effects and the generalization and maintenance of social skills training for elementary school elementary school: see school.  students with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 12, 252-263.

Nelson, C.M., Scott, T., & Polsgrove, L. (2999). Perspectives on emotional/behavioral disorders: Assumptions and their implications for education and treatment. Reston, VA.: Council for Children With Behavioral Disorders.

Nichols, P. (2001). Role of cognition cognition

Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing.
 and affect in a functional behavioral analysis. Exceptional Children, 66, 393-412.

Obiakor, F. (1999). Teacher expectations of minority exceptional learners: Impact on accuracy of self-concepts. Exceptional Children, 66, 39-53.

Ruhl, K.L., & Berlinghoff, D.H. (1992). Research on improving behaviorally disordered students academic performance: A review of the literature. Behavioral Disorders, 27, 178-190.

Rutherford, R.B., Jr., Quinn, M.M.., & Mathur, S. (1996). Effective strategies for teaching appropriate behaviors to children with emotional/behavioral disorders. Reston, VA.: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.

Sasso, G.M., Reimers, T.M., Cooper, L.J., Wacker Wacker may refer to:
  • EMS Wacker http://i9.tinypic.com/4veeqvo.jpg http://i2.tinypic.com/5xrb2g0.jpg
  • Wacker Drive
  • Wacker process
Sports
  • VfB Admira Wacker Mödling
  • Wacker Berlin
  • Wacker Burghausen
, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., Kelly, L., & Allaire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and experimental analysis to identify functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings. Journal of applied Behavioral Analysis, 25, 809-821.

Scott, T.M., Nelson, C.M., & Liaupsin, C.J. (2001). Effective instruction: The forgotten component in preventing school violence. Education and Treatment of Children 24, 309-322.

Sheurmann, B. (1998). Curricular and instructional recommendations for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior, 9, 3-4.

Shores, R.E., Gunter, P., & Jack, S. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 22, 92-102.

Skinner, B.F. (1975). A steep and thorny thorn·y  
adj. thorn·i·er, thorn·i·est
1. Full of or covered with thorns.

2. Spiny.

3. Painfully controversial; vexatious: a thorny situation; thorny issues.
 way to a science of behavior. American Psychologist, 30, 42-49.

Sugai, G., & Lewis, T. (1996). Preferred and promising practices for social skill instruction. Focus on Exceptional Children, 29, 1-16.

Thousand, J.S., & Villa, R.A. (1990). Strategies for educating learners with severe disabilities within their local home schools and communities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 23, 1-25.

Townsend, B. (2001). The disproportionate discipline of African American learners: Reducing school suspensions and expulsions. Exceptional Children, 66, 181-191.

Van Acker, R. (February, 2002). Developing effective behavioral intervention plans and supports. Paper presented at the Working Forum of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders, Tampa, FL.

Walker, H., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove Pacific Grove, residential and resort city (1990 pop. 16,117), Monterey co., W central Calif., on a point where Monterey Bay meets the Pacific Ocean; inc. 1889. , CA.: Brooks-Cole.

Webhy, J., Symons, F., Canale, J.A., & Go, F.J. (1998) Teaching practices in classrooms of students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Discrepancies between recommendations and observations. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 51-56.

Please address all correspondence to: Robert A. Gable, Professor of Special Education, Child Study Center, Old Dominion University “ODU” redirects here. For other uses, see ODU (disambiguation).

The university was recently named one of the best colleges in the Southeast by The Princeton Review.
, Norfolk VA 23529 (757) 683-3157; rgable@odu.edu
COPYRIGHT 2002 West Virginia University Press, University of West Virginia
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Gable, Robert A.; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Tonelson, Stephen W.; Acker, Richard Van
Publication:Education & Treatment of Children
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2002
Words:5842
Previous Article:Early literacy instruction for first-grade students at-risk for antisocial behavior.
Next Article:The relationship of peer perceptions to student achievement and teacher ratings of 5th and 6th grade students.
Topics:



Related Articles
Expanding horizons: a model academic and vocational training program for out-of-school youth with disabilities. (Program for Out-of-School Youth with...
Introduction to special issue: Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth.
Serving students with or at-risk for Emotional and Behavior Disorders: future challenges.
A positive learning environment approach to middle school instruction.
Accountability and the education of the disabled.
Intervention with students with learning, emotional and behavioral disorders: why do we take so long to do it?
Service learning among students with EBD.
Three-tier models of reading and behavior.
Identifying and supporting students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders within multi-level models: data driven approaches to conducting...
Identification and treatment of anxiety in students with emotional or behavioral disorders: a review of the literature.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters