Integrating ICT in higher education: the case of ITESM.
The growth of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education is a global phenomenon. The possibility of using ICTs has major implications for the teaching and learning situation in higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. in both developed and developing countries. It constitutes a challenge to institutions worldwide to change aspects of their organization and operation. This paper reviews the specific case of the use of ICTs at the Monterrey Institute of Technologies (ITESM ITESM Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey ) in Mexico. It analyses the role of lecturers and students in the development of new models of teaching and learning through the use of ICTs. It compares the use of computers and information technologies in two instructional modes: face-to-face and hybrid online-teleconferencing. It further identifies critical factors that influence both lecturers and students in using ICTs.
The possibility of using information and communication technologies (ICTs) has major implications for the teaching and learning situation in higher education. It constitutes a challenge to institutions to change aspects of their organization and operation. This paper reviews one such approach at the Monterrey Institute of Technologies (ITESM) in Mexico. Specifically, it analyses the role of lecturers and students in new modes of teaching and learning through the use of ICTs. It compares the use of computers and information technologies in two instructional modes: face-to-face and a hybrid online-teleconferencing one. It further identifies critical factors that influence both lecturers and students when using ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.
(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.
1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test. .
ICT and education
The growth of ICTs in education is a global phenomenon. Countries in both the developed and developing worlds have expressed visions of participating in and shaping the global information society. Invariably in·var·i·a·ble
Not changing or subject to change; constant.
in·vari·a·bil these visions emphasize education as a primary sector for the utilization of ICTs to produce competent learners suitably qualified and skilled to contribute to economic growth.
Responses to ICTs can be analytically classified in two ways: At one extreme, a euphoric euphoric (ūfôr´ik),
n a substance that produces an exaggerated sense of well-being. and visionary embrace of the potential benefits of ICTs (the optimistic op·ti·mist
1. One who usually expects a favorable outcome.
2. A believer in philosophical optimism.
op view). At the other extreme those who are opposed to ICTs believing that it will further divide society, exacerbate inequity, and rule people's lives and the world (the pessimistic pes·si·mism
1. A tendency to stress the negative or unfavorable or to take the gloomiest possible view: "We have seen too much defeatism, too much pessimism, too much of a negative approach" perspective). The optimistic perspective is motivated by a number of differing and contradictory rationales. There are the "inevitabilists" who maintain that ICTs are a fact and that societies and individuals need to be familiar with ICTs in order to avoid being "left-out". Pessimistic perspectives point out the inequities that are engendered by ICTs. Such perspectives highlight the divide between the technology rich countries (the developed world) and the technology poor countries (the developing world). Hamelink (1997) persuasively per·sua·sive
Tending or having the power to persuade: a persuasive argument.
per·sua points out that the truth of these positions is a matter of policy choice. What is required is pro-active policies and conscious social choice, which take charge of ICTs to steer a socially responsible national development agenda.
With respect to their educational usage, ICT is exploding with unprecedented speed, generating educational intrigue Intrigue
See also Conspiracy.
15th-century family who stopped at nothing to gain power. [Ital. Hist.: Plumb, 59]
Bismarck’s purposely provocative memo on Spanish succession; sparked Franco-Prussian war (1870). and a fast-growing field of research and investigation. It should be stated at the outset that while experience of ICTs in education is increasing rapidly, witnessed by the growth of publication and research in the area, there is little evidence to suggest that ICTs do impact education either positively or negatively on learning and learners (UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , 1997: 34). Much of the evidence or case studies have not yet spanned sufficient time to present a convincing argument for a positive or negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation between ICTs and learning. In this respect it is useful to note Haddad's caution about ICT in education:
Technology is only a tool. Educational choices have to be made first in terms of objectives, methodologies, and roles of teachers and students before decisions on the appropriate technologies can be made. (Haddad, 1999: 1).
ICTs are being used in a variety of ways to engage with teaching and learning. Technology can be used in traditional ways to promote `drill and practice' type exercises; to teach about the technology itself, introducing new subject areas like computer studies; to teach basic computer skills like word-processing; or it can be used in innovative ways that promote student-centred learning Student-centred learning or student-centered learning is an approach to education focusing on the needs of the students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators. , through a greater emphasis on project and teamwork (product, software, tool) Teamwork - A SASD tool from Sterling Software, formerly CADRE Technologies, which supports the Shlaer/Mellor Object-Oriented method and the Yourdon-DeMarco, Hatley-Pirbhai, Constantine and Buhr notations. . In the latter approach, ICTs become integrated into the curriculum so that students acquire new literacies, at the same time as learning about a knowledge domain. Whilst this approach is viewed as ideal in coming closer to engaging learners in ways that deepen deep·en
tr. & intr.v. deep·ened, deep·en·ing, deep·ens
To make or become deep or deeper.
to make or become deeper or more intense
Verb 1. their learning experience (Office of Technology, 1995: 28), it is regarded as teacher-intensive in the levels of input and facilitation Facilitation
The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by institutions. required (Alexander, 1999: 9). It is important to recognize that student-centred learning does not alleviate teacher workloads. Instead, the role and responsibilities of teachers shift to include greater facilitation, guidance and generates among students a self-consciousness of their own learning. Teachers are still responsible for designing learning programmes that enable the delivery of content and the acquisition of competencies.
A primary question being asked and which this paper attempts to address is whether ICTs impact positively on learning. In this respect, there are diverse opinions. On the one hand, there is a view that insufficient evidence insufficient evidence n. a finding (decision) by a trial judge or an appeals court that the prosecution in a criminal case or a plaintiff in a lawsuit has not proved the case because the attorney did not present enough convincing evidence. exists to prove that ICTs improve educational experience (Moll & Froese-Germain: 1998c; Jurich, 1999). This view states that it is also dangerous to extrapolate extrapolate - extrapolation from one or two success stories to assume generalisability:
as everyone who has studied technology in schools can attest, it is deceptive to extrapolate from specific, properly established programs to an entire school population (Moll and Froese-Germain: 1998c).
On the other hand, there are those who argue that in order to do justice to the question, new approaches to evaluation research, which take account of uncontrollable variables that influence learning, must be developed.
More recent developments in the field concern the notion of information literacy Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. For example, one conception defines information literacy in terms of a set of competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and (Candy, 1996, Sayed, 1998, Sayed 2000, Sayed & Carelse, 2000) as useful in understanding the relationship between ICTs and learning. The literature suggests that the use of technology cannot be divorced from processes relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the critical evaluation of information skills, which are both generic and subject/context specific. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the impact of ICTs on learning is crucially connected to the extent to which learners become critical evaluators of information, to shape problems and develop new insights and understanding.
Research context and approach
This paper is based on a case study of selected departments/faculties at the ITESM, a Mexican private university with 30 campuses in Mexico and 9 other countries in Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. . ITESM was founded in 1943 by a group of Mexican entrepreneurs. Since 1997 the vision of the university has been the integration of the use of computers in their teaching process. ITESM is considered a significant role model in Mexican higher education in the use of ICT in teaching and learning. The ITESM offers a valuable case study of the problems and constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. in using ICT in higher education. The data is drawn from in-depth interviews with lecturers, virtual lecturers and students, and lecture room observations at the ITESM from August until December 2000. A total of 32 in-depth interviews with lecturers and students were conducted, and 31 classroom observations. Apart from these classroom observations, some observations at working places were carried out, where students used the Intranet to connect their laptops to the Internet and download files from the Lotus Notes Messaging and groupware software from IBM Lotus that was introduced in 1989 for OS/2 and later expanded to Windows, Mac, Unix, NetWare, AS/400 and S/390. Notes provides e-mail, document sharing, workflow, group discussions and calendaring and scheduling. database.
The departments/faculties that comprised the research are the Department of Management and the Department of Engineering and Computer Science. Schools are divided into two main areas at the ITESM: the Division of Social Sciences and Management, on one side and the Division of Engineering and Computer Sciences on the other. One school of each division was chosen: the school of Management and the school of Engineering and Computer Sciences.
In reporting the findings we highlighted a few key topics which have emerged from the data.
Disposition to change
When using technologies for the first time to innovate in·no·vate
v. in·no·vat·ed, in·no·vat·ing, in·no·vates
To begin or introduce (something new) for or as if for the first time.
To begin or introduce something new. traditional ways of teaching and learning, lecturers and students have a strong resistance to change. This was pointed out as one of the main difficulties in the process of adapting Lotus Notes as a means of interaction between lecturers and students in the face-to-face mode. Lecturers felt driven from the centre of the lecture room. Students felt they had too much work and had to assume an extremely responsible attitude toward their own learning process. But as students familiarized fa·mil·iar·ize
tr.v. fa·mil·iar·ized, fa·mil·iar·iz·ing, fa·mil·iar·iz·es
1. To make known, recognized, or familiar.
2. To make acquainted with. themselves with the use of technologies, this resistance is diminished. As one student phrased it: "At the beginning there was a lot of opposition towards the use of Lotus Notes. But in reality, when I began using Lotus Notes I think it was much better than I had anticipated" (CL).
For those students at the hybrid teleconferencing-online instruction model, the resistance to change was expressed as a fear of not being able to see the lecturer inside the lecture room. As one student commented: "Sometimes we make comments among ourselves, which stay in the classroom and never reach the lecturer" (RH). This fear was emphasized when the distant lecturer did not respond to students' e-mail messages and/or students' questions left on the course website. As one student confessed, "Unfortunately, the interaction between lecturers and students is not that good sometimes. We send them an e-mail and they do not reply immediately only after 3 days. I know this is not anyone's fault considering they receive 200 or 300 e-mails daily". (DA)
A major challenge for lecturers and students in both models (the face-to-face and the hybrid mode) was the transformation of their role. One lecturer suggested that it was extremely difficult for him to motivate his students to take a more active role within the lecture room, learning by themselves rather than being lectured to. This idea was emphasized by another lecturer who said that since the use of computers was an imposition on lecturers and students, they had no choice but to adjust to it. Most of the interviewed students in both models expressed concern about the amount of work they had to do since the use of computers for instruction was adopted at the ITESM.
Regarding the use of computers for collaborative learning Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers. Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task in which each , all of the lecturers and students interviewed maintained that computers promote this kind of learning. Nevertheless, students and lecturers in the face-to-face mode showed some disagreement about the role of Lotus Notes in promoting this collaboration. Some of the lecturers argued that it was not the software itself that promoted collaborative learning, but lecturers' application of innovative pedagogic ped·a·gog·ic also ped·a·gog·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.
2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner. techniques. As one lecturer phrased it: "Ideally, computers promote collaborative work among students, but in reality what happens is that when a lecturer assigns work to a team, generally there are always only one or two students who work, and the rest of the team members rely on their colleagues' work" (JV).
For those trained lecturers in Problem Based Learning (PBL PBL Problem-Based Learning
PBL Phi Beta Lambda
PBL Performance Based Logistics
PBL Planetary Boundary Layer
PBL Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (Australia)
PBL Philippine Basketball League
PBL Peripheral Blood Leukocyte ) technique, the application of this pedagogic practice was the key for the promotion of group discussion and interaction among the students. For those more inexperienced in·ex·pe·ri·ence
1. Lack of experience.
2. Lack of the knowledge gained from experience.
in lecturers, the fact that students did not get involved in collaborative work was influenced by their young age and their resistance to change as well as their early involvement in higher education since they were just in their first year.
Collaborative work in the hybrid teleconferencing-online model was a controversial topic among students. They feared the idea of working collaboratively, expressing their need to invest too much time for that kind of interaction with distant colleagues: "I do teamwork in several of my courses and sometimes this is very complicated since I have to get together with six different teams, let's say, in one week. So it is really too much work" (DA). But despite the amount of work, this same student showed enthusiasm when referring to his role in the online course. He underlined his active role when taking part in a teleconferencing-online course: "I definitely feel more active at a virtual lecture because in it each student is responsible for his/her own education". (DA)
A major challenge for students in both modes was computers' promotion of a student-centred approach. Lecturers' and students' expertise in managing Lotus Notes was emphasized as a determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant. factor in the promotion of student-centered models inside the lecture room in face-to-face instruction. One of the lecturers showed very little knowledge of the use of the platform, causing her students to feel that the use of Lotus Notes had not changed anything significantly. On the other hand, lecturers emphasized the different attitudes that students can take when using technologies for learning. Some of them became very quickly involved while some were very reluctant to change their traditional passive role inside the lecture room. As one of the lecturers phrased it, "There are still some students who are afraid of being unable to use Lotus Notes" (RV).
One of the lecturers employed software simulators inside the lecture room and showed complete agreement with the idea of computers promoting student-centered approaches. During the process of analyzing a particular case, they were the producers of the needed theory to solve cases and practical problems: "My students have to answer questions and encourage discussion ... They have to make enlightening en·light·en
tr.v. en·light·ened, en·light·en·ing, en·light·ens
1. To give spiritual or intellectual insight to: comments to their classmates Classmates can refer to either:
JAV Japanese Adult Video
JAV Ilulissat, Greenland (Airport Code)
JAV Jeanne d'Arc de Vaugirard (Paris)
JAV Journey Adventure Vehicle
JAV Java Applet Viewer
JAV Java Alignment Viewer ).
For those students in the teleconferencing-online model, this issue was even more relevant. One of the students expressed with vivacity: "I think this is what I have learnt (from the teleconferencing-online instruction model): to search for information following my own interest" (RH).
Usage of Internet
One of the key topics that was crucial in the transformation of students' and lecturers' role and interaction was their use of computers and the Internet. One lecturer in the face-to-face model expressed concern because she and her students did not have enough computer skills to use Lotus Notes. She explained: "We all need to be trained to use computers better" (RV). Another lecturer saw this as an opportunity to encourage class discussion. As he phrased it: "Those students who did not have a lecture with me before are not familiar with the use of the platform. If students don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)
"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party. how to use Lotus Notes, I tell them to approach those classmates who use it or to come to me to solve any problems they may have" (JAV).
Computer skills were a determinant factor within the teleconferencing-online mode. Both lecturers and students in this mode said they spent several hours of the day connected to the Internet using the course website. One student within the face-to-face mode said with enthusiasm: "I use my Laptop Same as laptop computer.
laptop - portable computer at least more than five hours daily. If I am not using it for working purposes, I use it to listen to music. I have everything inside my Laptop" (EG).
Another student in the teleconferencing-online model expressed: "I use the Internet a lot. I search there for information regarding each task I have to do for the lecture. I have my own Laptop and spend around six hours a day using it. During these hours, twice a week I visit the course website" (SV).
The use of computers and the Internet in face-to-face and online instruction offers similarities and differences that have to be considered when comparing both modes of instruction. Furthermore, since the use of computers and the Internet is still a relatively new issue in higher education, a need for pedagogic research was underlined by several of the interviewed lecturers.
In both modes students are moving from a transmission model to a student centered mode where students assume responsibility for their own learning. However, distant students need more motivation to engage in collaborative learning activities than face-to-face students do. On the other hand, students need to overcome their resistance to change in order to be able to fully use computers in their learning process.
The research conducted indicates that a wide range of factors influence success. Curriculum design, lecture room organization, time allocation, social and schools setting and culture all influence the ways in which ICTs are used and perceived, and it is almost impossible to undertake studies to test for improvement without engaging with these dynamics. Introducing ICTs requires attention to many other areas so that a holistic approach holistic approach A term used in alternative health for a philosophical approach to health care, in which the entire Pt is evaluated and treated. See Alternative medicine, Holistic medicine. to educational change is developed. The introduction of ICTs in such a context allows these changes to be part of global, school-wide changes, not simply fashionable add-ons which throw technology at students in an attempt to solve educational crises and poor performance.
Alexander, Tom (1999) ICT in education: what is at stake. In: Technologia: International Journal of Technologies for the Advancement of Knowledge and Learning, Volume 1, Introductory Issue 2, pp 7-10. http://www.TechKnowLogia.org
Bransford, J., Brown, A., Cocking cock 1
a. An adult male chicken; a rooster.
b. An adult male of various other birds.
2. A weathervane shaped like a rooster; a weathercock.
3. A leader or chief. , R.(1999). How People Learn. Washington USA: National Academy Press.
Candy, Phil (1996) Major themes and future directions: conference summary and implications. University of South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. : Library Publications
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1995). Looking at technology in context: A framework for understanding technology and education research. In D.C. Berliner (Ed). The handbook of Educational Psychology The Handbook of Educational Psychology has been published in two editions, appearing in 1996 and 2006 respectively. Produced by Division 15 of the American Psychological Association (APA), the handbook broadly presents the theories, evidence and methodologies of educational . New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Macmillan.
Crook, Charles (1994). Computers and the collaborative experience of learning. London: Routledge
Daniel, J. (1998). Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media. Technology Strategies for Higher Education. London: Kogan Page.
Fullan, M. (1991) The New Meaning of educational change. London: Cassell Educational Limited.
Haddad, Wadi (1999) If technology is the solution, where is the problem? In: Technologia: International Journal of Technologies for the Advancement of Knowledge and Learning, Volume 1, Introductory Issue 2, pp 5-7. http://www.TechKnowLogia.org
Hamelink, C. (1997) New Information and Communication Technologies, Social Development and Cultural Change. http://www.unrisd.org/engindex/publ/list/dp/dp86
Jurich, Sonia (1999) Computers in the classroom: how effective? In: Technologia: International Journal of Technologies for the Advancement of Knowledge and Learning, Volume 1, Introductory Issue 2, pp 31-35. http://www.TechKnowLogia.org
Kaye, A. (1995) Computer supported collaborative learning. In Heap, N., Thomas, R., Einon, G., Mason, R., Mackay, H. (Eds.) Information Technology and Society. London: Sage.
Laurillard, D. (1993) Rethinking University Teaching. London: Routledge.
Littleton, K. & Light, P. (1999) Learning with computers. Analysing productive interaction. London: Routledge.
Marita Moll and Bernie Froese-Germain (1998c)Taking Another Look at Education and Technology Part 3: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Rhetoric. http://www.cepan.ca/
Roblyer, M.D., Edwards, J., Havriluk, M. A. (1997) Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr. .
Sayed, Y (1998) The Segregated Information Highway. UCT UCT University of Cape Town
UCT Ukhta (Russia)
UCT Underwater Construction Team
UCT Upper Critical Temperature
UCT Order of United Commercial Travelers of America
UCT University Center Tower Press and INFOLIT: Cape Town Cape Town or Capetown, city (1991 pop. 854,616), legislative capital of South Africa and capital of Western Cape, a port on the Atlantic Ocean. It was the capital of Cape Province before that province's subdivision in 1994. .
Sayed, Y. & Cathy-Mae Carelse (2000). ICTs in schools: problems, prospects and possibilities. Education Policy Unit, UWC UWC University of the Western Cape (RSA)
UWC University Writing Center
UWC United World Colleges (international college network)
UWC Ultimate Warrior Challenge . Report for the Education Policy Unit Research Project on Computers in South African Schools.
UNESCO (1997) Gender sensitive educational statistics and indicators, http://unescostat.unesco.org/publications/public.asp
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1995) Teachers and technology: making the connection, OTA-HER-616. US Government: Washington, DC.
Martha Burkle, University of Sussex, UK Yusuf Sayed, University of Sussex, UK
Burkle is a Doctoral Candidate at the School. Her main focus of research is the impact of information technologies in higher education and society in general. Sayed is a lecturer at the School of International Education. His research has focused on the impact of information technologies in higher education curricula.